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ila f "2^ 



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Death ofColman Stellain — St Colman Hua Fiachra 
— The priest Failan or Foilm — Priest Eman — 
Cronan of Roscrea — Erection of the monastery 
of Roscrea — Priest Cov^ian — Camin of Inis- 
keltra-^St: Abban — Supposed to be two Saints of 
that namcy one living in the fifth and the bther in 
the sixth and seventh centuries — Monastery of 
Ros-miC'treoin founded by St. Abban — St. Gob- 
nata — St. Pulcherius or Mochemoc^^/ounds the 
monastery of Liathmorc'^ several miracles as-- 
cribed to him— Death of St. Pulcherius^^St Mo- 
chelloc — St. Manchan of Menodrochit — supposed 
to be the same as Munchin' of Limerick — St. Ai- 
dus bishop of Kildare — Dachua or Mochua 
Luachror^onang O* Daithil^ bishop of Emly—- 
Baithan abbct of ClonmacnoiSf said to hofve been 
a bishop— Segenius abbot of Hy succe^ed by 
Suibhne-^Sutbhne succeeded by Oumineus Albus 
or Cummin the White — St. Mura or Murus 
governed the monastery qf Fathen^Mura — Ba- 
chull'Mura preserved as a reli^ue^^St. Mo- 
nenna founds the nunnery of Pochard- Brighde 
^^appoints Orbila or Serbia abbess at Pochard^ 

VOL. ii|^ B 


and retires to near Slieve Gtdlin, where she 
erects a church- — said to havd gone into North 
Britain and erected s&ven Churchfs there — said 
to have gone into England where she was known 
hy Ufa niffifi^ ^ l^wentHk 9T Mod'Vema — 1St. 
Conchessa-^St. Athracta — St. Fechiff^^ erects 
the monastery of Fore in the Co. Westmeath^' 
St. Aikran the Wise^-^he h sometimes called He- 
Jeran, Aireran^ or Ereran-r-Ultan abbot of 
Clonardy and* Colman Cms and Cumin^ both 
abbots of CtonmacnoiSf carried off by the plague 
that raged in the year QOS-^'-^^lman successor of 
Finan in Lindisfame — Dispute relative to the 
observance of Easter r^n^ip^d, — d synod held for 
the purpose qf deciding this controversy — In 
this synod Colman supports the Irish mode of 
observing the Easter festival, and A^ilbert and 
Wilfrid the R9mgn practice — TJw decision of 
tfie synod in ^pour ejf the Roman observance — 
The dispute about Ae tonsure also decided in 
the synod in favour qf the Roman fashion. 

SllCT. It 

HETURNING now to Ireland, and endeavouring 
to follow the order of time as well as I am able, I have 
first to.observe that Colman Stellain, abbot of Tjrdaglas, 
and seemingly the immedtate successor of Mocuipin, 
( 1 ) died in 624 or 6«5. (2) Whether or not he was 
the Colman mentioned among the priests of the third 

. okssof Balnts, (3) it if impossible to determine, as 
s^Qveral tther Colmaiis were ^stinguished at that 
period by tke» sanctity, (4) and particularly St^ 
Golman Hua-Fi||chra, a descendant of prince Fiachra 
the brother of N^ill NeigiUiach. {») He was con- . 
temporary with !St. Maidoc^ of Ferns^ (6) and seems ' • 

, to havt been abbot, and perhaps founder, of the 
monastery of the territory of Hy-kin- 


selagh« situated at the fooC of the mountain, called 
in Irish Suighe Lagen, that is, I believe, Mount 
Leinster at th»» borders of the now counties of Car- 
lew and Wexford. (7) Of his further transactions 
or the year of his death we have no aecouht. His 
memory was revered at Seanbotha on the 27th of 
October, the anniversary of his death. (8) An 
uncertainty, similar to that relative to the Colman of 
the third class, occurs also vvitli regard to the priest 
Failan or Foilan, who also is reckoned among them. 
He was neither Foillan the brothei' of St. Fursey, 
nor the Foillan, who is said to have accompanied l!^. 
Livin to Brabant ; whereas none of the Irish saints, 
who removed to the contin^t,. are named in that 
catalogue. (9) Besides many other saints of this 
name,' (10) there was Failan or Foilau son of Aldus 
a Munster prince, ( 1 1 ) perhaps tke Aidui^ who was 
av young man in the time of St. Setfanj (12) aiid< 
whose posterity rnlied in Iveagh a part of the now 
county of Cork. (13) If so^ this Failan might havei 
belonged to the period of the third ckss, and have 
been the F»la», who is eeHhd the scm of ati Irish 
dyiia^, £md said to^ hare beetle baptissed and educated 
hf Si. Coemgen* or. Kevin-. (1<4> Bi^it, in the waift 
of di^tincl^ ciiH»tmstanees, no decisive opinion can 
be f9rai€d; In l^esame third class we meet wkh a 
pmsl^ Eniaoti« I think there can be no doubt, thai' 
her was the saihe as Ernene son of Grescen, who, 9» 
Adkmmifi says, (15) was^ feicKms and greatly known 
thrMghoutI' ali the churches of Irelatfd. Eman 
yrm a* serramt boy in- the nuHiastery of Clonmacnois, 
when^ Cokunblall vi&ited it about the year ,990. H& 
WW endbttvmirt^g to toueh the hem of his cloak, 
w^n the saints perceiving what he v^^s about, took 
hold' erf' hiiiij and placed him beibre hie face^ On the 
bystandenp obset^ing that he ought not to take notice 
of trewh '» troui}l«so«»(» b^y, he desired them to. have^ 
p«lf«ni6V aflid^Wng'him'his blessing said to them; 
^'tliisibeyii w^em ye no^dei^ise, will bencefQith beu 

B 2 





very agreeable to you, and will improve from day to 
day in good conduct and virtue ; and will be gifted 
by God with wisdom, learning, and eloquence/* (16) 
It is a misfortune, that very little is known concern- 
ing this eminent man. He was, in all probability, a 
native of the vicinity of Clonmacnois. It was there 
he went through his studies and with great proficiency. 
(17) He is called in some Irish calendars Ernene of 
Rathnui in Hi-Garchon, (Rathnew in the county of 
Wicklow) whence it seems that he governed some 
establishment in that place. His memory was revered 
there on the l&th of August ; (18) and his death, is 
assigned, to the same year as that of Fintan Munnu, 
viz. A. D. 634 (635). (19) 

( 1 ) 1See Chap. x. J. 1 3. Not. 239. ^ 

(2) The Annals of Innisfallen have A. 624. The 4 Masters A. 
625. fap, A A. SS. p. 247*) Usher says, Cp, 968 and Ind. Chron.) 
A. 634. I suspect that 634 has been substituted by mistake for 
the 624 of the Innisfallen Annals, which are usually v^ry correct. 

(3) See Chap, xiv. J. 8. 

(4) Colgan, omitting other Colmans, mentions (AA. SS,p, 
247) Colman son of Cbmgell, who died in 620 ; (but he was pro- 
bably a bishop^ see Not, 22. to Chap, xiv.) Colman Huabardan, 
abbot of Clonmacnois, died in 623 ; Colman, abbot of Glen- 
dalochi died in 659, &c. There was a Colman Cass,* abbot of 
Clonmacnois, who died in 664 (665), See A A, SS, p. 90. These 
and other Colmans belonged to the period of the third class* 
Harris has { Monasteries J a St. Colman, who, he says, founded 
the monastery of Disert-Mocholmoc in the county of E. Meath, 
and in the sixth ceni;ury. Of this Colman I can find no further 
account. Archdall places it ift Westmeath, four miles S. W. of 
Mullingar, and calls it Dysart, He adds, that a house for Con- 
ventual Franciscans t^as (ifter'voards founded there. Mr. Carlisle 
( Topographical Dictionary of Irelandy ad locj makes Archdall 
say, that this Franciscan establishment was founded by St. 
Colman. Archdall was not so ignorant as to commit such an un- 
chronologioal blunder. Surely Mr. Carlisle ought to knoW, that 
ihw^ were no Franciscans for hundreds of years after thCftimes, 




in which Archdall supposed Disert-Mocholmoc to have been 
founded by Colman. 
. (5) Colgan, A A. SS.p. 141. 

(6) We read in the Life of St Maidoc; {cap. 58) " Alio die 
cum S. Moedoc iter ageret» occurrit ei in via S. Colmanus iliut 
Fiacrii" fu e, de stirpe Fiacni). 

(7) In the same Life it is stated (cap, 26.) that St. Maidoc 
was on some occasion at the monastery of Seaiibotha. It is not 
said that the abbot was Colman ; nor is aiiy abbot's name men- 
tioned. But, as in our Calendars he is constantly called Colman 
of Seanbotha in Hykinselagh, it may be fairly concluded that he 
was abbot there ; and, on comparing the circumstance here men- 
tioned with the passage just quoted, it is plain that he was there 
in St. Maidoc*s time, and that Seanbotha was not far distant from 
Ferns. Archdall (ad loc>) says that it is now unknown. This 
much, however, is, I thjnk, certain that it was near Mount Lein- 
ster, and, in all probability, at the county of Wexford side, tn 
the chapter (26) above referred to it is placed << juxta radices 
mentis, qui dicitur Scotice Suighe Lageriy id est Sessio Laginen- 
sium" That this was the mountain now called Mount Leinster, 
appears not only from its very name, which corresponds to the 
Irish Suighe Lageriy but likewise Gcom its proximity to Ferns. 

(8) A A. SS. p. lil. 

(9) Ex. c. not even Coli^mbanus of Luxeu, Fiacre, or Fursey, 
notwithstanding their great celebrity. Usher says, {p. 967) that 
he would have supposed Foillan, brother of Fursey, to have been 
the one of the third order, were he not called a bishop. (See Chap. 
XVI. §, II.) But, even were it certain, that he was only a priest, 
he would not have been named in the catalogue, and for the reason 
above assigned. 

(10) See AA. SS. p. 104. 

(11) Colgan (A A. SS. p. ?99.> surnames this Aidus, or Hugh, 
Daman, al. Bennan. He does not represent him as king of all 
Munster. Keating says, (Book 2. p. 35.' ed. A. 1723.) that 
Aodh or Hugh Bennain, king of Munstery died during the reign 
of the monarch Suibhne (Sweeny) Meann. If so, he must have 
died between 615 and 628 (See Chap. xiV. j. 1.) But the king 
of all Munster, who died between these years, was Fingen, the 
successor of Aodh Caomb- Fingen died ip 619. (Not. 39 to 


Chap. -XIV.) It mauj be, however, that Aodh Caomh lived until 
the reign of Suibhne Meann. If Aodh Bennain was king of all 
Munster, he must, as far as I can find, have been the same as 
Aodh Caomh, & ^n of whom mjglit without any anachronism be 
{]tlaced {tmong the saints of the xhird class. Y^ the surname 
Bennain, as also that of Daman, seems to indicate that they were 
different persgns; ^d Apdh Bennain was probably only a petty 
king or dynast. Instead ofcalli^ him with Keating, or his 
translator, king^ Mmster, he ought, perhaps, rather be called 
^ Munster prince* 

(12) See life of St. jSenan at 8 March, cap 22. 

(13) Jveagh x^ Jvagh w^s^a part of Carbery. Smith's History of 
g^rk. Vol. l.p.^l. 

• ^14J Soe U^her, p. 1068. 

QS) Vit. S. a J.. 1. c. 3* aL 2. 

i(l$)«4da]nniKij Of, 
•'(17) Coltimbfll is i^tirod4Jced, (ib.) as saying of him; " In hoc 
pedra .congregation^ graiidis est futurus profectus." 

^18) The Martyrplogium Taralact, has at 18 Aug. " Emeneus 
^ius Gifsseni de Eath-nui in r^gione de Hi-Garchon." The Ca- 
tesdar of Cashel «t the same day adds, that his fisstival was kept 
also at Kill-Droigoeach in Idro&e. ( Tn Th.p, 373.) 

(19) Annals of Roscrea. See Tr. Th. ib. ad AA. SS.p. 8, 
and compare with Not. 83. to Chap. %y. Usher also has affixed 
bis dfatJb to 635. (Jnd. Chron. from the Annals of Ulster.) He 
was mistaken, as already r^ipa^ked, {N<4, 91 to Chap^ xv) in con- 
foimdinghkn with o|her'£rna£M5. 

§. u. After Ernaji k irientioued Cronan, who, I 
should be greatly inclined to suppose, was Cronan 
of Roscrea, were there not some reason to think, 
t^t Che latter wfi$ a bishqp* (20) Be this as it in^y, 
Cronan, called *of Eoscrea, was a native of Ele (Ely 
O'Corrol) in Mynster. (21) His father was Odraa 
of the sept of said territory, and his mother Coemri . 
of that of Corcobaschip, a district in the West of the 
now county of Clare, Cronan, when arrived at a 
proper i^e for Qpbraciiig the Ireligious state, taking 
along with hm his maternal cousin Mobai,s(22) 


went to visit some holy men itl Cofltiauglitj AnA 
stopped at a plade called Puai/di (9$) ^h^H! hfe WaS 
soon joined by several J)ious pefsOiliti With whoih hH 
led a monastic life« Aftef l^oiti^ tim^ h^ left thdt 
fkcey and weht together t^ith Mdbai tb CldnMcienOiil^ 
Ivhere he did not remain lotig. Ndtt trfe tihA hinl 
erecting several teligiotid houd^is, itt one iff which 
ftt Lusmag (S4) he spent a ^tmsiderdbte tiiil^. H^V^ 
ing given up this establishmetit t0 >oilld tiionksr,' 
Croiiati returned to his own eoutitfy tod ferdfcted h 
cell near the lake or marsh called Orfe, which cell 
was called Sean-ross or Seanniis. (25) He was in 
this place about the time of the death of St. Mdlua 
of Clonfert-molua ; fcf? it is relatcfd that this iteint in , 
his latter days visited Gronan at Seanruis, and de- 
manded of him the mw^rifiee, * h6ly Eucharist, 
tvhich he might take with hi*. CrOrian gdve it td 
hiin, and Molua recommend^fd hi^ motiistery to htt 
firotection. (^) The . Monastery of R^jfltefei waii 
ndt as yet e^tiriblished ; a«rd ai^eottlingk \^ fotthdatioh 
cailnot b^ assigned to m^ earli^^t date thafi abont 606. 
(27) How tong Cronati remained at Stali^rosls is 
flot reeorded. The cause of his teavirig ft ^a^ (hfe 
Some stfang^r^^ t^rho had Come td Wij hiM a f iiit, 
were not ablcf m firid it out^ anrf hi th6it Wtfffdifhfgl 
I'eleAained a whote night without foef^ 6r fOOf \X:^ 
shelter tbemi ThtiB so d!!»;pleai^d Cfcmati,^ tliiat hd 
determined onr qilittiiig that loneddtt^ slnd tiM fhdtih 
re};ii*ed spOt, ami rertiovfed to thfe high rcWrf,* ^hfer^ h* 
erected ft l*ge i^dtia^ery,^ #hich rti coatse 6f tifneJ 
gave rise to the town of R^serea. (28) H^e h< 
speaf the remaindw of Ha li^, ^itifl^t9t \tL gMd 
works and nboM Mgh]^ esteemed^ On' oM detfa^otl 
he protected by hi«r pi^yeirs thd pt6pU of El^ dgaffl^ 
the fiiry of the O^Mians. Oaf a^hef M aj^fr'ased . 
Fiagen, king of M^n^t^f j who Was biU^tit 6A. ptinish- 
itigmoflt feverely th^ people of Meath *ift **iiotrttt of 
some horses^ ikaib had beeifi $t<!>kin froti^ hM, and had 
already marched with an army for that purpose from 



Cashel as far as Ele/ (29) This king had a great 
veneration for the saint, whom we find, when very 
old and blind, on, a visit with him at Cashel. When 
returning to Roscrea, Cronan was accompanied by 
the king in person and the chief nobility, &c. of 
the whole country* Not long after, having blessed 
his people of Ele, and received the divine sacrifice^ 
he died on a 28th of April (30) in, acording to eveiy 
appearance, some year of the reign of said king 
Fingen, and consequently not later than A. D, 6iy, 
or, at the lowest, 626. (81) . 

(20) Ware, touching on the Life of Cronan, ( Writers LA-c, 
IS* flL 15.) calls hiiii bishop, otherxvise abbot of Roscrea* Yet 
Colgan states^ (A A, SS. p, 3.03.) that we do not read of his hav- 
ing beeaa bishop. I suspect that .Ware's motive for^giving him 
that title was» that Roscrea was - formerly an episcopal see, and 
jtiis thence supposing that it was such as early as Cronan's time. 
Of this, however; I believe he could not have adduced any proof. 
The-BoUandists, who have published his Life at 28 April, ob- 
serve that in a MS. Florarium they found him called bishop. 
They were inclined to think, that he really was one, and that he 
was the bishop Cronan mentioned by Adamnan. (See Not, 182 
to Chap. XI.) I grant them, in oppositioQ to Colgan, that Cronan 
was old enough to be a bishop before the death of Columbkilh 
But there are circumstances, to be mentioned lower down, which 
prove, ^hat, if he ever was a bishop, he was not so untD afler it. 
Th^ Bollandi^ts feeling the weakness of that conjecture, lay down 
as almost certain, that he was thje priest Cronan of the third or- 
der ; and in fact it is difficult to suppose, that so celebrated a saint 
would have been omitted in that catalogue, as would be the case, 
unless he was the Cronan reckoned among the priests. In his 
Life, which is a respectable and very circumstantial document, he 
is called only abboty without the least allusion to his ever having 
exercised episcopal functions. On the whole it appears exceed- 
ingly probable, that his being eaXied bishop in aflej times was a 
mistake founded, as above observed, with regard to Ware, on the 
circumstance of Roscrea having become an episcopal see. 

. \ 

/ • 



(21) That district, or at least a part of it, is, as often ob- 
served, now comprized in the King's county. 

(22) We read in the Life of dronan ; << Mater S« >€ronani, et 
S. Mobai maler, et mater S. Mochonnae tres germanae sororeir 
fiierunt." Of Mobai little else is known. As to Mochonna, he 
might have been the abbot of that name, who seeins to have go* 
vemed a monastery somewhere in Leinster and was Mving in the 
time of St. Coemgen. (See A A. SS. p. 565.) But, as there 
were other St. Mochonnas about that period, this point must re- 
mam undecided. 

(23) Prope gurgitem Puayd. Whether the author meant by 
gurgitem a pool or a gulf, I cannet determine ; nor can I find 
any place in Connaught called Puayd, 

(24") In the barony of Garrycastle, King's county. 

(25) *^ Cellam itaque prope stagnum Cree~-4iedificavit, quae 
cella Seanross nominatur." (Life of St. Cronan. See also Ush^, 
p. 969-) I have observed elsewhere, (Not. 73 to Chap, xii.) that 
this stagnuniy or marsh, Cree was probably what is now called the 
bog of Monela. Archdall (at Roscrea) says that Cronan built 
that cell in an island of Loughkee. But Loughkee. or Lougftkay 
is in the county of Leitrim &r from Cronan's countiy. I sup- 
pose tliat, being puzzled by the name Loughcrecy he guessed at 
that of Loughkee. 

(26) In the Life of St. Molua, aL Lugidus or Lugidius, is the 
folloviring passage ; *' Venit (Molua) ad S. Cronanum de Ruis- 
cree, seden/tem tunc in cella Senruisy et postidavit ab eo sacrifi- 
cium, qupd secum portaret ; et dedit ei Cronanus. Cui Lugidius 
ait : Tecum relinquo locum meum, ut eum, a persecutoribus de- 
fendas.'* In said Life Cronan is called only a priest ; and hence 
it appears that, if Cronan ever became a bishop, it must have 
been after the death of Molua, and consequently several years af- 
ter that of ColumbkilL Thus we see that he was not the bishop 
Cronan mentioned by Adamnan. (Compare with Not. 20.) 
Molua*8 applying to Cronan fbr the blessed Eucharist, and taking 
it with him, was in conformity with the ancient practice of holy per* 
sons sending it to each otlier in token of commum'on and brotherly 
love. Thus as &r back as the times of St. Irenaeus, and eaifier, 
^e Popes used to send it to bishops even of far distant churches. 




(Soe EuBebiuSy Hut. EccL L* 5. c* 2j«. and BiBghanl^ firi^-Aiesy 
&C. Book XV. cA. 4. «ea^. .6*) 

(27) This is the earliest date («ee ^^o^. 100 to. Chn'p. jiii.) 
Biarified for Molua's death) befbre il^hkh^ we may/ be tore, Roecrea 
was net Ibuikledi Therefore Hah^ wac wrong itt a^eigmng duS 
fouodatkm to the sixth centuiy). 

(08), In his L% it is saidi that *' magnum monasterium ii^fi^. 
cavit ; et ibi crevit dara civitas^ ^ube Tocatur Rm9<rde.'' 

(29) The ancient Meath was contiguous to £le« 

(30) Where did Archdall find, that Cronan died oiithdr 10th of 
May ? The Life has 28 April* 

{31) Cronan*« death is m^alioned juM after the account <af Ills 
return from CaaheL Fingen is said td haVe died in 519* (Set 
Not. 39 to Ch&^ XIV.) Yet, on oomparing. what tn there ob« 
served concerning the beginning of the reign of his successor 
Failbhe Fland, it may be oonjecttired that he did not die until 
about 626. Colgan says, {AAi SS. p. 903.) that Cronah wa6 
alive in 625. The Ballatidists go still, fuitho-, pretending that ht 
mi^ have lived until afler 640. For this statem^t they had M 
authonty what4Bver, exoept a very Unfounded cotijecture of thdr . 
OWD^ that, in caae of his having been a bidiop, he might hava 
been the bishop Cronan mentioned trith Thomian and others in 
the letter of the Roman clergy written in 640. We have already^ 
. 8^n (Not. 91 to Chap* xv.) who thil Croaaii was ; ndr cofuld 
Cronan of Roscrea^ even if thcfn alive, and whether bishop or 
pfiest, have been among those to whdm said letter was directed ; 
whereas they were all northerns, and he a southern. Had the 
B(dlandists known the time <^ Fingen*s reig^, they would not hat« 
imagined that Cronan could be alive i& 640. ArehdAlI had nt& 
right to r^er to Usher as i^ assigmng Cronan's death to the be- 
ginning of the seventh century. Ait that Uslier stys is, that he 
survived Lugidus al. Molna. 

J. ill. The priest Cronan of the third dais, if 
dinerent from the saint now treated of» might have 
been Cronan of Maglibile, or the Cronaa son of Silni, 
of whom as much as is known has been already* 
touched upon. (32) That Commian, another priest 
ofsaidclass, \vas the learned Cummian author of 


the Paschal epistle (33) is exceedingly probable, and, 
I should thinK, certain, were there .not reasoo to be- 
lieve, that this Cumraian was the same as Cumin 
Fada, who is said by some to have become a bishc^, 
although on very doubtful authority. (34) But there 
were, in those times, other distinguiabed peraona of 
that name, one or other of whom might haTe been 
meant by the author of that c^^alogue. (35) Wbo 
Com an was, ivhose name appears just before that of 
Commian, I cannot well discover. He could not 
have been the Coman of Ferns, who lived until 
678, but was perhaps the Comman called by Adam- 
nan a respectable priest. («3(0 ^ ^™ greatly inciimad 
to think that, notwithstanding an apparent difierence 
in the names, Coman of the third clasa was tbe cele* 
brated Camin of Iniskeltra or Iniskeltair. (37) No- 
thing can agree better than the times ; for Camin flou** 
rished in the fir^t half of the seventh century. He 
was of the princely house of Hy-kinaelagh by his 
father Dima, and half brother of Guair king of Con* 
naught by his mother Cumania. Little eke is re- 
corded of him, (38) until he retired to the island of 
Iniskeltair in Loughderg, a lake formed by the 
Shannon. Here he led a solitary and very austere 
life, but after some time was obliged to erect a mo« 
nastery, on account of the numbers of persons, that 
resorted to him for insti*uction. Although of a very 
sickly constitution he seems to have closely implied 
to ecclesiastical studies and wrote a commentary on 
the Psalms collated with the Hebrew texti (39) 
This saint died in 653, (40) on the 25th, Or, as 
some say, the 24th of March. His memory was 
so much respected, that the monastery of Iniskekair 
becam#Tery celebratecl, and -was considered as one 
of the principal asylums in Ireland. His immediate 
successor, as abbot, was, I believe, Stellan, (41) Of 
the priests of the third class there now remavi only 
two to be treated of, Fechin and Airendanus ; but 
chronological' order requires our deferring their his- 
tory foe a while. 



(32) Not, 91 to Chap. xv. (33) See Chap. xv. J. 7-8. 

(84) See ih. Not. 54-. ' (35) I^b. Not. 53- 

(36) Usher searching for Coman of the third class says, (p, 968) 
that Coman of Ferns was perhaps the Comman called by Adam^ 
nan {L. 3. c. 19.) honorabilis presbytery whom Usher seems to 
have supposed the same as Coman of the class. But, as Coman 
of Ferns did not die until 678, how could he have belonged to said 
class, which lasted until only 665 ? (See Chap, xiv. #.8.) Sup- 
posing the COmman of Adamnan to have been different from Co- 
man of Ferns, which is very probable, he might have been the 
priest Coman of the list. It is true that Adamnan speaks of him 
as having conversed with him. This conversation might have oc-^ 
curred, when Adamnan was young and some years, before ^5. 
Adamnan was born about ,the year 6*i5, and must have been v 
younger tjhan Comman, who, as he tells us, was maternal nephew 
of Virgnous, who, after governing Hy for 25 years, died in 623. 
Colgan treats (at 18 Mart.) of a Comman, who is called bishop in 
Irish calendars without any mention of his see, and strives to show 
that he was the same as the priest ap, Adamnan. If so, he must 
have become 'a bishop after Adamnan had written his work, and 
lived until after the death of Columbkill. Colgan has nothing but 
vague conjectures on this point, and mixed with such inconsis- 
tencies, that it is not worth while to make any further remark on 
what he says, except that this bishop Comman, whose ^ee he was 
not able to discover, is said to have died in 676 (677). Usher, 
although he had spoken of Coman of Ferns as a priest, and having 
always remained so, as appears from his having thought he might 
lunre been the Comman of Adamnan, yet in his Ind. Chron. (A, 
678) odls him the bishop of Ferns. Ware also reckons him among 
the bishops of Ferns, but places his death in 675, merely, I be- 
lieve, on conjecture, and because he knew that in the year 678 
the see of Ferns was occupied by Dirath-, who succeeded Maldo- 
gar in 677. It is more than probable that they were mistaken in 
making him*a bishop, owing to their having met with a bishop oi' 
that name (the one of Colgan) and thence confounding him with 
Coman of Ferns. In a list of the bishops of that see in the 7th 
century (a;;. 2>. TA. ;j. 564. ) no Coman appears, nor according 
to the succession there marked would there have been room for 



(37) An interchange of vowels frequently occurs in the speUiog 
of Irish names. Thus we find Commian for Cummian^ Cummin 
or Cumin for the same, Aedh for Aodh^ &c. A is often used for 
Of andvice ver^. Fraechy for Froechy Faillan for FoiUany .&c 
Thys Camin might have been written for Comin, or Cumin, It is 
probable that this diversity of spelling arose from a provindid 
variety of pronunciation, . and was^ adhered to in writing for 
the purpose of distinguishing persons, whose names were the same, 
particularly if such names were very common. Yet I acknowledge 
that there is a difficulty with r^ard to applying these observations 
to the particular case of Camin of Iniskeltra ; for the Calendar of 
Cashel states, that he was otherwise called Canin, a name truly 
different fit)m Coman. Yet as his original name seems to have 
been Caminy and Canin only a surname, this objection is not 
sufficient to overthrow the proposed conjecture. In a copy of the 
Annals of Inms&llen in the library of the Dublin Society his name 
is written Cumine. 

(38) Colgan has endeavoured (at 25 Mart.) to give some ac- 
count of Camin. He observes that there are some Irish poems in 
(M-aise of him, but so intermixed witli fables, that he could not 
make any use of them tow^uds clearing up his history. 

(39) Usher says {p, 972) that he saw a part of this i^ork, whidi 
was veiy carefully distinguished by various marics. At the top of 
each page was the collation with the Hebrew text, and at the out- 
ward margin were added short scholia or notes. It was, accord- 
ing to general tradition, in Camin's own handwriting. Colgan 
also saw a part of it, the same, I suppose, as that mentioned by 
Ware, Writers at Camin. 

(40) Annals of InnisfaUen as referred to by Usher, Ware, and 
Colgan. In the copy above mentioned (iVo^ 37 ) the year marked 
is 651. 

(41) Colgan observes, { AA. SS. p. 17.) that Stellan, abbot 
of Iniskeltra, flourished about 650. Archdall (at IniskeUair) by 
€htm^%^ flourished into diedy makes Stellan die three years be- 
fore St. Camin. This is not the. only occasion, in which he has 
substituted dyin^ for flourishing, 


§. iv. One of the most famous Irish saints is 
Abban j but scarcely aliy thing can be more con* 


fwxA er wttefcrwiok^gical* than the aceoui^t», that are 

fxwfk ef him. Were we to believe what vre read in 
is s^ calfed Life, ('4^) it should be admitted that 
he waer born ib ^t fifth centHpy a»d lived until abeut 
the middle o# the seventh/ It might be ^wspected, 
tlial there were twe^ Sy{. Abbaoa, one who lived m the 
Mhand six A centimes, sndanotherbi^longing^to the" 
sixth af»d SNSVdiifth ; and thair their tift»«»ctien£^ have 
beea coofeumfed teg«tiier; But en cf^n^dering'the 
£itiemx^sitatiee9 ntiate^ eoooernlng him in the* Iris^h 
cai^Miap& and ether dee^kients, and Gomparing them 
wi#k 8»id Li£&i it i^ evident that our old writers- 
knew offty of e»e saint Abban (4($^) although the 
ctympilep or emfipilers of his ^^cts did not scruple t^ 
make bim much moce aneimt than he really wasw 
Bmsifig by what is said of hi& re^Iationship to St. 
Ibar, and some other, similar stories, this much ii<r 
clear that Abban was^ bom some time in the 
sisith eentuvy; His ^her wasLagnen of the house' 
erf Bfua Cormac Oit Dal Cormac in Leinster, d&rived 
from Cucocb, (44) who^ had been king (rf that pi?©* 
vinee^ Hi» motbet 's name was^ Mella, who is said 
t0 b»ve been a^ sister of St. Coemgen. (46) The 
eariiest aceount I meet with of Abban'u tpaii«ac<- 
ttOBS^ tb^t' £^pe«^ toieraUy authentic, i«^hi»hiivi«g!r 
fons^ded the mcmastery of Ros-mi€-t|!eoiii;, or Oldi 
Ros«r» so«te tkne in the sixth century. (46) A heap, 
of other monasteries is attributed to him, particu*' 
larly in the new counties^ of Wexford and Cork. 
(47) The greatest part of them is: unknown, and; T 
have not the least doubt, that several of them were 
n#t founded by htm; (4^) Tw» nunneriesihave been 
alao ascribe to him, KilUailbfae in East Meatb, 
M43ere» k^- i^ said to have placed as abbess St. Segnic 
err $i»chaf (49) ; and Bomeach, now Bally vourneyi 
six miles W. of Macroomp(dow Cork). Tbisnuo* 
nery belonged to St. Gobnata, whose memory i« to 
this datf greatly veisterated in that country. (50) But 
Abbdn'a chief establi^ment. waa at Magbarnoidbe, 

samevirh^Fev it seemfl, in the now eonntjr of Wex- 
ford ; (51) and in this place he spent the latter yean 
of bia Hfe. He h said to have been, when a young 
man, m Great. Britain. (52) This i», I clare saj^ 
aa ill £»unded as the story- of his haWn^ been three 
tknes at Rome, and, on the third, ordained priest 
there by Gregory the great. (53) Abban is- said to 
Jiave preaehed in Ely O'Oa^rrol, and to have there 
obtained a grant of s<Hne land, which he retained 
far relfi^oua purposes. (54) Many other cwcum- 
atdnees ara related concerning him ; but they- are so 
intengixed with fables, that it woutd be a usefesa 
task to endeavour to unravel them. He died at 
Maghasmoidke on, as some say, a l6bh of March, 
or, according to others, a Syth of October. {SS) As 
to the year of his deatli, it is impossible ta dSs-- 
oaver it ; nor can even, the period of it be precisrfjr 
ascertained, although it is probable that it was the 
early part of the seventh century. {56 

(42) CoIganha» publi9lied M^ ^na^ a(^ 1^ Mai^ II id^veiy 
long. Tlie apparent authoF of it speaks {cap*. ^4s) of himsdf at 
being the gnuacbon of a maa^ whom St. Abben had baptized^ 
Hence Colgan coocludes, that the Author fived in the letter- eml 
of the .iievanth oeatuiy, or beginoing of the eighfthb Buty unl^st 
ve iBuat supf)08a that he told a fklfil^ood, (fbr n^ author- of Hbl^ 
^aiifip^idod oould have put together si|ch a raas^ of iheonsiateft- 
^jffs). that pauage belonged to some ancient- Life of Abbam-, 
whenoe it va^ copied by the o»mpilep ef the one ne^ eictaat, 
wUch appea» t^. be a soit'of patchwork oeHeeted fl^om vanotBr 
aow'cek Pai^ of it^ at least ^e two first dlnAp^vm^ seems- t» 
base he^ composed somewhere out of IrelaiM). Hie BoHandistr 
hfae omkt^ tJie Life of Abban at 1^ 'Majpoh> premii^bg to gtvfr 
9^ 27 Octn&^r a dissertation, in which they would iaquke, wlie* 
theB^thei^ was QDl3^'^oiie^ St* Abban or two> m* a pnest' AblMnr 
aiMlaA:atfhsit Abb^n* who liiced at deferent periods. (S^ Tom. % 
ia&Maj^oi^ f^ 4i&). Their leaaon for putting e9*tha^ di^sevtatj^i 
tcLtl|fi itftfa of €>otQ)>er was that^ while sotne Q^endftrs^ ni«fk the- 
ofiSt. AblN»al l)&March> othei«as^gB itl»!37 Oote*. 


ber;/andin^t this is the day, on which it is said in his Life 
that he died. 

(4*3) The Bollandists imagined that there might have been two 
Abbans, and thus, I suppose, (for I do not know whether their 
promised dissertation h^s been published)^ thought they might ex- 
plain what is said of St. Finnian'of Clonard having been baptized 
by Abban, that is, a priest Abban, (see Chap, ix. §. 8. and Not. 
120.) who might have been different &om the abbot Abban of 
later times. But from the manner, in which this pretended bap- 
tism is mentioned in the Life of Abban (capi 29.) and its being 
added that, many years after, Abban visited Finnian when the 
htter was an abbot ; together with the title of venerable given to 

, Abban in the part of Finnian*s Acts where said baptism is men- 
tioned; it is plain that the Abban meant in that account, was no 
other than the famous abbot Abban. They might also have 
thought, that said priest Abban was really nephew to St. Ibar, 
the disciple of St. Patrick, by his sister Mella, as stated in the 
Life. But the fact is, that said Mella, as we have it on better 
authority, was sister to St. Coemgen, who flourished in the sixth 
century. But how could they have reconciled what is said of 
Abban havij:^ been son of Cormac, king of Leinster, {Lifcy cap. 
3.) with his having baptized Finnian ? For this Cormac died in 
6t5 (536). Now, if Abban baptized Finnian, he must have 
been bom, at the latest, ip 450, as he is said to have been a 
priest at the time, and Finnian is represented as having been 
baptized very soon after his birth, which, at the most moderate 
computation, cannot be placed later than 480. Abban, being 
then a priest, must have been at least 30 years old. Are we tor 
believe, that Cormac, who reigned only 9 years, had Abban 
bom to him 85 or rather 86 years before his death ? I do not 
make these remarks as if I believed that even the real Abban was 
son of that kiii;g Cormac, but to show what contradictions are 
contained in said Life, and that they cannot be explained ' by 
the supposition of two Abbans. I am surprized that Usher, 
who met with these contradictory statements, could have swal- 
lowed the stories about Abban having been nephew to Ibar, &c 

' particularly considering his h3rpothesis as to Finnian having been 
born about 460. (See Not, 124 to Chap, ix.) For in this hypo- 
thesis Abbaa should have been bom not later than 430. Usher 


knew only of one Abban, and exerted hk ingenuity to recon- 
cile those stories with some sort of chronological truth. For this 
purpose he assigned (Ind, ChronJ to A. 490 ^at is said of 
Abban having been sent, when twelve years old, to the school of 
his unde Ibar. But he overlooked the circumstance of Finnian*s 
biqitism by Abban, and indeed so muph so that he affixed to 
the same year 490 Finnian's departure for G. Britain. Accord^ 
ingly he must have considered what is said of that baptism as a 
&ble ; and he had an equal right to reject other parts of that spu- 
rious histoiy. The fact is that in putting it together the author 
or authors wished to make it appear, that Abban was connected 
with, many of the most eminent persons of the Irish church j and 
and thus they brought him in contact with Ibar and even with 
St Patrick, with Finnian, Columbkill,' and so on until they make 
him associate with St. Molingus, who lived in the 7th centuiy and 
died in 697. Then, to account for these transactions of his, we 
are told that he lived more than 300 years J ! ! In short that Life 
.]& a shameful composition, similar to the sort of Life drawn up for 
Kieran of Saigir. Thare is not a word about Abban in any do- 
cument worthy of credit relative to the times of St. Patrick, Ibar, 
or St. Brigid. 

(44). A A. SS.p. 625, &eqq. See also O'Flaherty, COgifg. p. 
293) who makes Cormac son of Cucorb. According to a genea- 
logy ap. Co]gan (ibj he was his grandson. Cucorb Uved in the 
second centmy. In . Abban^s Life it is said that he was son of 
.Cormac king of Leinster, that is, the Cormac who was king in 
.tlie sixth century. (See Nai. prec.) But Colgan shows that this 
isa mistatement. Abban was not the son of either a king or a 
.Cormac. He was of the race of Hua Cormac, that is, a de- 
. scendant of the above mention Cormac. . The compiler of the 
• Life changed Hutt'Cormac into king, Cormac. 

(45; Maguir op. A A. SS. p. 626. Colgan, who would fain 
keep up the fable of Abban having been nephew to St. Ibar, strives 
to show that Mf^uir was mistaken. But still he was not able to 
prove, that Mella was sister to Ibar, as said in the Life. In other 
documents Abban's mother IS called Cooinech Abbadk. What was 
|ier name is of very little consequence ; and it is sufficient to know, 




that there is no authority worth attending to for the story of her 
having been a sister of Ibar. 

(46) We read in the Life of St Molua of Clonfert-molua^ '' S. 
Molua visitavit S. Evinum abbatem in regione Kinnselach non 
Ibnge a flumine Berbha in monasterio. Kosmactreoiny quod sanc-^ 
tissimus senex AbhantLS Jundavit., habitantera." (See also Ab* 
ban's Life, cap. 26.) As St. Evin died about 600, (See Chap^ 
XI7. $. S.) that monastery must have been established prior to said 
year» In this passage Abban is called an old man, and might 
have been really so at the time of the foundation of that monas- 
tery, if it took place not long before 600. But it is probable, that 
$enex was merely an epithet, by which he used to be distinguished, 
as he seems to have lived to a great age, and that it is not there 
used as indicating that he was actuary old, when he founded said 
monastery. I do not find it mentioned j)y Ajtehdall, although he 
hs[s so many others, that nev^ existed ; nor do I think it certain, 
that Abban was the founder tif it. (See Not* 46. to Chap, xiv.) 

(47) Besides Rosmactreoin, are mentioned DruimH:hain-ceL 
jaigh, Camross, Maghar-Noidhe, Fion^nu^h) and Dts^-Cheanan 
in Hy-Kinselagh, that is, in or near the county of Wexford; 
Kill- Abban in £. Meath; another Kill- Abban in Hua Muiredhu^, 
al, Hua Midhe in a northern part of Leinster, I suppose the pre- 
sent county of Louth, in whidi was a district called Hy-Meith ; 
(see Harris, Antiq.^ ch. 7.) Kill-achaid-conchinn in Corcaduibhne 
in the West of M unster ; (probably in Keny rather thaai in the 
county of Cofk, where it is placed by .Harris^ Monast.J KID- 
cruiinthir in HyXiathain ;' (now comprizing the barony of Barry- 
more, Cork, and some other tracts.) Kill-na-marbhan near the 
town called Briggobhairiy now Brigoon within a mile of Mitchels- 
town; (see Smith's Cork, Vol, l./i. 353.) (Cluain-ard-Mobeooc 
and Cluain-Findglas in Muskerry, county of Cork; Clnain-con- 
bruin in the plain of Femb between Casbel and Clonmel; and 
three more in one plain in Con^aiight called Magh-ce, or Trindiy 
al. Magh-eUe, which Colgan (A A. SS. p. 622.) places in the 
county of Galway. 

* (48) Except some of the monasteries said to have been founded 
by St. Abban in Hy-kinselagh, (his own countiy) and the two 

Kill-abbans, I do not find sufficient authority for attributing to 

him any one of the others above mentioned. Kill-achaid-conchinn, 


is B93d in AbbaD*s.I4fbi (cap. 2a) ft> Ime been after ita founda- 
tion denominated from an abbot flnao. Perhaps it was called 
KiUfinan. There is.a place in Kerry called KUlfin. As that mo- 
nastery was very probably in Kerfy, it m^t have been in this 
ptaoe. ' Who thie Fiiuin here meatioBed was» we are not infbcmed. 
Colgan conjectures diat he. was St. Finan called of Kinnitdi. 
(Kinnitty in the King's cotii^y) where he was abl;K»t about the latter 
end c^the sb0h century^ bCit not in the year 557, as ArdidaU 
states. This conj^uie is not iB)probidl>le, whereas this Finan was 
a ndtiveof Corcaduibhne, (Wfare, fVrUen L.l.c. IS. al. 15.) the 
territory^ in which the monaateiy of Ol^acfaatdiconchinn was si- 
tuated. Might liie lianny of Cerfcagainny in Keny be the same 
.aa'the aneiflnt Coroaduibhhe, or^ at least,, a part of it? (Beai>- 
fend was gre&% wattiktik,(jlmo, Tcptfgr. of Irdaaid) in making 
CoEcadiiibbnethersame as Hy^Liathain, which w^s in the EasL) 
Fihian had been. A disciple of St. Bceftdan of Clon&rt> (27r. 2%. 
"p, 3SD; and, it seems, ^ of St. Senan of Inniscatthy, to whom he is^ 
^aidtaha^etbeen ndated. {AA* SS,p^ &2B.) In fact a Finan is 
plnrdcolaiiyaxiaitioswd^among'theHiiscifite of St^mn. . {ibu.p,. 5^5,) 
Imupect that he, xwt Afafaaa,.ina8 the founder of Kfll*adiaid- 
onichniu :WhyflhouiditflbaTe, aa^flftated m AJ^b8B's.L%, bonie 
the nflone of Finan, not of Abha&,riiad it been founded by the 
latter ? Finan was a.native (if the.cotintry, in which it was situated, 
atsountry,' whidi. I daubt wiiether Abban ever visited. . A^ to -the 
viotSieiiKiUtaehi^femtMnni that is,' the tell of the. afield ConMntiy 
itr.Vis rcdsikive^or&e spotxui whichthe monasteiy stood ; .but ha# 
thiS' be called C^ob'nn,. would scarcely be worth in* 
quiring into, did not Colgan say (A A. SS* p* 622) that it got this 
nam^^YMn'a lioly virgin Conchenna, whose memory was revered 
there on the 28th April. But it was, at least, origikiidfy, a mo- 
tosteiy for DEien ; and I sui^>ect'that Co%aa had no. other authority 
fo his statement than his hairing found a St. Conchenna marked in 
the Calendarff'at said di^, d^erent from two othar Conchennas, 
bne <^whom was called the daughter of KeUavgh. . I -suppose that 
the having met with the name KeUaigh was. Archdall's motive for 
changing KiU^achad-eonchinn into KMleigh, and lience placing 
this establishment not far from Youghall in East Munster, instead 
of the West, wliere it really was. Then he adds, what is not to 



be found either in Abban's Life or any where else, that Abban 
placed Conchenna there as abbess. 

Next comes KiU-cniimthir, which seems not to have been 
merely a cell or church belonging to a priest, the name signifying 
Priest's ceU or church. Colgan's opinion was {A A. SS. p^ 622) 
that it got its name from a priest Fraech, whose memory was re** 
vered in that neighbourhood, particularly at Kill-chile, ( Kilcully, 
I suppose, in the North Liberty of Cork) near which Kill-cruim- 
thir was situated. Why then attribute it to Abban ? or why make 
him the founder of Kill-na<marbhan, the cell or church of the deady 
near Brigoon ? The tradition of that district is that the church of 
Brigoon was erected by a saint Finadian, (Smith's Cork, vol. I. 
p. 354) whose staff, as supposed to be, was kept there. This 
seems to indicate that this saint was a bishop, and Smith 8a3rs 
that, according to Colgan, Brigoon was once an e^nscopal see. I 
cannot discover where Colgan has said so. He makes mention 
{A A. SS. p. 584.) of a St. Finnichan or Finchan, who was in the 
sixth ceutury bishop at a place called Druimenaich, but does not 
tell us where it was. Perhaps it w^ in the now county of Coik, 
where we find several places with names almost exactly the same, 
ex, c, Dromanagh at Drumanagh in the barony of DuhaUow. 
Archdall (at Brigowne) makes Abban the founder even of Brigoon 
itself. But Brigoon was neither a church nor a monastery. It 
wae a town at the time that Abban is supposed to have erected 
Kill-na-marbhan. He misunderstood the following words in Ab- 
ban's Life (cap. 20.) ** Juxta civitatem Briggobhainn ceSam, 
quae dicitur scotice CeaU-na-marbkariy id est, Cella mortuorum^ 

In the case of Cluain-aird-Mobecoc, or, as Archdall calls it» 
Kilbeacan, we find a palpable fraud. Tlie very name Mohecoc^, 
that is, my dear Becoc or Becan^ ( like MoedoCy my Edoc or Edan) 
shows that its founder was the celebrated St. Becan of the royal 
blood of Muna^ter, of the Eugenian line, and brother to St, Corb- 
mac, (see Not. Ill to Chap, xii.) St. Evin of Old Ross, and 
other holy men. We read in the Life of Corbmac ; (at 26 Mart, 
cap. 2.) Sanctus Becanus, in Mumonia remanens, monasterium 
de Killbecain, alias Cluain-aird-Mobecoc erexit, et sanctissime 
fcxit." The compilers of Abban's Life seem to have been well 
aware of what is asserted in this passage ; for, to patch up the 


matter, they allow {cap. 20.) that St. Becan resided there until his 
death, and pay him the highest encomiums for the extrax>rdiilary 
austerity of his life, and the miracles, which he wrought. They 
tell us that he used to sing the whole Psalter every day, whether 
dry or wet, warm or cold, by the side of a stone cross in the open 
air outside the monastery. St. Becan lived in the sixth century, 
as appears from his having been a brother of St. Evin. Keating 
[B, 2. p. 22,) makes him contemporary with Columbkill and the 
king Diarmit son of Cervail. His memory was revered on the 26th 
of May. (A^. SS.p, 755.) As to Cluain-Findglas, Cluain-Con- 
bruin, and the three monasteries in Magh-C6 or Magh-elle, con- 
cerning which nothing is known, it would be a waste of time to 
make any inquiry about them. 

(49) See Nat» '94* to Chap. xiv. If this nunnery was founded 
by Abban, why call it Kill-AUbhe ? The very name shows, that 
not he but one Ailbhe was the founder of it. 

(50) Smith, Hist, of Corky Vol. 1. p. 193. Colgan treats of St. 
Gobnata at 11 February, the day on which her name appears in 
the Calendars, although Smith says that her patron day is the 14th 
of said month. She is said to have been a descendant of Conar 
the great, a famous king of Ireland, some of whose posterity lived 
in Mu^eny, (Cork) where St. Gobnata was bom. What vSmith 
has about her having been said to be a daughter of O'Connor 
Siigo is contrary to every statement I have met with ; for she was 
certainly a native of the South. At what time she lived I do not 
find ; nor can its being said that she got Bomeach from St. Ab- 
ban afiPord any help towards discovering it. What right had 
Abban to a place in Mudceiry, the residence, and, at least in great 
part, the property of Gobnata*s own family ? In the various 
calendars, in which she is mentioned, and very circumstantially, 
there is not a woid about Abban, and the story of his having 
founded Bomeach is on a par with others already animadverted 

(51) Maghamoidhe, as it is called in Abban*s Life (cap. 32.) is 
otherwise named Magkimenina (ib. cap. 26.) Archdall says 
fad he.) I know not on what authority, that it was near the river 
Barrow, and probably in the parish of Whitechurch. Elsewhere 
{Addendofp. 820} he makes it the same as Maudlinton near Wex- 


ford. It is odd that a place, whidi is said to have been once a 
considerable town, should be so little known at present. 

(.52) There is a stoiy in the Life (^xip. 12. seqg.) about Abban 
having gone to the South of Britain with St. Ibar and others, and 
of their having stopped for some time at a dty cafied Abhain-tUin, 
or Dun-Ahbain, meanAg, it seems; Abingdon. Then we are 
told, that they there converted the king, queen, and all the inha- 
bitants, who untO then h^ been pagans. This is too siDy a fable 
to merit a serious refutation. For, supposmg ^r a while that 
Abban lived iii Ibar's, time, this conversion should have taken 
place before the year 500, in which Ibar died. The kings of that 
period in South Britain were Anglo- Sdxons. Now who has ever 
heard that any Anglo-Saxon king became a Christian before 500, 
or for very many years after ? This intention of the author of this 
fable seems to have been to insinuate, that Abingdon got its 
name from St. Abban ; and Colgan strives to show, that such was 
really the case. Camden mentions ( Vol. I. Col. 160.) a tradition, 
accordingly to which Abingdon was denominated fixrni an Irish 
hemat, named Abben, that lived there. Ushor quotes (p. 1007-) 
from Simon's history of the abbots of AMngdoA (published in the 
iffonasticon Ajtglicanum, Tom. 1.) an account of the origin of its 
name, in which it is attributed to an Aben, of a consular family, 
who, having escaped from the finy of Hengist, led there the Ijfe 
of a hermit, and afterwards retired to Ireland, where he died. (See 
also Tnd. Chron. ad -<4.461.) 

(53) The first of these pretended expeditions to Rome was in 
company with'St. Ibar, and therefore prior to A. D. 500. As the 
third was in. St. Gregory's time, ergo about 600. This is chrono- 
logy with a vengeance ! And Abban wds ordained by Gregory at 
a time when, following these notable stories^ he should have been, ' 
at least, 120 years old. And then he returned to Ireland, atid set 
about founding monasteries. Usher, having swaQowed these'fables, 
endeavoured to give them some air of probability by afiSxing 
(Ind. Chron.) Abban's death to 5Si9 during t&e pmitificate of 
Gr^ory. But this will not do ; for according to«the Life, Abban 
must haVe lived for many y^ars after Gregory's death. 

{54f) ilie place said to have been granted to Abban is c^ed 
Ratk-Becain. {Lifey cap. 2l.) t cannot find it under ihis mah^ < 
Colgan thrusts in a monastery there, although not mentioned in. 


die Life. This pretended monustei^ is, I suppose, that which is 
placed under the name of Kill-Abbain, by Harris in the King's 
county, of which Ely O'Carrol now forms a part. He seems to 
have thought that Hua Muiredhuig, in which was a Kill-Abban, 
m%ht have been in that country ; but as being in North Leinster, 
it must be placed more to the North, perhs^ in the now county 
of Louth. (See above Not. 47.) Harris's Kill-Abban of the 
King's county is called by Archdall KUbian. That the Kill- 
Abban of Hua-Muiredhuig was really founded by St. Abban ap- 
pears not only from its name, but likewise from its being expressly 
mentioned in the Calendars, (A A. &S. p. 624.) together with 
Ma^iarnoidhe, as a monastery, in which his memery was particu- 
larly revered. 

{55 The latter date Is that given in his Life and in some Calen- 
dars. It seems to be founded on better authority than the other, 
which was probably the anniversary of some translation of his 

{5^) Allowing that Abban lived to a great age, (see Not. 46) 
not the monstrous one mentioned in his Life, this period answers 
for wlAit is said of his having been nephew to St. CoSemgen, ac- 
quainted with Columbkill, Brendan of Clon&rt, and other saints 
of the sixth centuty, as also with Eintan Munnu, who lived in 
635. As to his connections with St. Moling of Ferns, who died 
in 697, I believe they are as fabulous a posteriori^ as those with 
St. Ibar are a priori. 

§ . V. St. Pulcherius or Mochoenioc flourished in 
the sixth and seventh centuries. (5?) He was ne- 
phew to St. Ita by his mother Nessa of the Nandesi 
sept, and son of Beoan a native of Conmaiche in 
Connaught, (58) who having left his own country- 
was settled in Hy-Conall-Gaura, (in the West of the 
county of Limerick (.59) where Pulcherius was bom. 
What was the year of his birth is not known j but it 
could not have been later than 5.50 ; for it is related 
that he remained for 20 years under the care of St. 
Ita, who died in 570. Being well prepared for the 
ecclesiastical and monastic state he went, witK her 
consent and approbation, (60) to place himself under 



the direction of St. Comgall at Bangor. Here he 
distingui.sbed himself 'so much, that Comgall, con-- 
eidering him fully qualified to preside over others, 
advised him to form a religious establishment for him- 
self, wherever the Lord might direct him. Pulche- 
rius then returned to Munster, and, being introduced 
to the chieftain of Ele, (Ely O'CarroI) was oflEered 
by him his own residence for the purpose of changing 
it into a monastery. This offer was declined by the 
saint ; but he accepted the grant of a lonesome spot 
in a thick forest, to which he gave the name of 
Liatkmore, (6l) The time of this foundation is 
not mentioned ; but it was probably about or not 
long after the year 580. (62) Some time after, that 
chieftain having died, Ronan his successor intended 
to expel Pulcherius from his territory, and went with 
a party of soldiers for that purpose towards the 
monastery at a time that the saint was ofiering the 
holy sacrifice j but, when arrived there or near it, he 
was struck by the hand of God so that he was unable 
to stir from the spot where he was. He then became 
sorry for his intention, and sent word to Pulcherius, 
requesting that he would come and relieve htm from 
his situation. This message was not delivered to 
Pulcherius until he had finished not only Mass but 
likewise Tierce. He said that he would not go out 
of the monastery until after the celebration of None. 
When this was over, he visited Ronan, and giving 
him his blessing freed him from the aukward state he 
was in. Thenceforth a great friendship existed be- - 
tween them, and, after Ronan's death, the saint was 
very fervent in his prayers for the repose of his soul. 
(6o>) At a later period Failbhe Fland, king of all 
Monster, being displeased with Pulcherius for not ! 
allowing some horses of his to graze in the field be- 
longing to the monastery, ordered the chieftiain of 
Ele to drive him out of that country. Pulcherius 
went to Cashel to expostulate with him on this sub- 
ject. The king received him in a very insulting 


manner, and was instantly seized with violent pains 
in one of his eyes and deprived of the use of it. 
The courtiers having supplicated Pulcherius to pro- 
cure him some relief, he blessed some water, on 
which being applied to the eye the pains ceased while 
the blindness still continued. On the following 
night the king had a vision during his sleep, in 
which he thought he saw from his castle on the Rock 
of Cashel the plains both to the North and South of 
the city covered with all the saints of Ireland, and 
was told by a venerable looking old person that^hey 
had assembled in defence of Pulcherius, and that 
he and his posterity would be destroyed in case of 
his not complying with the saint's request. Accord- 
ingly the king on the next day sent for him and 
granted him .what he demanded. (64) Pulcherius 
was henceforth held by him in great veneration ; and 
we have seen (65) how h^ induced him to submit in 
the case of St. Colman of Doiremore. Several 
miracles are attributed to Pulcherius, among others 
his having cured of blindness a holy virgin named 
Gainer. (66) The celebrated Dagan was in his 
younger days a disciple of Pulcherius; (67) as was 
also one Cuanchear, whose history is very little 
known. (68) Besides St. Cainech and St. Colman 
of Doiremore, Pulcherius was intimate with St. 
Molua of Clonfert-molua, St. Lachtean of Achad-ur, 
a St. Finnbar, and St. Luchern, who had been his 
fellow students at Bangor, (69) as likewise with St. 
Mofecta, a/. Fechean (70) and the holy bishop 
Fursaeus. (71) St. Pulcherius must have lived to a 
very great age, if it be true that he did not die until 
656. (7^) This much is certain that his death oc- 
curred on a 13th of March. (73) 

(57) Colgan and, after him, the Bollandists have published the 
Life of St. Pulcherius at 13 Mart. It is acknowledged to be 
yery ancient by the Bollandists, who thought it might have been 
written by one of his disciples. The original name of this saint 

20 AK ecclesiastical:, history ' CHAP. xyii. 

wa» C^emh-ghifp^ iskat is, handsome bom ; but St. Ita, changed 
it iht» Mockoemocy mj Choem or Coemh, which has been latiii- 
izedinto PuU^herius* 

(58j[ Conmaiene was the name of various distriGtaia Connau^t, 
diieflj iR the ooanly qT Galway. 

(59) See Not. 6. to Chap. xi. 

(60) Life of Pulcheriu», cap. 9. It is prol^le that St. Ito 
did not long survive the departure of Pulcherius. She is not men- 
tioned ra the sequel as idive. 

(61) It was, as we read in the Life, (cap. 16.) exactly four 
mites distant fiom bisbcp Colman's monastery of Doiiemore. (Seie 
Not. 41 to Chap. XIV.) These places are now in the King's 

(62) That it was frunded in the sixth century is evident ^m its 
having existed in the time of St. Cainech of Aghaboe, who visited 
Pulcherius when settled there. ' Cainech died in 599. It existed 
also in the time of St. Fadman, as appears from the Life of Pul- 
dierius, cap. 98. Passing ovar other aigumeuts, such as its hav- 
ing been founded about the same time ^th CIonfert-Molua, (Uf. 
cap. II.) we find Pulcherius governing it as abbot 14 years be- 
fore the death of Colman, son of Feraidlie, prince of Ossory. (ih. 
cap. 30.) Now this Colman died in 602. (See Not. 4<£> to Chap. 
xli.) Therefbre Harris was wrong in assigning its foundation to 
the seventh century. 

(63) Life, capp. 17-18. (64) lb. capp. 20-21. 
{fiS) Chap. XIV. §. 3. 

(66) Life, cap. 36. Colgan tiiought she might have been the 
St. Cannera, daughter of Fintan, who is mentioned in the Life 
of St. Molua of Clonfert-molua as a relative of his. She must 
not be confounded with the St. Cannera of St. Senan's time. (See 
Not. 19 to Chap, x.) 

(67) See Chap. xiv. §. 16. 

(68) See Not. 215 to Chap. xiv. 

(69) Life, cap. ii. St. Lachtean, al. Lacten or Lactan, is treated 
of by Colgan at 19 Mart. He was of the illustrious house of - 
Corpre Muse, of Muskeny, Cork, one of the sons of Conar the 
second formerly king of Ireland. He is called by some the son 
of Torben, and, by' others, of Corpre the son of Nuachar. He 
founded a great monastery at Achad-ur, i. e. Green field (not 


Green-fordy as Archdall says) near or at the place where Treriifbrd 
now stands in the county of Kilkenny. It is related in the. life 
of St. Carthag of Liamore, that, whfle this saint was^ stiO at 
Rathen, Lactean moved by pity for the distressed state of his 
community, brought him a present ai thirty cows, one bull, two 
herdsmen, and some utensils. He is caHed in various martjrolo' 
gies a bishop, but, says Colgan, whether at Achad-ur or elsewhere 
is not sufficiently clear. If he was a bishop, I believe Achad*ur 
was his see, as I find him constantly called Lactan of Ackad-ur. 
He died on the 19th of March, A. D. 69^ (623.) Harris places 
th^ monastery of Achad-ur in the Queen's county; but Archdall, 
who has it in Kilkenny at Freshford, is nH>re correct, as appears 
from the name Agkoury by which a prebend in that place is stiU 
called. Colgan has confounded this saint with the abbot Lactean» 
who was a contemporary and neighbour of St. Senan of Iniscatthy. 
(See A A, SS. p. 525.) But this Lactean cannot be supposed 
to have lived down to 62S. He was a different person, and was, 
I am sure, the Lactean or Lachtin, from whom the church of Lis* 
laditin in Kerry, not far from Iniscatthy, got its name. Colgan 
has also confounded him with Lacten, who succeeded St. Molua 
at Clonfert-molua. For this he had no authority,^exCept the mere 
sknilarity at name. There were Lactens or Lactans enough to 
succeed Molua ^thout removing the one of Achad-ur to Clon- 
fert-molua, of which no mention occurs in the calendars, where 
treating of him. St. Finn -bar, another fellow- student of Pul- 
cherius, was not, as Colgan justly remarks, the Finnbar of Cork, 
who, as is evident from his Life, was never a disciple of ComgaS. 
It is probable that he was the Finnbarr, who govern^ a mo- 
nastery in Inisdamhle an island in the Suir, (Little island, I sup- 
pose, not &r below Waterfbrd) between, as Colgan says, {AA*^ 
SS. p. 6d0.y the country of the Desii and Hy-kinsdagh. Of 
this Finnbarr I can find nothing further except that his mexnory 
was revered on the 4th of July ; {ib. p. 597.) whence it is plain 
that he was different from St Finnbar of Code, whose festival 
was kept on the 25th of September. I do not find this monas* 
teiy of Inisdamhle in Harris, nor even in Archdall. Might Inis- 
damhle have been the same as Inis^leamhnacta, where there was 
a monastery, in which Pulcherius spent some time, ""as we read 
in fufsiiiife, fcap» Si-.) ? The situation favours this conjecture ; 


for Inig-leamhnacta is described (ib.) as in the southern part of 
Ossory not far irom the arm of the sea, into ndiich the Suir 
empties itself. Colgan has confouided this place with Inislan- 
naght, where a celebrated Cistercian abbey was founded some 
centuries after the death of Puldierius. (See Ware, Ani. cap. 26 
at Tipperary.) Inislannaght lies' far from Ossory and slill farther 
from the sea, being some miles to the West of Clonmel. It is 
now called Inislounagh or Inislough. Harris and Archdall have 
not only followed this mistake of Colgan, but add, what he has 
not, that Pulcherius founded a monastery at Inislannaght or Inis- 
lounagh. For this there is no authority whatsoever, except its 
being related that he passed some time at Inis-leamhnacta. But 
might he not have been there on a visit ? This is all that the 
text authorizes us to admit. I am greatly inclined to think, that 
he had gone to that place for the purpose of seeing his friend 
Finnbarr, and that Inisleamhnacta was no other ;han Inisdamhle. 
If different places, they were, at least, not far asunder. As to 
Luchem,, Colgan (ib,) makes him the same as Luctigem abbot 
of Inistymon. But Luchtigem was a disciple not of Comgall 
but of Ruadan of Lothra. (See Not. 21 to Chap, xi.) 

(70) Life, cap, 51. Colgan thought that Fechean was the fa- 
mous St. Fechin of Fore, of whom hereafter. But the times do 
not answer. Fechean is stated to have been in company with 
Pulcherius, Cannech, and Molua of Clonfert-molua at one^cmd 
the same time. This must have been prior to the dose of tlie 
sixth centuiy, as appears particularly from Cannech having been 
one of the party. Now Fechin of Fore was too young at that 
period to rank with those venerable abbots. He lived until 665, 
and died not of old age^ but of a plague. It is highly probable,, 
that Fechean was the abbot Fechean, who is spoken of as hav- 
ing lived for some time with St. Senan of Inniscatthy; (A 4. SS. 
p. 525.) but of whom I cannot discover any precise account. 

(71) Life ca;?. 33. It can scarcely be doubted, that by this 
bishop Fursaeus was meant the great St. Fursey of Peronne. He 
flourished in Ireland in the early part of the seventh century at the 
same time with Pulcherius, and both of them lived in Munster. 
This is an additional argument in proof of St. Fursey having been 
a bishop. (Compare with iVo^. 96 to CAa;?. xv.) 

(72) The 4 Masters assign his death to 656 (656). Homing tiu& 


date he must have been, at least, 106 years old at the time of 
his death. He did not go to Bangor, at the latest, until. 570 ; for 
St. Ita was still alire when he set out for it. As he was then 20 
years of age, we cannot place his birth later then 550. Colgan 
remarks on a silly Irish verse, in which he is said to have lived 14 
years above 400, that it ought to be read 14 above 100; and 
thus the whole age of Pulcherius would have been 1 14 years. The 
Bollandists (Comment, pr, at Pulcherius 13 Mart.) approved of 
this conjecture, but afterwards in a note to the Life of St. Cnman 
of Roscrea (at 28 April) rectracted this approval, giving us a con- 
jecture of their own, viz. that in said verse is to be read 14 past 40 ; 
and hence they conduded that he lived only about >55 years, and 
in their supposition that he was b<Hm in 550, died about 605. Their 
aigument in fiivour of these fine positions is, that, as they say, 
they found no transaction of his life later than the sixth centuiy* 
But did they not find that Failbhe Fland was king of Munster 
during the life time of Pulcherius ? Now this prince did not reign 
until, at the earliest, A. D. 619. (See Not> 39 to Chap, xvr.) 
Were it not for the assertion of the 4 Masters I should place the 
death of Pulcherius either in the time of that reign, which ended 
in 634, or soon after it; whereas in his Life I iheet with nothing, 
that belongs to a later period. 

(73} On this point the Calendars, Annals, &c. agree with the 

Q. VI. St. Mochelloc, of whom I had occasion to 
make mention elsewhere, (74) belonged tp these 
times, having died very old in some year between 
639 ^d 656. He is usually called Mochelloc of 
Cathuir-mac-Conchaidh, once a town in the npw 
county of Waterford. (75) It is said that he was a 
relative of St. Finan of Kinnity. (76) I find him 
honoured with the title of bishop, but, I suspect, on 
weak authority. (77) Besides some establishment 
at Cathuir-mac-Conchaidh, the foundation of the 
church of Kilmallock is usually attributed to him^ 
and the name Kilmallock is supposed to be a con- 
traction of KilUmochelloc. (78) 

St. Manchan abbot of Meno-drochit (79) died in 


65^. (60) H« Wis surriained the Wise, Md 
enjoyed a grtat f^putatidh. (81) Some writen 
ioiake him the'same as Mdncfaan abbot of Mohill m 
the now eoimty *^f Leiirim ; (82) but there is 
r^afaon tothiDk/thattKey were di£Perieht persons. (^) 
Man^han the iAse was, i believe the same «s the 
Mandmn, or, -as Tttigarly called, Munchin, who it 
6iip|H$8edtb^faave been the' first bishop of Linieriek. 
Forih}s suppo^tion there is no suffic^u^btaathority ; 
(M) and, as far as I ean discover, it rests on no 
other 'foundation than that Manchan the wise 
{bunded, ^perhaps, a monastery where Limerick now 
^nds, or that the 'first efrureh in that pla«^ was de- 
feated iti his hame. Of the identity of Mnnofam 
<>f 'Limerick with Manchan the wise a stronger proof 
need not be required than that his festival is kept oh 
fbe 2d of Jatwaty, the day assijgned to the memory 
of Manchmi the mse h\ all the Irish calmdiurs. (85) 
There is not the least hint, in any old document 
relative to our Chureh history, of this Manchan 
haviii^c been rai^ to the episcopal - rank ; - but the 
venerltion in which he was & at Lhnerick, and the 
circumstance of its dldest chnreh- bearing his name, 
gave rise at a late period to the opinion of his having 
been a hishop. Mistakes of this kind have occurred 
not only in Ireland but likewise in other eoiHktries. 


(74) Chap. 1. §. 12. ' (76) §. See ib. 

(76) Acto of Mochelloc at 26'Mareh. Of this ^t Fiaan see 
above NoU 48. 

(77) Mochelloc is not called bishop in any of the Irish ttden- 
dars -quoted by Colgan. 

(78) Keating says tliat Mcfehelloc erected die church of Kill- 
nlochelloc. Colgan calls ths place a town, meaning, it seems, 
Omallock. iEIence Harris and Archdall ascnbe a monastery at 
Kilmallockto St Mochelloc. 

(79) It is how ddled MundreMd and is in the barony of Up- 
per Ossory, Queen's county. The tract, in which it lies, was for- 


w^ly CfSljoi DUett'^huiUin* There wfli an abbot Laaren in this 
iW, niodirf A. D, 600. {Tr. Th.p. 876.) i , ,. _ 

(80) Ajmald of Ulster^ aiAl Usher, j;« 970. ^JndCkran^ 

(8iy The author of the work JD^ MiraUliimi S. Str^rtui, 

of whidi hereafter, takes particular notice (X.S.«. 4.) of th« / 

death of Manchan, or, as the present text has, Manichaeu$f as 

Que^of the wise mtn of Ireland. He places itinthe Jgsi jcar of 

the eleventh (reckonidg ftom the b^nniiig of (tiie'wiorid). cycle 

of 53£ years, whieh, accovditig to bis ehroa^lqgical'pEtnfljjples, wris 

the same as A. D. 652* (See Usher, p* 97.0.) J^rom . tke name 

Sianichaeus Usher .{ib.) seems to baie oonduded, that Man* 

Cham's mdnatne wastfae Hebrev^ Mendhamf wbkii has bean 

changed: into ;AfamcAikfl«& fi«it Cdigan jnaihtainii. (dd. SS*,p. 

3d2*) that Masibhan is a (toinadYe.of die InkiManadkft «ionb^ 

ttod means aUtde mpnk» He obsemes, that there were many pei^ 

sons in Ireland, called MonchoMrM^nAen^ at Mmiehiny and, all 

names of die same import. M^ntihtteus mfmsht justly ifemarid^ 

probaUy aoorrupitioiidf Mancfaaaaa; and it !s^n,1 that 

other. Irish names have been corrupted ia the text of fliat woris. 

St. Maochan was, in all probability, the same as.tfae.Ao^ ani'wke 

man named Mxaukertf who is mentioBed in th& life tif ^t. "MniQa 

of Clonfert-mdlua as a survivor of fiis. (See Uaher,- ^1*969.) 

(82) Usher seems to have beep of this opinian. .!He. had:(see 
;i!.969.) a Life of St. Manchan of Moh31, judd .to have 'been 
written by Richard Fitz-Ralph, archbishop of Ahn^y mi- whkh 
Mam:han was called a Canon regular of St. Angustin ;and ^tatW 
to have '.flourished in the year 608. ' But- flrere^ were; jk> sudi 
Canons regidar in those times. He is there called ialsa patrqo.^ of 
seven churches. It iasaid th^t ever since, said jrear.gftBb6B, lanSi, 
£e&, tytlies, &c. were granted to die eatablishmilsntof MohiU. IMs 
tox>unt smefis bf a period mudi later thaik 608 ; ^neidtfer' fiefs 
oaor tythes w^s&then known in Ireland. Ware (Aniiq^ copJ^ 
«t£dR0rim).ltiid£es' him the same as Manchan of Mene-droohit, 
and ao does Ardididl, (at Mohillf as appears fiOYn his> assigning 

his deadi ta652. 

• )(d3):'in die Irish Catenders quoted by Colgan at 14 JMtK 
-Wbiefre he treau ;of Manchan of Mohill, tfcey «re spoken of >8 
diiainci piiursoiis. Manchan the wise is meritmned at 2 Janu^iy, 

whae the one of Mohill appears at l4 Febru^. This is a stmig 


proof that they were different, although, I will allow, the ^onlj 
one ; for veiy little is known concerning these Manchans, not- 
withstanding the great esteem, in which the one, sumamed Wise 
was held. Co^n says that, in want of authentic documents 
to prove the contrary, he must consider them as different per- 

(84) Wate (Bishops at Limerick) says, that St. Munchin, son of 
Sedna, was the first bishop of that dty. He does not refer to any au- 
thority, nor had he any except a passage of a genealogical h^giolo^, 
(ap. A A. SS. p, 332.) in which among five Manchans is reck- 
oned Manchinus Lumnichensis JUius Sednae. But this Manchin 
or Manchan is not called a bishop, although a Manchan men- 
tioned just before him is marked by that title. I do npt find either 
in the Irish calendars or annals any Manchan bishop of Limeridc, 
nor even one called of Limerick. It is very probable that Man- 
dian the tu»e was son of Sedna, who is said to have been a 
descendant of Cormac Cas king of Munster, and the founder 
of the Dalcassian line of princes. As Thomond, in whicb was 
.comprized the country about Limaick, was the patrimony, of this 
race, it is natural to suppose that Munchin son of Sedna was 
greatly revered in that territory, of which he was probably a na- 
tive. And thus it can be easily accounted for, why there was a 
church in Limeridc called by^ his name, without recurring, to the 
unauthorized hypothesis x>f his having been bishop there. , Ware 
acknowledges, that he was not able to find any account of Mun- 
chin's successors at Limerick until about the beginning of the 
twelfUi centuiy, and elsewhere (Antigtiitiesy cap* 29 at Limerick) 
says, that it is a very difficult point to ascertain who Munchin of 
Limerick was. He mentions the opinion of those, who make him 
the same as the Mancenus, who, according to Jocelin, was left in 
Tirawley by St. Patrick. We have already seen, (Chap. v. §, 12. 
and ib. Not. 118.) that this pretended Mancenus of St. Patrick's 
times was no odier than Manchan of Meno-drochit. But. even 
if he were different, and if there was a Msuichan in Tymwley at 
that early period, how has it come to pass, that neither in Jooe- 
line nor in the Tripartite is a word to be found about said Man- 
.chan having become bishop of Limerick, although the latter work 
is particularly minute as to St. Patrick's proceedings in the now 
county of Limerick? The &ct is, that in. St. Patrick's dajrs there 


was neither a town, nor, I dare say, a village, nor monastery in the 
place where Limerick is situated. Ware touches also on the opinion, 
that Munchin was the same as Munchan of Mene-drochit, which, 
•txange to think, he supposed to be less probable than the other. 
But he assigns no reason for his having thought so. 0*Halloran 
pretends ( History, Sfc. B. viii. ch, 7.) not only that Manchan 
was bishop of Limerick soon after the arrival of St. Patrick in 
Ireland, and that he had been employed in Connaught, but like- 
wise that, before he became bishop, he was abbot, and the first, 
of Muingharid (Mungret) near Limerick. O'Halloran con- 
founded Mungret with Mene-drochit, notwithstanding their being 
most dearly distinguished by Colgan, Harris, &c. &c. The first 
abbot of Mungret, at least on record, was Nessan, who died in 
552. (See Chap. xi. §.6.) 

{S5) See A A. SS. p. 333. In Ware's Antiquities (cap. 29.) 
the first of January is mentioned, by mistake, for the festival of 
St. Munchin, instead of the second. This mistake has not been 
corrected by Harris. 

§. yii. As to the real bishops of these times, be- 
sides those of the third class of saints, and Carthagh of 
Lismore, Dagan, Colmanof Doiremore, Colman or Co- 
lumban of .Clonard, Diman of Connor, &c. &c. al- 
ready treated of, some others are mentioned, the 
accounts of whom are, in general, very imperfect. 
St. Aidus or Hugh, surnamed Dubh, bishop of KiL 
dare, died in 6S8. (86) He is said to have been 
king of Leinster, and, on resigning his kingdom, to 
have become a monk, and afterwards bishop. Yet it 
seems more probable, that he was merely or the blood 
royal of that province. (87) The day of his death 
is uncertain. Dachua, or rather Mochua Luachra, 
a native of Munster, who is called by some only 
abbot of Ferns, and died on the 22d of June A. D. 
652 (65S) (88) was likewise a bishop, (89) and the 
immediate successor of St. Maidoc. (90) Tuenoc 
also, who succeeded Dachua, and died in 662 (663) 
was not only abbot but bishop of Ferns. (91) -A St. 



Aidan, who is said to have been maternal brotlier to 
Aidus, son of Anmiraeus, the king of Ireland, who 
was killed in 599, (9^) is spoken of as bishop of 
Glendaloch. (93) If so, he may be supposed to 
have succeeded St. Molibba (94) some time in the 
first half of th'e seventh century. St, Thomian, 
archbishop of Armagh, died, as already seen, (95) 
in 661, and was succeeded by Segen, who held the 
see for 27 years Q)6) In the same year died Co- 
nang O'Daithil, bishop of Emly. (97) One or 
oth6r of three bishops of Clogher mentioned by Col- 
gan might have been there in these times; but which 
of them cannot be determined. (98) Bithan, who 
succeeded Aidhlog-Mac-Caimin, (99) as abbot of 
Clonmacnois, h said to have bpen ako a bishop. 
(100) He was of a family called Hua Cormaic, and 
native of Conmaicne-mara, in Connaught. (101) 
Baithan died in (')63; (102) and his memoi-y 5Vas 
revered on the first of March, apparently the anni- 
versary of his death. Some other bishops and boly 
men are mentioned as belonging to this period; but 
scarcely any thing'is known concerning them except 
the years of their death, (103) further inquiries 
would be useless. 

(86) Colgan has endeavoured to give some account of this 
bishop at 4 January ; but it is very unsatisfactory* 

(87) There was not in the early part of the seventh centuiy an 
Aidus king of Leinster. The king Aidus who died in 591, ac- 
cording to the 4 Masters, could not have been the bishop, whose 
death they assign to 638. And yet they tell us, that the bishop 
had been king of Leinster. Colgan strove to explain this contra- 
diction, but, as Hams observes, (Bishops at Kildare) with httle 
success. It is therefore probable, that some mistake has occurred 
with regard to the title given to Aidus, and that, altliough of the 
royal family of Leinster, he had not been a king. Colgan con- 
jectures that he was the bishop Aidus son of Moelodran/a mem- 
ber of that house. 

(88) 4 Masters and. Colgan, A A. SS.p. 223. 


(89) Colgan speaks of him (Tr. Th. p, 564.) as bishop of 
Ferns. A regular see had been established there ; and St. Mai- 
doc, although raised to it, still continued to govern the monastery. 
The same system was, in all probability, followed by his succes- 
sors. * 

(90) Usher and Ware, as will be seen hereafter, were mistaken 
in making St. Moling the second bishop of Ferns. Of Mo- 
chuan Luachra more wOl be seen, when treating of St. Mo- 

(91) See Tr. Th. p. 564}. and Harris f Bishop at Ferns J. 

(92) See Chap.iiiv. §. 1. (93) AA. SS. p. 306. 

(9^ See Chap, xiv. $.16. Were we to believe some genea- 
logists, who make Aidan a brother of Etchen the ordainer of Co- 
lumbkiU, we should rather suppose him a predecessor of Molibba, 
From such loose materials nothing authentic can be deduced. 

(95) Chap. XIV. §. 12. 

(96) Tr. Th, p. 292-294. and Ware at Armagh. It is proba- 
ble, that this prelate was the Segen, who was a priest in the year 
640. (See Not. 91 to Chap. xv.). 

.(97) A 4. &S,p. 150. The Annals referred to by Colgan have 
A. 660, that is, 661. Yet Ware (at Emh^J has retained A, 
660, although he mi^t as well have retained it for Thomian of 
Armagh, whose death is marked also at 660 in the Irish annals. 
Harris was right in adding << or 661." Conang O'Daithil is men- 
tioned as comorban (successor of St. Ailbe in the Life of St. Mo- 
lagga, cap. 19- Whether he was the person, who is called in the 
life of SL Puldierius (cap. i5.) archbishop of Emly, I am not 
able to decide. Probably he was, if it be ^true that Pulcherius 
lived until 655. This title of archbishop of Emly is very re- 
mavkable, as appearing in a tract so ancient, and shows that the 
bishops of Emly enjoyed a sort of pre-eminence over the other 
bishops of, at least, Munster. (Coa^are with Nat. 67 to Chap. 
VI.) Colgan says (A A. SS. p. 598.) that some of oiur calendarists 
place the Naidlis of Conang O'Daithil at the 2Sd of September. 

(98) See Not. 5 to Chap. xii. 

(99) Aidhlog Mac-Camain died in 652. Uslier, Ind, Chron. 

(100) Colgan in his short account of Bahhan (at 1 Mart.) 
. refers to only the Martyrologium Tamlactense for his having been 

a bishop, observing that in other calendars Ite is called merely 

D 2 



abbot. This, however, does not prevent his having been raised 
to the episcopacy. 

(101) Conmaicne-mara means the Conmaicne near the sea. 
Hanis says, (Bishopsy at Baitan, ClonmacnoisJ that it was the 
same as the barony of Ballynahinch in the county of Galway. 
Thus he supposed it to have been confined to the tract now called 
Connamara ; but the ancient Conmaicne-mara seems to have ex- 
tended to the North of the barony of Ballynahinch ; fw, as Col- 
gan observes, (A A. SS. p. 437.) the island of Inisbofinde (Ennis- 
bofin) is lying off its coast. 

(102) This is the date assigned by the 4 Masters. It has been 
retained by Ware and Harris, although, I dare say, it ought to 
be understood as 6&4!. 

(103) Colgan has (Ind, Chron. ad A A. SSJ fiwm the 4 Mas- 
ters ; A. 65S died St. Comin bishop of Antrim, and on the 17th 
of May in said year, St. Sillan bishop of Devenish. A. 659. St. 
Daniel, bishop of Kinngaradhy 18 January. Instead of Kinn- 
garadh we ought, I believe, to read KUlgaradh, now Oran in the 
county of Roscommon, where St. Patrick is said to have founded 
a church. (See Chap. v. §. 10.) St. Laidgen, a monk of Clon- 
fert-molua, who had been educated there by the abbot St. Lactan, 
was a man of extraordinary sanctity, and his memory has been 
most highly respected. He/flied in 660 (661) AA. SS, p. 51^ 
Archdall was wrong in making him abbot of that house. He was 

> only a monk« 

5 . VIII. iSegenius abbot of Hy, who died in 652, 
(104) was succeeded by Suibne (Sw^eeny) son of 
Curthri, of whom I find nothing recorded except 
that, having governed for more than four years, he 
died in 657 (10,5) The successor of Suibne was 
Cumineus Albus or Cuman the whitCy who has been 
often mentioned already, and who, as we have seen, 
(lot)) must not be confounded with' Cummian the 
author of the Paschal epistle. Let it suffice to add 
in this place, that he was son of Eman a brother 
of the above mentioned abbot Segenius^ and accord- 
ingly a descendant of Fergus the grandfather of Co- - 
lumbkill. (107) Cumineus died after an administra- 



tion of twelve years, on the 24th of February, A. D. 
669(108) . 

To the Columbian order is said to have belonged 
St. Mura, whose name has been latinized into Muru^ 
and Muranus, He governed the monastery of Fathen- 
Mura, now Fahan in Inishowen, of which he was 
most probably the founder. (109) Mura was a des- 
cendant of Neill Neigilliach by his son Eugene, and 
gregt graudison of another Eugene who died in 565. 
His father's name was Feradach^ and his mother's 
Derinilla. (110) He flourished in the first half of 
the seventh century, and seems to have died some 
time before 658. (Ill) His memory, which is re- 
vered on the 1 *2th of March, has been held in great 
veneration, particularly by the O'Neill family, 
who considered him as their patron saint. His 
staff, called Bachull Mura^ was and is, perhaps, 
still preserved as a relique. St. Mura wrote a 
metrical Life, in Irish, of Columbkill. (112) His 
monastery flourished for many centuries, but is 
at present only a parish church in the diocese 
of Derry. 

(lOl') See Chap. xiv. §. 12. The 12th of August was marked 
for his coininenioration. ( 2>. Th, p. 4*98.) 

(105) Usher, p. 702- He has five years for Suibne's adminis- 
tration. This roust be understood as reckoning in round numbers. 
For Suibne died on the 11th of January, and accordingly, count- 
ing from the 12th of August 652 (the day marked for Segenius) 
was abbot only four years and nearly five months. Colgan treats 
of Suibne at 11 January, but except the little now stated, gives 
us nothing particular concerning his history. . 

(106) Not. 70 to Chap. xi. 

(107) Acts of Cumineus at 24 Febr. The far greatest part of 
what follows in these Acts, which were patched up by Colgan, 
belongs not to Cumineus Albus but to Cummian the writer of the 
Epistle, Colgan having confounded them together. 

(108) All the Irish calendars, quoted by Colgan, agree in maris- 
ing the 24th February as the day of his death. The Ulster An- 


nals and the 4 Masters assign it to A. 6689 t. e. 669. See also 
Usher, p. 702. 

(109) See 'Not. 116. to Chap. xi. 

(110) Mura's Acts at 12 MaH. 

(111) The 4 Masters and Colgan Tr. Th. {p. 510. and AA. SS. 
p, S34.) assign the death of St. Kellach abbot of Fathen-Mura 
to A. D. 637 {65S). Instead of 657 Archdall has (at Fahan) by 
mistake, 637* Kellach must have been a successor of Mura, and 
consequently, unless we are to suppose that Mura resigned the go- 
vernment of the monastery, a survivor of his. 

(112) See Acts, and Harris, Writers* 

§. IX. St. Monenna is reported to have founded a 
nunnery at Fochard Brighde, the birth place of St. 
Brigid, (Faugher in the county of Louth) about, as 
some say, the year 6r30. (113) But her history is so 
confused that it is impossible to ascertain the precise 
time of this foundation. It is plain that Monenna 
has beep confounded with another person of the 
same or a somewhat similar name. (114) The 
account given of her, in a work called her Life, is 
that she was of the great sept of the Conalls of 
Conail Murthemhni (the coi.ntry about Dundalk) 
and Clan Conail in the now county of Down. Her 
father was Maughteus, prince of that sept and ruler 
of an extensive territory stretching from Iveagh^'to 
the neighbourhood of Armagh. (115) Having 
governed for some time 1 50 virgins at Fochard she 
appointed Orbila, al. Servila, abbess of that establish* 
ment, and retired to near Sliev-Cuilin or Sliev-Gullen 
in the county of Armagh, where she erected a 
church, which has been called Kill-sleve-Cuilin, that 
is, the cell of MountCuilin. (II6) Next we are 
told, that she went to North Britain, and erected 
seven churches in various parts of that country, one 
of which was at a place called Lanfoftiny where she 
died during the life time of Columbkill. (U7) Tbi? 
does not, agree with the hypothesis of her having 
founded the nunnery of Fochard about 630> as 


Columbkiil was dead long before that time. But 
other accounts bring her to England, where she was 
known by the name of Movenna or Modwenna, and 
greatly* distinguished in the seventh, or, as some 
writers maintain, in the ninth century. Amidst 
these jarring statements I am not able to form any 
decisive conclusion. (UtJ) St. Conchenna, who was 
either abbess or, at least, a member of the nunnery 
of Kill-sieve, died in 655^ and her memory was re- 
vered on the isth of Ma^ich. (119) 

There is good reason to think, that the celebrated 
St. Athracta or Attracta (1^20) lived about these 
times, or somewhat earlier. The statements relative 
to her are indeed so contradictory, that the period, 
in which she flourished, cannot be precisely ascer- 
tained* According to some accounts she was con- 
temporary with St. Patrick. (1^1) But we find her 
spoken of as living in the times of St. Corbmac, 
brother of St. Evin, (12*^) and consequently in the 
sixth century. (123) St. Nathy, that is, according 
to every appearance, Nathy of Achonry, who lived 
in the same century and probably during some part 
of the seventh, is also mentioned as a contemporary 
of hers. ( 1 24) On these grounds it may be fairly 
concluded, that St. Athracta belonged to the same 
period. She is said to have been the daughter of 
Talan of a princely family of Dalaradia in Ulster, 
(126) and brother of St. Coeman of Aird-ne-Coem- 
haiu, a consanguinity which it would be difficult to 
reconcile with her having been a native of Ulster. 
(126) Whatever were her family connexions, St. 
Athracta presided over a nunnery called Kill-athracta 
(Killaraght) near the lake Techet, now Lough Gara 
in the county of Sligo. (1 27) tier memory wais 
revered there on the 1 ith of August, the day marked 
for her festival in the Irish calendars ; but in some 
foreign martyrologies her name appeal's at the 9th of 
February. (128) 



(113) Usher says {Ind. Chroh,) that the virgin Monenna flou- 
rished in 630. Hence Harris deduced that she founded the nun- 
nery of Fochard in that year. Archdall has 638, an erratum, I 
suppose, for 630. Harris calls her Monenna, al. Darerca. Thi» 
is a mistake. It was Darerca, who is said tb have lived in St. Pa* 
trick's times, that was sumamed JMoninne or Monenna. (See Not^ 
181. to Chap. III.) Usher observes, {Pr. p. 824.) that Conchu- 
bran, the writer of Monenna's Life, perhaps coi^ounded. her with 
Darerca, owing to the latter's surname Moninn'e, This is indeed 
very probable ; for Conchubran (see ib, p, 705.) makes her con- 
temporary with St. Patrick, and afterward? speaks of h^r as hav- 
ing been in Scotland during the times of Columbkill. Usher t]iink» 
that, instead of Columbkill, it would have been more correct to 
have said, Columba bishop of Dunkeld in Scotland, who lived se- 
veral years later. 

(114) The Monenna of Conchubran is called by others Mod- 
venna, a native of Ireland, who was, in the seventh century, fa- 
mous in England. She is said to have been the ini^tructress oi St. 
Ositha an English virgin and saint. From Usher's own observa- 
tions (p. 707) concerning the times of St. Ositha it would appear 
that Monenna or Modvenna did not, as he calculates, flourish as 
early as 630. On the other hand some of the transactions of Da- 
rerca, sumamed Monenna, who died in 518, have been attributed 
to the one simply called Monenna. To , add to this peiplexity^ 
several writers maintain, that St. Modvenna lived not in the se- 
venth but in the ninth century. Of this more lower down. 

(115) See Usher, p. 705 and 1036. 

(116) It has been seen, (Chap, viti. $• 9.) that the church and 
nunnery of Kill-sleve-Cuilin is usually attributed to Darerca, -sur- 
named Moninne, who died in 518. This was also Cdgan's opi- 
nion, while, although placing this Darerca at that early period, 
he held that she was different fix>m the one si^^sed to have been 
sister to St. Patrick. (See Not. 181 to Chap, iii.) Usher wasin-' 
clined to think, (Ind. Chron. ad. A, 630.) that the foundress of 
said establishment was the Monenna of the seventh century. But 
the common opinion appears better supported. Besides the 4 
Masters, who call Darerca, that died in 518, abbess of that place, 
(see A A. SS. p. 190.) there is a passage in the Life of St. Endas 
of Airan {cap. 8,) in which Darerca, al, Moninne is stated to 


have been in ker nunneiy of BeU-alebi (KiU'^eTe) during the 
life time of that saint. Now Enda flourished in the beginning of 
the sixth century, and, at most, did not outlive the middle of it* 
On the whole it seems certain that the nunneiy of Kill-sieve 
existed long before that of Fochard. 

(117) Thus far Conchubran ap. Usher, p* 706, who gives the 
names of those seven churches, and observes that Lanfortin waa 
near Dundee. Conchubran having erroneously called Columbkill 
an archbishop, Usher remarics that Columba the first bishop of 
Dunkeld was probably the person, in whose time Moninna died. 
Thus her death might have been as late as about 640. 

(118) Conchubran, as far as I can discover, (fori know nothing 
of his work except from Usher's extracts) makes no menticm of 
St. Monenna having been in England ; nor does it appear that 
he thought her the same as St. Modwenna. Usher and several 
English writers make no distinction between them, and apply to 
Modwenna what Conchubran -has concerning Monenna. That 
there was a celebrated Irish virgin Modwenna in England cannot 
be called in question. Camden says, (col. 613, Gibson's efl^.)that 
<< Modwenna an Irish vii^, famed for her wonderful piety, built 
a nunnery near PoUesworth" in Warwickshire. And (ccl. 641) 
be speaks of her as having been near Burton on Trent, Stafford* 
thire. I do not find him stating the period,' at which she was in 
these places. Usher thought it was in the seventh centuiy, be- 
cause Modwenna is said to have instructed St. Ositha, whom he 
assigned to said century, as have also Baronius and others* He 
acknowledges that Ositha flourished in the latter part of it ; and 
hence, as observed above (NoU 114) it may be collected, that 
Modwenna was not distinguished as early as 630. But other 
writers assert, that Modwenna lived in the 9th century, and even 
in the second half of it. Their system is exhibited and followed 
by Cressy, (Church History, &c. B. 28. ch. 2.), who tells us 1. 
that Modwenna was the daughter of Nangtheus of Tirconnel. He 
mistook the name Maughieus of Conchubran for Nangtheus* 
Another mistake is that of Tirconnel instead of the Conalli^ 
country in Louth and Down. Camden has fallen mto it, but 
was corrected by Usher {p. 1036). 2. Crefisy has the nunnery of 
Fochart, &c- and then says, that Modwenna erected another at 
Cellisdine, so caUedfrom the multitude of ceUs. This is a droH 


blunder; OeUiscii$ie &c, inBtead of KiU-sleve-CuiUiny the cell of 
MouDt>Clafllin. As to the origin of this nunneiy, it is well known, 
that whoever was the Monenna by whom founded, (see Not. 116) 
it existed Jong before the ninth century. 3. Modwenna, on the 
invitation of £thelwolf, king of the West Saxons, went to Eng- 
land, taking with her Adiea her disciple and relative — is entrusted 
wiA the cane of Editha the king s sister, and founds the nunnery 
of PoUeswoith. 4. Leaving the direction of Poliesworth to Acfaea 
and Editha she went to the small island of Andresey, (Andrew's 
island) where she erected a church in honour of St. Andrew, and 
near which was afterwards founded the Benedictine monastery of 
Burton. 5. Modwinna had also a disciple named Ositha, con- 
cerning whose times Cressy here changes a i^rmer opinion of his. 
For he had, (B. 17. ch 15.) with Baronius, placed her in the 7th 
century, but now removes her to the ninth. 6. Modwenna re- 
turned to CMiscljine in Ireland, and died there after having re- 
quested that her body should be interred in Andressey. This re- 
quest was complied with through the care of the great Alfi^ ; 
but the body was in a following age removed to the monastery of 
Burton. From this narrative, compared with Conchubran's ac- 
coont, the reader will be able to understand the epitaph on St. 
niodwenna's tomb at Burton, as in Camden (coL 641.) and Usher, 
p. 1036. 

Ortum Modwennae dat Hibemia, Scotia finem, 

Anglia dat tumulum, dat Deus alta poll- 
Prima dedit vitam, sed mortem terra secunda, 

£t terram terrae tertia terra dedit. 
Aufert Lanfortin, quam Terra Conallea profert ; 

Felix Burtonium Virginis ossa tenet. 

St. Modwinna's deatl^ is here placed at Lanfortin, where Cen- 
chubran says that Monenna died, in opposition to the statement 
given by Cressy. 

(119) This is all that I can find worthy of consideration as to 
St. Conchenna in what Colgan has about her at IS Mari. The 
4 Masters have for her death A. 65^^ which, I suppose!, ought to 
be understood 655. They call her St. Conchenna of Killsleve, 
ivithout adding the title of abbess. As Killsleve was the same 
as Kill-sleve^Cuillin, of which in the preceding noteS| wc have here 


a proof that this nunnery existed long befinre the ninth oeur 

(120) Colgan has endeavoured to compile the Acta of thii aaint 
at 9 February. They contfist chiefly of fragments of a bombastic 
Life, written, as he thought, hy a Ciaterian monk oi the abb^y of 
BoyIe> and consequently not before the latter end of the twelfth 
century. He justly observes, that it was not commendaUeeitha: 
for style or close attention to truth. 

(121) See Chap.y.§.lO. 

(122) Life of St. Corbmac, cap. 17. at 26 Manch. 
(128) See Not, 111. to Chap. xii. 

(124) Acts of St. Athracta, cap. 18. In the same chapter 
Keann&elaid is said to have been king of Connaught during her 
time. Colgan, not finding any king there of this name before 
about 670, thought that, instead of a king of all Connaught 
ought to be understood a dynast of some part of iL But in said 
Acts Keannfaelaid is expressly stated to have ruled the whole ' 
province, *' tenens totum das (Ccmnadae) princip'Hum unwersa* 
liierS* The author certainly meant the well-known king of alt 
Connaught Yet we are not bound to believe, that Athracta Inn} 
as late as his reign. That author cared so little about ana* 
chronisms, that he places her also in the times of St. Patxidc 
Concerning Nathy of Achronry see Chap. xii. §, 8. That he 
be was the Nathy alluded to in Athracta's Acts is sufficiently dear 
from his having lived in the district, in which her nunnery was Br 
tuated, vie. Lugne or Lugnia, of which the barony of Leney in 
the county of Sligo forms a part. .Nathy of Achonry, which is 
in said barony, is the only saint of that name, that flourished in 

(125) J A. SS.JD. 281. 

(126) See Not. 141 to Chap. xii. If Athracta was, whether 
sister or not, contemporary with Coeman, we have an additional ar- 
gumentin favour of her having lived in the sixth century ; lor Coe- 
man is said to have been brother to St. Coemhgen of Glendak>ch. 

(127) See Chap. v. §. 10. and ib. Not, 95. 

(128) In the foreign calendars her name is spelt T^rackia or 
Tarahata. No St. Tarachta is mentioned in any Irish document ; 
and hence Colgan justly infi^red, that she was no other than Bt* 
Athracta. The BoUaodists (at 9 Febr.) do not controvert his 


opinion. They have scarcelj any thing about St. Athracta ex-> 
cept what they took from him, and follow him even to her having 
flourished in the 5th century, to which period they assign also 
Coeman of Airdne-Coemhain. It appears that they did not exa- 
mine the history of either of these saints with much attention. 

§. X, SL Fechin, (129) who is the first named 
among the priests of the third class of Irish saints, 
was a native of the territory, in which St. Athracta 
had her nunnery, that is, of Lugne. (130) Bile, 
or, as afterwards called, Bile Fechin, in the barony 
of Leney, is stated to have been the place of liis birth. 
His father was Coelcharna . a descendant of Eochad 
Fionn brother to the famous king Con of the hun- 
dred battles, and his mother Lassair of the rOyal 
blood of Munster. (131) When fit to be sent to 
school, Fechin was placed under St. Nathy or Nathi 
of Achonry, in whose monastery he remained until 
he made a considerable progress in learning and 
piety. How long he continued there we are not 
correctly informed. According to one account he 
staid with Nathi, until he was ordained priest ; (132) 
but according to another, which appears more con* 
sistent, he left that school several years before he 
was ordained and went to that of some other holy 
man. (133) Having finished his studies, and being 
raised to the priesthood, he left his own country for 
the purpose of leading a retired life, and arriving at 
Fobhar, now Fore in the county of Westmeath, 
stopped there, being very kindly received by the pro- 
prietors of that place. Here he erected a monastery, 
to which such numbers of persons were attracted by 
his reputation, that after some time his community 
consisted of about three hundred monks, (134) who, as 
well as their holy abbot,, subsisted on their own 
labour, (135) and were sometimes reduced to great 
penury. (136) Some other monasteries or churches 
are attributed to St. . Fechin ; but, with the exception 
of one or two of them, I greatly doubt whether they 


were of his foundation. {137) That he established 
a religious house in the island of Imnmgh near the 
coast of Galway (138) cannot be questioned^ The 
inhabitants were still Pagans when Fechin, taking 
with him some of his monks of Fore, undertook their 
conversion. At first he met with great opposition, 
and the people were so obstinate that they refused to 
supply him and his companions with even the neces- 
saries of life, so til at two of them died of want of 
food, whom, however, the Almighty was pleased, 
through the saint's intercession, to bring again to 
life. But Guaire, king of Connaught, being ap-* 
prized of their distress, sent them abundance of 
provisions. (139) When setting about the con* 
struction of a monastery, the islanders threw their 
implements and utensils into the sea, which, it is 
said, were driven back on land. At length Fechin 
succeeded in bringing all of them over to the Chris- 
tian faith, and baptized them. Their zeal became so 
fervent, tl^t they consigned themselves and their 
island to him as their master and superior. (140) 

(129) Colgan has published (at 20 January) two Lives of St. 
Fediiii. The author of the first was Augustin Magraidin, who 
died in 1405. The second, which is more copious and circum~ 
stantial was compiled by Colgan and his assistants fix>m three dif. 
ferent Lives of Fechin written in Irish. 

(130) See Not. 124. (131) A A. 55. p. 143. 
(132) Second Life, cap, 8. In this Life Nathi is represented 

as living for some time, apparently not inconsiderable, after 
Fechm, already a priest, had founded some monasteries. If so, 
Nathi must have lived to a great age ; for he was a grown up man 
before the death of Finnian of Clonard, (see Chap, xii. §, 3.) that 
is, before 552. Now it can scarcely be admitted that Fechin, 
who died of a plague in 665, was bom earlier than between 580 
and 590, or that he could have been a priest prior to between 610 
and 620. Supposing then Nathi to have been alive after Fechin 
had established monasteries, he would have lived until, at least, 
620 ; whence it would foll6w that he was very old when he died. 


(ISS) In the first Life we read (cap. 6.) that Fediin was 
stSl a boy, ^ benae indolis puer," when he removed to another 
school. ISh.gaiBg to this sdiool was very probably owing to 
Nathf » deaths which may be conjectured to have occuired about 
the beginning of the seventh century. What school it waa, or who 
was that other holy man, is not mentioned in the Life. He was. 
most probably Fintan Moeldubh. (See Not. 174. to Chap, xii.) 
Colgan has a fable concerning Fechin having been a disciple of 
Kieran of donmacnois, as if ^a man, who lived until 665 could 
have been the scholar of one that died in 549. Tet this stoiy is per- 
ha|)9 founded on truth misunderstood. Fechin might have baen 
at the great school of Clonmacnois, which used to be called Kie- 
lan's school or college. From its having been said that he studied 
there it might have been imagined that Kieran himself was his 
mastor. ¥Fhether the times answered or not was a point not. 
inquired into. 

(134)* First Life, cap. 10. Second, cap. 9. lb a bymn for 
the 0£Bce of St. Fediin we read ; 

Dehinc fuit monachorum 
Dux et pater trecentorum 
Quos instruxit l^e morum 
Mums contra vitia. Amen. 

ArchdaU (at Fore) has swelled the number to three thousand, 
and refers to Usher, who in the very passage referred to (p, 
1195. or, as in the London ^c^. 500.) reckons only three hundred^ 
quoting the lines now given from the h3rmn. 

(135) First Life, cap. 10. and 14. 

(136) lb. cap. 11. and Second Life, cap. 36. 

(137) It is said in the second Life, (cap. 8.) that Fechin prior to 
his going to Fore erected a noble church as Eas-dara (Ballysadarc, 
CO. SL'go ;) another at Bile, where he was bom, together with a mo« 
iii^tery called Kill-na-manach, t. e. cell of the monks ; and three 
churches, viz. of Druimratha, Eillgarvan, and Edarguidhe, a/« 
Ecclas-roog. In the first place I have to observe, that not one of 
these foundations is mentioned in the first Life, and that it gives 
us plainly to understand that the monastery of Fore, in which he 



presicM aver SOD Tdoeksy was FecfainV fust est^lishmeiit. As 
to Eas^cbun, the most we are bound to admit is, that* he hiiQt a 
cfawch there. It is true tfaitf: the monastery of thai pDkee poa» 
•essed some land called Tearmarm Feehiuy u 0. tha sacred ground 
of Fechin; but it does not follow that he founded the mo- 
nnsteiy, or that it was he that obtained the grants, by which il 
was enriched. Fechin's system, as appears from his conduct at 
Fore, was one of poverty and diflferent frOiD that of procunng 
estates for his establishments. If the monastery of Ballysadare 
had been founded by him, this would have been slated in the 
seeond Life as well as the erection of the churdi, in the same man* 
ner as the monastery at Bile is expressly mentioned besides the 
church. To account for the name Tearmann Fechirh it is suffi- 
cient that the church of Ballysadare, to which a monastery was 
afterwards annexed, had been denominated from St. Fechin as its 
founder ; or that, what is at least equally probable, that both the 
church and monasteiy, by whomsoever founded, were dedicated 
to him. 

That the church of Bile and the monastery of Killnamanach were 
not founded by Fechin seems almost certain, not only from their 
not being spoken of in the first Life, but from its being" expressly 
stated that, as soon as he was ordained {Hriest, he withdrew from 
his own country. Had he formed these establishments, among 
his relatives, would th^ not have been hinted at, and some rea- 
son assigned for his leavihg them ? It is no argument to say, 
diat Bile was called BWe-Fechin ; for the circumstance of his 
having been bom there sufficiently explains the reason of that sur- 
name. Li the passage of the second Life relative to these places 
the monastery of Killnamanach, as far as I undeiskand it, is repre- 
sented as at Bile. Colgan, however, seems C AA* SS. p. 143.) 
to distinguish them as differently situated. Perhaps this was the 
case ; for we findli Kilnamanagh not far indeed from Bile but yet 
in a place distinct from it. Harris and Archdall make them dif- 
ferent places ; but they had no right whatsoever to assign a mo* 
nastery to Bile, in the supposition of Killnamanach having been 
situated elsewhere. In this case there remains for Bile merely a 
diurch, according to the second Life, which is the only authority 
that can be produced for these pretended foundations of Fe- 


These writers have changed also Druimratha into a monastery, 
althou^ in said Life it is called only a church, nor does Colgax; 
dpeak of it otherwise. It was the same as Drumratt in the ba- 
rony, not, as Archdall says, of Lency, and near Ballysadare, but 
of Corran in the same county of Sh'go. Archdall mentions St. 
£nan as having been at Drumrath ; but this saint, who was ear* 
tier by many years than Fechin, belonged to Drumrath in West- 
meath. (See Not, 27 to Chap, xii.) 

In like manner Harris has without any authority placed an abbey 
at Kilgarvan, which he supposed to be in the county of Sligo. Arch- 
dall who with Colgan calls it Kilnagarvany is more correct. He 
speaks of it as only a church, and so it is called in the second Life, as 
likewise by Colgan, (A A, SS. p. 143.) who says, that it is a parish 
church in the district of Coistealbach. Archdall is right in placing 
it in Mayo and in the barony of Gallen. At present it goes by 
the name of Kilgarvy. It is situated very near the barony of Le- 
ney in Sligo. . Its old name KiU-na^garvan indicates, that its 
founder was not Fechin but one Garvan. 

Edaiguidhetis omitted by Harris and Archdall. All that Col- 
gan says of it is, that it was an oratoiy, somewhere, I suppose, in 

In the second Life {cap, 19.) Fechin is spoken of as being in 
his monastery of Cong (in suo monasterio de Cunga) in the now 
county of Mayo, barony of Kilmaine. I suspect that stto has 
been inserted without sufficient authority. In the first Life there 
is not a word about Cong, an omission veiy strange indeed, if 
that celebrated monastery had been founded by Fechin. Among 
the many abbots of Cong I do not find one called his comorhan or 
successor. Ware says, (Antiq. cap. 26. at Mayof that the mo- 
nastery of Cong was founded by Donald son of Aed, or Aidus, and 
grandson (not nephew, as in the English translation) of Anmirech, 
that is, Domnald 11. king of Ireland, who died in 64*2. (See Chap, 
XIV. $. !•) He assigns this foundation to A. D. 624* ; Harris adds, 
or 635. Whence Ware derived this information I cannot disco- 
ver. He observes that it is said, that Fechin was some time abbot 
there. .For thb, it is said, there is no other foundation than the 
stio of the second Life. Colgan has {A A. SS, p, 151.) a St. Mo- 
locus of Cong, whose name is in the calendars at 17 ApiiL It is 
very probable that, although this monastery might have been 


elected at the €iqpeiMe of king Donmald, Moloous was ita fiist 
abbot. He was the saint, whose name used to be joined to that 
of Cong, as we see m Colgan's Topogmf^cal Index (ii.) at Cunga. 
Such junction of names is generally indicative of the saints, who 
were either the founders, or the ftrst distinguished in the monas- 
teiies or churches, to which their names are annexed. 

In the same Life (cap. 22.) a monastery in Ard-oilen, <me of the 
Arran bles off the coast of Galway, is attributed to Fechin. This 
is evidendy a mistake ; for besides its not being mentioned in the 
Bnt life, it is well known that the patron saint of Ard-^ilen was a 
St. Coemhain, insoaouch so that from his name it was formerly 
called Ara^Coemhamy and its monastery and principal church were 
caUed KiU^Coemkain. (See Colgan, AA. SS. p. 715. and above 
ti^. 141. to Ckmp, xir.) Jn what Colgan has (ib.) concerning 
ibd-oileB, aldiough he treats of it very minutely, the name of 
Fec^m isnot even hinted at Harris, however, follows the story 
ef die second Life ; and Archdidl, to compromise the matter, says 
that Kill-Coemhain was founded by Fechin. Why rob St. Coemh- 
am of this foundation ? Archdall goes ferdier than the Life, which 
does sot ascribe KSl^Coemhain to Fechin, but exhibits him as 
erecting a nameless monasleiy in Ard-oilen, as if there might have 
been two in thpt ishmd. Bat the foct is, tiiat there was only one, 
diefounder of which vt«sCoem|iain* Another mistake (perhaps of 
tfaepre8s)]ahisaoooantof Aid-<^nistheoonfom;iding of Coonh- 
ain with Cokmb. 

Another pretended foundation by Fechin, is that of Tulach- 
Fobhuir, supposed to be nenr Naas. This place is mentioned in 
ike second Ljfe, (^sap, 92. f^qq*) but it is not stated tliat a mo- 
nastery was erected there. Colgan, when reckoning these establish- 
ments of Feehin, asaigns neither a monastery nor a diurdi to 
Tidach'Fobhuir. AH that is said of it is, that a king of Lanster 
made a grant of it, togedier with its inhabitants, mill, and the ad* 
joinii^ district, to St. Fechm. Would Fechin and his monks of 
Fore hav^ been poor and distressed, were they possessed of that 
fine estate? Ti/^eA-FoMairmeiins a landed property belonging to 
ftee, which this monastery acquired in its days of splendour, but 
certainly not in Fecbin's time. Notwithstanding no mention being 
made of a monastery, Harris has placed one there, and has been 



followed by Archdall, who was not nble to give any account 
ofit. ■ 

(138) Colgan says that, instead of the distinguished monastery 
of Immagh, in his time, there was only a parish church there, of 
which St. Fechin was the patron, as also of the island. It was in 
the diocese of Tuam. I do not find the name, Immagh^ used at 
present. This island is, I suppose, that now called Inismaih in 
the bay of Galway, and a rectory in said diocese. 

(139) Usher fell into a huge mistake, (/?. 1195. or, as in Lon- 
don ee/. 500) with regard to Guaire or, as called in Fechin's 
Lives, Guari. He thought that he was king only of the island of 
Immogh, and thence placed him among the paeons converted to 
Christianity by Fechin. Usher had read in the first Life, {cap. 12) 
<< Cumque rex terrae, Guari nomine, quod fiictum fuit audisset, 
victum copiosum cum suo calice viro Dei et suis transmisit.'' He 
supposed that by rex terrae was meant the king of the island ; a 
mighty king indeed ! But that plirase is relative to the province of 
Connaught, in which Immagh was comprized. Had he seep the 
second Life, in which the same circumstance is related, {cap. 22.) 
and where king Guari is called son of Colman, Usher would have 
been more correct. Even the context, as in the first Life, might have 
taught him that Guari was- somewhat more than king of Immagh. 
But, not being well versed in the provincial history of Ireland, he 
seems to have known little or nothbg about this celebrated and 
pious king of Connaught, whom we have often met with already, 
ex. c. Chap. XIV. J. 11. 

(14*0) Second Life, cap. 22. According to the first (cap. 12.) 
it would seem that the grant of the island was made by king Guaire. 
Be this as it may, said grant must be understood not as if Fechin 
became proprietor of the whole island, but that he was considered 
as the chief director, and, we may say, magistrate of the inha- 
bitants. It is on this occasion that in the second Life Fechin is 
introduced as erecting another monastery in Ard-oilen. (See Not. 
1370 ^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^> although the transactions in Immagh are 
equally detailed, there is nothing about his passing over to Ard- 
oilen ; and he appears as if having returned from Immagh directly 
to Fore. ~ . 


§. XL Among the many transactions, in which 


Fechin is t^id to have been engaged, it is related 
that, on occasion of Domnald II. king of all Ireland 
having marched with a great army into the country 
of the Southern or Meath Nialls for the purpose of 
fixing the boundaries of their principality, they ap- 
plied for protection to the saint, who happened to be 
then at a place called Tibrada, where, perhaps, he 
had some small establishment. (141) Fechin com- 
plied with their request, and acted so powerfully on 
the king's mind as to induce him to desist from any 
further proceeding against the Southern Nialls, be- 
tween whom and the king he procured a perfect re- 
conciliation. His inHuence was very great with the 
kings and princes of his time. An instance of it is 
given in the case of a young man named Erlomhan, 
whom Moenach, king of Munster, immediately dis- 
charged from prison on perceiving that Fechin wished 
for this act of grace. (142) Erlomhan afterwards 
embraced the monastic state under Fechin. In like 
manner he obtained from the joint kings of Ireland 
Diermit IL and Blaithmaic (143) the liberation of 
one Aedus or Aedan, a brave military man, who, 
on being dismissed from prison and given up to Fe- 
chin, went with him to Fore, where he became a 
monk. Several holy men are mei^tioned as united in 
friendship with Fechin, for instance Coeman or Co- 
main Breac, abbot of Roseach in JVjJ eath, ( 1 44) Ultan 
of Ardbraccan, Fintan Munnu, Ronan son of JBerach, 

(145) and particularly Mochua abbot of Ardslaine. 

(146) Fechin's life was one continued course of 
austerity, and he was so fond of solitude that he often 
used to retire from his monastery either of Fore or of 
Immagh to lonesome situations, passing his time in 
prayer, fasting, and other mortifications, and taking 
no food except now and then a little bread and wa- 
ter. Many miracles have been attributed to him j 
but the accounts of them are, in general, so inter- 
mixed with fables, that I shall not attempt to eluci- 
date them. (147) This great saint died on the 20th 

£ 2 



of January A. D. 665^ of the dreadfiil pestileiice that 
raged all over Ireland. His metnofy has been most 
highly respected, and the monastery of Fote, which 
continued down to the time of the general suppres- 
sion, was greatly celebrated, (l^S) and in the course 
of ages became Very splendid and wealthy. (149) 

(141) This place is mentioned in the second Life, cap. Sif. 
Harris (at Westmeath) assigns a inonastety there to Fechin, and so 
does Archdall, who calls it Tippert^ in, he says, the half barbny of 
Fore. Thus'it would be not far distant from the monastay of €hat 
name, Colgan also places (A A. SS, p. 14S.) a mitmaUfy at Ti- 
brada in Westmeath, but, not being able to give any a<k^unt of it, 
conjectures (ib. p\ 242.) that it might be Tibrad Ukaiii in that 
country where a church existed in liis times. Thk is, I stippose^ 
the Tippert of Archdall, who says that it is now a chapd. But 
even admitting that it was formerly a monasteiy, why attribute it 
to Fechin, rather .than to Ultan, whose name it bore ? There is 
nothing in the Life to show that he had a monaitery at Tibradfty 
except the mention made of a person there, who had the c&re of 
the pi^visiohs. It may be, howevier, that there was a cdi in that 
place dependent on the great nionabteiy of Fore. 

(142) Erlomhan*s mother hiEtd applied to Fechin to assist her in 
prodiring his liberation. He gave her a gold torques, wluch he 
had received as a present from Moenach, for the purpose of pur- 
chasing from him her son's release. On recognizing it, and as 
coming from Fechin, Moenach returned it to her, and at the same 
time discharged Erlomhan. (Second Life, cap, S70 Fechin had 
spent some time at Cashel {ib. cap. 14.) probably with this king, 
who was son to Flngen, and died, as Colgan observes, in 660. . 

(143) See Chap, xiv. J. 1. 

(144j A'A. SS. p. 140. He died on the 14th of September, 
A. D. 614, f. e. 615, as Usher states (Index Chron.) Archdidl 
calls Roseach Aosse, and places it at about a mile South-east t}f 
Tara. / 

(145) Honan was abbot of Drumshallon in the county of Loudi, 
and died of the great pestilence on the 18th of November in 065. 
(A A. SS.p.Ul.) ^ 
- (146) Second Life, cap, 44 and 49. Colgan was not able to 

CHAP* XYIi. QF lafil^AKP. 5 


give any acoDimt of this St«Mochua or of Atdslaine; norhaBHar- 
iiB or Archdall a monastery in that place. I believe it was at or 
near Slane in Mealliy Arddaine meaning the height of Slaney 
and am greatly inclined to think, that Mociiua was the same as 
Cxonan son of Silni; (See Net* 91 to Chap, xv.) It is well 
known, and remarked by Colgan, (AAm SS. p. S04?.) that Crenan 
was the same as Mockytu This alone is not a proof of identity j 
but as Cronim son of Sihii is reckoned among the illustrious men, 
who died in 665 ; (ii. p. 150* and Usher, Ind. Chron,) and as, ac- 
ocnding to said Life, the person, called Moohua of Ardslaine 
died about the veiy same time with Fechin in that year ; and as 
the name, Mockuoy does not appear In the list, given in the Irish 
annals, of the distinguished victims of the pestilence, it seems to 
me hi^iy probable that Mochua of Ardslaine was no other than 
Cronan, the son of Silni. He must not be confounded with Mo- 
chua or Cronan, abbot of Balla in the county of M^yo, who had 
beeen a disciple of Con^all of Bangor, and died in 6S7* (See 
Co^an A A. SS. at 90 Mart. 

(147} One of these strange accounts is relative to a Tirechan, 
who had gone to Rome, and whose mother applied to Fechin, who 
was then at Cashel, to procure his returning to her. It is said 
that, through the saint's command, Tirechan instismtly appeared 
before him in that city. (Second Life, cap, 14) Tlus is a per- 
verted statement of a probably real fact, viz. that Fechin sent an 
order to him to come bade to his mother, which Tiredian imme- 
diately complied with. Colgan thought that this was the cele- 
brated Tirechan, who became a disciple of Ultan of Ardbraccan, 
ikflerwards a bishop,- and, as some say, Ultan's successor in that 
see ; and who wrote the Memoirs of St. Patrick so often quoted by 
Usher. The times agree very well ; for Ultan« who died in 657, 
was contemporary with Fechin. If Colgan's opinion be correct it 
may be justly supposed that Tirechan, the writer, was a native of 
Cashel or of its vicinity. The name of St Tiredian is marked at 
the 3d of July. 

(148) Urfier observes fp. 966.) that Fore was called Baile- 
Leabhair or the fotow of books, whence it appears that learning 
was much cultivated there. Some of its abbots were bishops ; 
but Harris had no right to suppose, that it was at any time a re- 
gular episcopal see. 


(149) See Archdall at Fore. 

§• XII. In the latter end, viz. on the 29th of De- 
cember, of said year, died of the same pestilence 
St. Aileran surnamed the Wise. (150) His name 
is sometimes written Hekran^ Aireran^ or Ereran. 
He was very probably the priest Airendanus . of the 
third class of saints, (151) and who alone, of those 
mentioned in it, now remains to be sought for. 
Very little is known relative to the history of 
Aileran, except as far as concerns his writings. 
This much is certain, that he presided over the 
great school of Clonard, (15^) not as abbot or 
bishop, but as principal professor, A tract written 
by him is still extant, in which the mystical mean- 
ing of the names of our Saviour's progenitors, as in 
the Gospel of St. Matthew, is treated of. (153) 
Although small, it exhibits, besides a great share 
of ingenuity, very considerable biblical and theologi- 
cal learning. Aileran wrote also a Life of St. Pa- 
trick, or at least, some Memoirs concerning him. 
(154) This work is lost, (155) as likewise some 
treatise of his on St. Brigid. (156) He is referred 
to (157) as having given an account of the proceed- 
ings of St. Fechin in the island of Immagh ; but it 
cannot be hence concluded that he drew up, as 
some have thought (158) an entire Life of that 

It might be conjectured that Aileran was the 
author of the three books De Mirabilibus Sacrae 
Scripturae. (159) The times agree very well } for, by 
whomsoever written, he was employed on their 
composition in the year 655. (160) The learning 
displayed in this work is such as to render it worthy 
of being attributed to Aileran. But it seems more 
probable that the author was a monk either of 
Clonmacnois or of Cork. (l6l) 

Among the many persons carried off in said year, 
by the pestilence are reckoned also Ultan, abbot of 


Clonard, and two abbots of Clonmacnois, Colnian 
Cass and Cumin. (162) 

(150) A A. SS. p. 140. and Usher, Ind. Chron. 

(151) Usjier having (;?. 967) proposed a conjecture whetlier 
Airendanus was the same person as Aileran, adds, << or was he 
rather Aired," who is mentioned by Capgrave as contemporary 
with St. Maidoc of Ferns, Usher says that Aired lived in a place 
called Airdsinnaidh. In the Life of Maidoc published by Col- 
gan, which, however, has no mention of Aired, it is called (cap* 
8) Ardrinni/gh, and spoken of as near Mount Beatha, or Slieve- 
Beagh in the part of Monaghan adjoming Fermanagh. Colgan 
observes fAA. SS. p, 216.) that St Aired's name is in some ca- 
lendars at 26 August. 

(152) A A. iSS./). HO. 

(153) It has been published by Sirin among the Collectanea 
Sacra of Fleming, and republished in the Bibliotheca patrum, 
Tom, 12. LyonSy A. 1677. Its title is, Interpretatio mystica 
progenitorum Christ i, and it consists of two parts, in the former 
of which the signification of the names is inquired into and 
shown to contain prophetic allusions to Christ; for instance 
** Abraham, pater excelsus" The author then applies the mean- 
ing to our Saviour by referring to the prophecies concerning him, 
such as that of Isaias ; Vocahitur nomen ejus admirabilis, SfC. 
Thus at Isaac he writes ; " In Isaac gaudium, dicente Angela 
ad pastores, ecce annuntio vobis gaudium magnum^ Sfc. The se- 
cond part, which consists of moral explanations deduced from 
said significations, is imperfect as it ends witli Eliacim and two or 
three words about Azor. Usher {p. 966.) makes mention, from 
Sedulius the younger's Collectaneum on Matthetv, of this tract 
under a very apposite title ; Typicus ac tropologicus genealogiae 
Christi intellectus, quem sanctus Aileranus Scottorum sapientissi- 
mus exposuit." 

(154?) See Chap, in. §, 5. 

(155) We have seen, {ib. §. 4.) that Colgan was mistaken in 
' attributing to Aileran or Eleran what he calls the Fourth Life 

of St, Patrick, 

(156) In the prologue to the sixth or metrical Life of St. 
Brigid (See Not, 18 to Chap, viii ) we read ; 


'' Scripfieruiit miilti virtotes viipiiis lUmae 
Ultanus doctor, atque EHeraniks ovaiis, &cJ* 

(157) First life of FecbiD, cap. 12. 

(158) Colgan AA. SS. p. 140. Ware and Harris, {Writers^ 
at AUeran.) 

(159) This veiy learned work, which had been erroneocisiy at-' 
tribiited to St. Augustin and printed among his works in the 
early editions of them, may be been in the Appendix to the third * 
volume of that of the Benedictines. It is an abridgment of the 
history of the Bible, intermixed with a multitude of theological 
and philosophical dtsqutsitions, tending to elucidate it, and dear 
away the diffiodties that occur. In the first book the sacred his- 
tory is treated of as far as it' is given in the Pentateuch ; in the 
second down to the end of the Old Testament ; and in the third 
that of the New. The style is good and clear ; and the author 
was well acquainted with general history and the ancient philo- 

• (160) The author having observed (L. 2. c. 4.) that Manchan 
the Wise, or, as his name appears in the printed text Manichaeus, 
died in the last year of the eleventh cyde of 532 years, that is 
A. D. 652. (see above Not, 81.) adds that the third year of the 
twelfth cycle was that, in which he was writing. It was therefore 
665- Hence it is dear, that Manqhan the Wise of Menodrochit 
was not, as some writers have imagined, the author of the work 
De MirabilibuSf &c. for nothing is more certain than that he died 
in 652. (above (.6.) and Ware was right (at Manchinan) in re- 
rejecting this o[»nion. 

(161) Plreixed to the work is a dedication b^iiming with these 
words ; " Venerandissimis urbium et monasteriorum episcopis et 
presbyteris, maxime Carthaginensium Ac^ustinus per omnia sub- 
Jectus optabilem in Chnsto salutem." The author then adds, that 
he had been ordered by his superior Eusebitis, who died in the 
interim, to undertake this work ; and towards the end of said 
deidication makes mention of Bathan as one of these, apparently 
the Carthaginensiumy whom he is addressing, and a master of ^ 
his. He mentions also another of his] masters M anchinanus nL 
Manctiianus ^' Ab uno enim vestrum^ id est, Bathano, post pa- 
trem Manchinanum si quid i]^eOige»(iae a4cli4i/- &c. That Car- 


ikagmensium is tti erratina is suffijciently plain, unless m shonlid 
suppose that it refers ^to Lismore that is, to the institution of St. 
Carthagh. But other dioiinstances do not agree with this con- 
jecture. It is probably a mistake either for Quanensium or fiir, 
what comes nearer to it, (Jorcagietmum, In the former vuppofi- 
tion we have Clonmacnois, of which the abbot Aidhlog or Aedhlqg 
died m 652 (above Not. 99), a time well correspondii^ wit)i th^t 
of the injunction to wrke laid upon the author. Jf tlie name 
Aedhlogus was in his text, a continental transcriber might hfive 
softened it into Ensebius. As to Bathan, there is no diQcuHy ; 
for the superior of Clonmacnois at the time of the authpr^ writing 
was a Badian or. Baithan. (See § 7.) Yet there are s^ng reasons 
for supposing that this author belonged rather to Cork. Among 
the learned men of £t. Ennbar's scbooi I ^nd Eulangius orj J^uIq- 
gius, and Baidian. (A A. SS. p. 680 and 750) JSv^ivj mjj^t 
have been easily cfaaqged into JStt^ebW. The times coiteqsond ; 
for these persons flourished in the first half of the seventb pen- 
tury. It may be some jCORoboration of this conjecture th^ the 
author «eems to have lived not fiur firom the sea. He ofl^ spfaks 
of the various sorts of tides, calling the greater oqqSi or ih» 
spring tide, Malmth and the lesser ones Ledo. liis mentk>ning 
Manchinanus affords us no assistance in this inquiry ; as there ispo 
hint that he bebnged to the community of which the author wps 
a member. This Adbndnnanus was most piobably ^Jiv^chm the 
Wuey whose name appears dsevhere in the week, coiruptly 
written Manichaws. From the maiuier, in which our aujthor ipeaks 
of Manchinanus, it seems that he had been a pupil of l^s bef(^ 
he went to study under Balban, or that Manchinanus had imtten 
som^hing on the Scriptuces, by which he was assisted in his re- 
searches. There was in those times another Maochanus (nr Man- 
chinanus (for they are the same name) who was sumamed Leth $ 
but nothing is said of his learning, and all that I find concerning 
him, is, that he diedof ihe pestilence in e^ (A A. SS. p. 982.) 
and that he seems to have been abbot of Laitbmore. (iSeo the 
Litany of Aettgus, A. p. 539.) The diief difficulty in this 
question arises flwn the name AugusHnuSf under wWch the au- 
thor spears in the ptmted text. No person of that ^ame, a very 
rare one rfdd in IiAod, is spoken of in our histfwy ns livv^ in 
die times *at Ate ^woA^as rnabom. ft i«, in aU pr?*^l)Hty, a 


corruption of somie Irish name latinized, perhaps Jengussius 
or Eugenius* Did other circumstances agree, I should suspect 
that it was written by raistakie for Aileranus. That the author 
was an Irishman and composed his work in Ireland is self evi- 
dent. Besides his hiaving been connected with Bathan and Man- 
chinanus, who were certainly Irishmen, his noticing in a particu- 
lar manner (L. 2. c. 4.) the death of the wise Manichaeus or 
Manchan, is a proof of it. Treating (L. 1. c. 7.) of how cer- 
tain animals could have made their way into islands, he asks ; 
" Who, for instance, would have imported into Ireland wolves, 
stags, wild boars, foxes," &c. ? Why mention Ireland preferably 
to any other island, unless he was living and writing there ? The 
Benedictine editors say, that he was either an Englishman or an 
Irishman. For his having been an Englishman they could not alledge 
a single argument ; nor does he ever speak of England. Had they 
known that Bathan and Manchinan were downright Irish names, 
they would not have thrown out this conjecture ; nor, had they 
been' better acquainted with Irish history and topography, would 
they have isaid that, instead of Carthaginensium, the original 
word was perhaps Cantuarensium, or Cambrensium, or Kilken' 
niensium. There was no monastery at Kilkenny in the author s 
times ; lEind as to the name it is much more -unlike Carthagi- 
nerisium than Corcagiensium, and even more than indicating 
other names Irish monasteries, ex c: Clonarden'Suyn, Clontnac- 
noisensiurUy &c. The conjecture as to Cantuariensium and Cant" 
irensiwm is set aside by the fact, that the author was addressing 
Irish monasteries. In a notice to the reader premised to an edi- 
tion of this work {ap. Opp, S. August. Tom, S. Basil, A. 1569) 
it is ignorantly observed, as if to show that the author was neither 
English nor Irish, that there are no wolves, wild bears or foxes in 
either England or Ireland. But we had, in his days, plenty of 
wolves and wild boars in Ireland, and we still have foxes. 

(162) A A. SS. p 150. This pestilence is csalled by Irish 
writers Buidhe Chonnuilly u e. the yellow jaundice, and appeared 
in Ireland on the first of August, A. D. 664, It seems to have 
begun earlier in England, where, as Bede relates { / . 3. c. 27.) 
having depopulated the southern parts it, penetrated into the Nor- 
thumbrian province and swept away a vast number of people. 
He adds that it raged also in Ireland;; and il^is said that only a 
third part of the inhabitants survived it. A very extraordinary 


eclipse of the sun had occurred in that year, not on the third, as 
Bede says, but on the first of May, as marked in the Annals of 
Ulster, which add, that during the summer the sky seemed to be 
on fire. (See Usher, p. 94*8. seqq. and Ind. Ckroru at A. 664, and 
also Colgan's Ind^ Chron. to AA^ SS). 

§. XIII. In the preceding year, that is 664, was 
held the celebrated conference at Whitby concerning 
the Paschal question and some other points of ec- 
clesiastical discipline. Colman had succeeded, in 
66l, (l63) Finan in the see of Lindisfarne, having 
been sent from Ireland for that purpose. (164) He 
was very probably a native of Connaught, and. ap- 
parently of the now county of Mayo. (165) He 
was a monk of the Columbian order, and had, we 
may suppose, spent some time at Hy. (l66) But 
at the period of his appointment to Lindisfarne he 
seems to have been living in Ireland. (I67) Not 
long after Colman's arrival in NorthumberFand the 
controversies relative to Easter time and to some 
other ecclesiastical matters, were again revived and 
carried on with greater warmth than they had been 
even during the incumbency of Finan. (168) This 
was owing chiefly to the exertions of Wilfrid, who, 
after having spent part of his early years among the 
Irish at Lindistarne, had gone to Rome, where he 
became perfectly acquainted with the Roman com- 
putation and other practices, and afterwards received 
the tonsure at Lyons according to the mode followed 
at Rome. (I6y) On his return to England Wilfrid 
had an opportunity of displaying his zeal for the 
Roman observances, having acquired the friendship 
of Alchfrid, son of king Oswin, and who, jointly 
with his father, ruled the Northumbrian kingdom. 
Alchfrid was instructed by him in ecclesiastical 
learning, and became so much attached to him that 
he made over to him the monastery of Rippon, 
(InhrypamJ having turned out the monks, to whom 
be bad already granted it, because they refused to 


di^iii^e the Iri^h practiees for the Roman. (170) 
'MMamme Agilbert^ bishop of the West Saxons, (I7I ) 
aecompaiiie^ by a priest Agathon, came to Northum- 
berlaiul, and, at the request of Alehfrid, ordained 
Wilfrid priest in his newly acquired monastery. A 
discussion having occurred there concerning the 
Fasch^ computfttiop, the tonsure, &c. it was agreed 
upoa that a synod or conference should be held, for 
t^e purpose of terminating these disputes, in the 
monastery or nunnery of Strenaeshalch, (Whitby) 
whjich was then governed by the abbess Hild. It 
wafs attended by the two kings, Oswin and Alchfrid ; 
by Coimw with his Irish clergy ; and by Agilbert 
with the priests Agathon and Wilfrid. This party 
was supported by JkcQb md Romanus, (17^) while 
Hild and ter community, together with the venerable 
bishop Cedd> (173) were on the side of Colman. 

(163) Usher, Jnd. CAron. 

(164) Bede writes ; (Z*. 3* c. 2^«) << JDefuufcto witem Finaao, 
cum CoUnanus in ^isoopMjum sucoeder^ et ipse missus a 
Scottift'\ &c That by $coHia he meABt Ireland, as he alwa^ 
doQS, is tpo clear to require furth^ demQnstration, and will be 
seen from the i^equel. His saying that Colman wa« sent fiom 
Ireland oqgbt jpecbqM to he understood not as if he went straight 
from Ireland to Lin^lsfame ; for Bede elsewhere seems to state^ 
that he proceeded tether frpm Hy« On occasion of mentioning 
his coming to that island «^ he left fingland, he writes, (£• 4. 
c» 4.) ** Venit ad insidam I^, unde erat ad praedicandum vor* 
bum Aoflorum gepti destinatus" But as Hy was considered as 
an Irish island and inhabited by Irish monks, Bede might in m 
g^eral way have 8aid> that Colman was sent from Ireland. 
Speaking of Finan's mibsion^ be has ^ (L. 8. €. 17.) " ab Hii 
Scattorum insiuln ac monast^rio destinatus." Yet his wokLb unde, 
&c. may be well explained as relative merely to the order lor lus 
undertaking l^e care o£ LJndi^rne halving emanated from 4^ 
monastery of Hy, whose Abbot was Ihe general superior of the 
whole Columbian i»rder, pf which Cofanan was a member. This, 
I thinks is the true meanjs^ of Bede> and it appears to be con- 


firm^ by his saying not that Colman returned to fiy, but diat 
he cdme to it On tfie other hand, ^en inei(itio1[iu)g his goibg to 
Irettnd, 'beSe uses the word, returned; *< in Scottsfffi regrestus 
at — Aeverso patriam Cblmdno;^ and expresses' his cfeparture 
fi^m "England by the phrase going kome^ dbiens atdem domum, 
(See L, S. c. 26.) Hence it is &ir to conclude, that Oolinan's 
home, before he was sent to Lindisfame, was not in Hy but 
in Ireland. 

(t65) The only proof, biit it is a strong one, of this position 
or conjecture is, that Colman, on his return to Ireland, went 
straight to Connaught, and formed a monastery in the island of 
Innisboffin off the coast of Miiyo, and afterwards another at 
Mayo. Why prefor this part of Ireland to any other, unless he 
had lived thei^ before he irerit to England? Bede, who ihien- 
tlons these establishments, and who tells us that Colman loent 
homey seems to point out that country ks his home. Colgan 
strives (TV. Th. p. 582.) to make it appear probable that Colman 
^as the same as Cbltlmban of the Briun fomily, who is spoken of 
by Adamnan ( VU. 8. C. L. 2. c. 16.) as having beisn at Hy in the 
time of St. Columba, and then a young man. 'His mighty argu- 
ment ruAs thus ; Colman Was a Connaught man ; atqui the Briun 
or Hy-briuin race were of Connaught ; ergo, &c. On this wretched 
tnode of arguing he builds his hjrpothesis, which elsewhere {tb. p. 
488.) he delivers as certain. How could he have imagined that 
Colman of Lindisfame was an immediate disdple of St. Colum- 
ba? Had he been so, and the same as said Columban, he oould 
not, in the most favourable si^position, have beeil less than 20 
years of i^e at the time of St. Columba's death in 597. Thus he 
should have been 84 years old, when, he was appointed to the 
arduous duty of governing the great diocese of Lindisfarne, com- 
prizing an entire kingdom. If that Columban of the Briuns had 
been raised to this see, would Adamnsm have neglected to record 
his promotion ? Much more might be observed on this strange 
hypothesis, were it worthy of further animadversions. 

(166) Of this point I do not find any positive proof. Yet it >i» 
veiy probable; whereas it is natural to think, ^t the abbot 
and other superiors of Hy would not have appointed him to Lin^ 
diajfame, had they not been personally acquainted with him. Li 


the &bulousXife of St. Gerald of Mayo it is said, that Colman be- 
came abbot of Hy. Colgan endeavours (TV. Th, p. 382 and 
488.) to support this absurdity, which, however, he adoiowledges 
elsewhcve {A A, SS- p. 602.) to be very very doubtfuL What time 
could be found for Colman's abbacy ? The succession and times of 
the abbots of Hy are perfectly well known. Cumineus Albus was 
abbot when Colman was sent to England, and since the year 657- 
(Above §> 8.) And what makes the matter worse, in said Life 
Colman is made the immediate successor of St. Columba, although 
it is very probable that he was not born at the time of this saint's 

(167) See Not. 164. (168) See Chap. xv. §. 14. 

(169) Fleury L. 39. § 35. (170) lb. and Bede L. 3. c. 25. 

(171) Agilbert was a native of France, but for the sake of study- 
ing the Scriptures had spent a considerable time in Ireland. Bede 
mentioning (£,. 3. c. 7.) liis arrival in Wessex says ; " Venit in 
provinciam de Hibemia pontifex quidam, nomine Agilberctus, na- 

. tione quidem Gallus, sed hunc legendarum gratia Scripturarum in 
Hibemia non parvo tempore demoratus/' Agilbert became after* 
wards bishop of Paris. 

(172) See Chap. xv. §. 14. (173) See ib. §. 15. 

§. XIV. The debate was opened by the kingOswin, 
who entertained no partiality on the subjects to be 
treated of, and had been rather favourable to the 
system of the Irish, by whom he had been instructed 
and baptized. He observed that, as they all equally 
served God, and expected the same kingdom of 
heaven, it was right that they should, in like manner 
follow the same observances, and that it was fit to in- 
stitute an inquiry which was the true tradition, and 
that this should be adhered to by them all. He then 
directed his bishop Colman to speak first, who said ; 
" The Easter, which I observe, I have received from 
" my elders, who have sent me hither as bishop ; and 
" all our fathers, men beloved by God, are known to 
" have celebrated it in the same manner. It is that, 
** which, as we read, was celebrated by the blessed 
" Evangelist John and all the churches, over which 


" he presided.*' On this latter point Colman was 
mistaken, as has been already remarked. (174) 
After some other observations by Colman the king 
called upon Agilbert to state his practice, aitd on 
what authority it rested. He requested that Wilfrid, 
who was of the same opinion with himself, might be 
allowed to speak ip his stead, as he could not express 
his sentiments as clearly by means of an interpreter 
as Wilfrid could in his native tongue. For this de- 
bate wa3 carried on in Irish and Anglo-Saxon, Cedd 
serving as interpreter between both parties. Then 
Wilfrid, by order of the king, thus addressed the 
assemby. " The Easter, which we hold, we have 
" seen celebrated by every one at Rome, where the 
" blessed apostles reter and Paul lived, taught, suf- 
" fered, and were buried. We have seen it also in 
*' every part of Italy and France, that we have tra- 
^^ versed. It is observed, and at one and the same 
" time, in Africa, Asia, Egypt, and Greece, and, in 
" short, by the whole Christian world, except by our 
" adversaries and their accomplices, the ricts and 
'^ Britons.'* On Colman's appealing again to the 
authority of St. John, Wilfrid answered by allowing, 
that St. John retained, indeed, the Jewish Pascb, 
whereas in the commencement of the church it was 
thought expedient not to immediately reject all the 
practices of the Mosaic law. On the contrary, St. 
Peter, looking to our Saviour's resurrection on the 
day next after the Sabbath, followed a rule different 
from that of St. John. " But after all," added Wil- 
frid, " what has your system to do with St. John's ? 
" He celebrated the Pasch on the 14th day of the 
** first month without caring on what day of the 
" week it fell ; while you never celebrate your Easter 
" except on a Sunday, so that you do not agree 
** either with John or Peter, nor with the Law or 
" the Gospel." Wilfrid was very correct in these 
remarks on Colman's erroneous position as to the 
practice of St. John, but far frona being so in what 



he hfts at sotne length concerning the Paschal regula- 
tions estahii^hed by St. Peter. He supposed that the 
Paiseluil system at Rome in his time was the same as 
t^t, ^ieh bad adways prevailed there from the com- 
meneemeiit of its church. This was a great mistake, 
as has been shown elsewhere ; (I?^) and it is unne- 
cesBify to trouble the reader with this part of Wil- 
frid^s discourse. 

(i74) Not. 24 to Chap. xv. (175) Ohnp. xv. passim. 


5. XV. Colman then alleged the authority of 
AncttoUus as hiving lasd down, that the Paschal days 
were from tl^ 14th inclusive, to the 20th of the 
first moon. To this Wilfrid replied that the day, 
called by Anatolius the 14th, was in reality the same 
as that, which l&e Egyptians reckoned as the 1 5th. 
But he would not have been able to prove this as- 
sertion. (176) Colman had asked, whether it could 
be supposed that their most revered father Columba 
and his holy successors, who followed the Irish sys- 
tem, entertained bad sentiments or acted contrarv to 
the Scriptures ; men, whose sanctity was proved by 
miracles, andjvhose example and rules he endeavoured 
to adhere to in every respect. Wilfrid acknow- 
ledged that they were holy men, and that, as they 
were not acquainted with the true paschal system, 
their not observing it was of little detriment to them. 
*^ And,'' he added, ^^ I believe that, had they been 
" rightly informed on the subject, (177) they would 
^' have submitted to the rules piroposed to them, in 
*^ the same manner as they are known to have ob- 
** sef ved the commandments of Grod, which they had 
^* learned. But you and your associates certainly 
commit sin, if after having heard the decrees of 
the Apostblic see, nay of the universal church, and 
these confhmed by the holy Scriptures, (ITS) you 
disdain to follow them. For, although your fa- 
*^ thers vr^e saints, is their small number from aeor- 


" ner of an island in the extremity of the world ( 179) 
** to be preferred to the whole church ? And, how- 
" ever holy and great performer of miracles your 
" Columba was, could he be preferred to the most 
" blessed prince of the Apostles, to whom the Lord 
** has said : Thou art Peter^ and upon this rock I 
** wiin>uild my churchy and the gates of hell shall 
** not prevail against it ; and I will give unto thee 
" the keys of the kingdom of heaven ?^* The king 
then said : " Is it true, Colman, that the Lord has 
thus spoken to Peter ?'* He answered that it was. 
The king added : ** Can you show that so great a 
power was granted to your Columba ?*' No, replied 
Colman. The king continued : ** Do you agree on 
" both sides, that this has been said principally to 
" Peter, and that the Lord has given to him the keys 
" of the kingdom of heaven ?" " Undoubtedly** was 
the general answer. The king then concluded: 
" Now I tell you, that this is the gate keeper, whom 
** I will not contradict, and whose decrees I wish to 
* ' obey as far as I know and am able ; lest on my 
" arrival at the gate of the kingdom of heaven 
" there should be no one to open it for me, as he, 
" who holds the keys, would be against me.** Thus 
the question was decided, and the assembly at large 
dedared in favour of Wilfrid. (180) 

(176) See Nol. 1. to Chap, xv. Smith observes, {Appendix 
to Bede, No. ix. p, 703.) that Colman was perfectly right in what 
he stated concerning the rule of Anatolius, and that Wilfrid's ail- 
swar was unfounded and good for nothing. 

(177) Fleury remark8(X. 39. }. 36.) that Wilfrid seems not to have 
known, that St. Columbanus understood the subject very well. He 
thought that the Columba, whose example was alleged by Colman, 
was Columbanus of Luxeu, who was certainly fully instructed on 
the state of- the question. (See Chap, xiii. §. 4-.) But the Columba 
meant by Colman, as also by Wilfrid, was Columbkill of Hy. 
This is a mistake very easily fallen into on reading Bede's' narra- 
tive, unless particular care be taken to recollect, that Colman l^d 



l)een a monk of Colun^bkHlfS Qistitution. As Cohmia and Co' 
lumhdnus vfcte the same name, (see Nat* 1. to ChtFp, xiiii) and 
as the latter observed the Irish method equally iviththe former, 
i am not surprized that Fleury made this mistake. I fell into it 
myself, in the hurry of writing some years ago ; (hitroductiont bg 
IrenamiSf to the Protestant Apology /or the Roman CathoHc 
Churchy p, cxliv. Dublin, 1S09.) but at that time I had no idea 
of undertaking this work, or of being obliged to dip deep into the 
ecclesiastical history of Ireland. 

(178) Wilfrid here assumes grounds, which he had. no daim to. 
Where did he find it orda*ed in the Scriptures to prefer the . 
Alexandrian cycle of 19 years, then followed by the Romans^ to 
that of 84 years Used by the Irish, and for a long time by the 
Romans themselves, or to that of 532 years, which also had pre- 
vailed at Rome ? Or where have the Scriptures determined on 
what day of the first moon Easter should be celebrated, or even 
that it' celebrated at any time? But, it may be said, 
Wilfrid's meaning was^ that the Alexandrian, or new Roman, 
rules were more conformable to the account given of the time of 
our Saviour's resurrection inasmuch as it took place after the 
14«di day. If the paschal day were to bie determined by what we 
read in the Gospel, it would follow that Easter could never be 
celebrated earliei^.than on the 16th day, as had been the practice 
at Rome ; (.See Chap» xv.) whereas, the Friday of the passion 
having beeA the 14th, the ^Sunday of the resurrection was the 
16th. Now Wilfrid mluht^ns that the 15th was the first regular 
day for the solemnity of Easter, (see Bede £. 3. c» 25.) and in- 
i^sts upon it 'as if it were a nde of faith ; and- another great 
stickler for the Alexandrian method, Ceolfrid (or rather Bede, 
who seems to have been the c^ief author of Ceolfnd's letter) in- 
veighs against those, who wait^-for the 16th (See AW. 27. to 
Chap. XV.) Yet the fact is,', that, were Easter day to be fixed 
according to the. Oospcl-feirtory, the 16th should have been 
Waited for; and thus Wilfrid and his adherents> initead of foSow- 

r • • • 

ihg the Scriptures as they supposed, were acting ' against them 
as much ais the Irish, who thought that Easter might be celebrated 
on th6 14th, But it was never made a general rule of the Church 
to make Easter day correspond exactly with air the circumstances 
of £he time of the Resurrection ; and accordingly it was not 


UlQSight neoess^ry to attend to the whole intervali &at elapsed 
between it. afid (he Paasion. 

Wilfnd speaka also of, decrees of the universal church in 
&vour of his sfystem. . Where did he find them ? There were 
such decrees against the Quartadedmans, and ordering that 
faster should be always cdebrated on: a Sunday. The Irish 
observed these decrees, and were far fit>m beif^ QuarCadecimans* 
But tliere was no decree enjoining the whole chuTch to adopt the 
Alexandrian cycle and ruleis. Those of the general councils of 
Iffioe and the first of Constantinople contained no such order ; 
and, if they had, the Roman church itself would have been long 
guilty of disobedience, whereas it opposed fiaid cycle until about 
.the middle of the sixth century. When the clergy of Rome in- 
their letter to Thomiatii &c, (see Chap* xv. §, 11.) speaks of a 
heresy concernii^ lihe Pasch as revivii^in Ireland, it is plain tliat 
tHofiiy imsunderstood the question, imagining that some of the Irish 
fpliowed the condemned system of the Quartadecimans. ThiB prac- 
li^^ indf^ was, in Wilfiid's time, very general: against Colman's 
^^y» which* had been already dkninished by the secession of 
l^e. Soutln^m half of Ireland. But practices, however extensive, 
are not akine. suCdent for constituting an article of £uth, (See 
Vgron,. BkgvlaJ^Jei Catholicae, §* 4. No. 4.) Eved at lihat 
tine die whole of the Alexandrian ifiethod was not adhered 
taxisDnas. ports of the contineDt^ (See Not 97 • to Chap, xv.) 
ColmaBi and. his^ associates were ^certainly very blameable 
ftr persEsdng in a pftejtice so contr^ to that of the far greatest 
fen e£ Chnstendom^ and, • in itself, of so indifierent a liiatur^. 
Thsir only apolt^is the extreme veneration entertained by 
llieni for fihe memory of CohimbkiS. Oti the other hand it is sar- 
fOBBg^ that such m&a, as Wilfnd and Beife could have considered 
ibis: question as one of doctrine, of faith, of vital in^rtance. It 
was a dispute of mere astronomical calculation, similar to that be- 
tween die abettors of the Gregorian or new style and those of the 
likl onev Neither faith nor morals were in any wise connected with 
it As long as the old style continued to be followed in these 
hipgdoiBS, our CathoMcs used, with the Pope's consent and per- 
mmon, to edebrate Easter and the other festivals of the year at 
tones diffeiseorfirom those, in which th^ were observed at Rome 
and cdievkere. Would this have been allowed, were the fixing of 

F 2 


of Easter time, &c. considered as appertaining to faith ? So far 
from an adhesion to the Irish cycle and rules having been supposed 
at Rome to be indicative of heresy or schism, some of its greatest 
supporters, after the disputes concerning it had begun, ex. c. 
Columban of Luxeu, and, even afler admonitions from Rome had 
been received against it, ex. c. Aidan of Lindisfame, are held 
there as saints ; and the two great men now mentioned are par- 
ticularly named in the Roman martyrology. 

(179) The island meant by Wilfrid seems to be Hy, as that in 
which Columba and his successors, the fathers referred to by Col- 
man, had lived. 

(180) Bede, L.S.c.25. 

§. XVI. It had been intended to treat in this 
conference concerning also the mighty question re- 
lative to the clerical and monastic tonsure ; but the 
king's declaration, which implied that he would 
follow the Roman practices in all points, prevented 
the necessity of discussing it. Yet there existed 
great disputes about it ; (181) and Wilfrid's party 
looked upon it as a matter of primary importance. 
The Romans themselves thought little about it ; 
and I do not find that in any of the admonitions 
from Rome, or of the complaints of the missionaries, 
the tonsure is at all mentioned. But their ultra«or- 
thodox English converts made vast noise about it, 
thinking that nothing was good or could be tolei*ated 
except what was practised at Rome. This is not 
the place to enter largely into the origin and varie- 
ties of the ecclesiastical tonspre. ( 1 82) The difference 
between the Roman one, a^ used since the times of 
Gregory the great, and that of the Irish, consisted 
in this, that the Romans shaved or clipped very 
close the crown of the head, leaving a circle of hair 
all around, (188) while the Irish shaved or clipped 
only the fore part of the head as far as both ears, 
allowing the hair to grow at the back between them. 
The English advocates for the Roman ^ tonsure 
maintained, that it was practised by St. Peter, and 



gravely asserted that the Irish one was that of 
Simon magus. Where they met with this notable 
discovery, I am not able to tell ; yet this was the 
terrible ground, upon which it was reprobated ; 
(1«4) for as to various modes of the tonsure, they 
were allowed to be, in general, harmless things. 
(185) But the fact is, that neither St. Peter nor 
Simon magus had any tonsure either circular or se- 
micircular ; and the Irish and the Roman ones 
were equally innocent and blameless. The English 
disputants constantly supposed, that every ecclesias- 
tical practice observed at Rome in their times, had 
been established by St. Peter. How or at what 
particular time the Roman tonsure originated, no 
account remains; but the Irish seem to have re- 
ceived theirs from St. Patrick (186) who had seen 
it observed by some monks of the continent. (187) 
And hence it is easy to understand, why they were 
so strongly attached to it. Yet it yielded at last, 
although not as early as the period we are now 
treating of, to the Roman fashion ; and its dissolu- 
tion proceeded, hand in hand, together with that of 
the Irish paschal system. For, as soon as any party 
of the Irish or their adherents adopted the Roman 
cycle and rules, they received at the same^time the 
Roman tonsure, as had been done by the Southern 
Irish since about the year 633. 

(181) Bede says; (ib.c. 26.) " Nam et de hoc (the tonsure) 
quaestio non minima erat." 

(182) Smith, on occasion of treating of the tonsural dispute 
(Append, to Bede, No* 9.) has an excellent dissertatidn on the ton- 
sure in general. The reader may consult also Pleruy, InstituL au 
Droit Eccles. Part. 1. ch.5. and Bingham, Originesy &c. B» vii. 
ch. S.sect. 6. It is now universally admitted, that until some time 
in the fifth century there was no tonsure peculiar to the clergy, and 
that it meant nothing more than the clipping of the hair so a& to 
wear it short, a practice followed by all Christians both lay and 
clerical. As the term coronet was, after the introduction of the 


tonsure now undentoody applied to it on account of its round fiMnoi, 
some writersy for inrtance BeDannine ( Tern, 2. L, 2. De Monachis^ 
cap, 40») have argued, that it was meant by the corona sacerdatalis, 
which is often mentioned by the ancients. St. Jeiome writmg to 
St. Augustin . says ; *' Fratres tuos dominum meum Alypium, et 
domimim meum Erodium, ut meo nomine .salutes, preoor coronam 
tuam^ But this cdrona'WBR usually relative only to bishops, and 
it became a technical phrase to address them by coronam tuamy 
or vesframy as we would say, your honour. (See Bingham, B. 2. 
ch, 9- sect 4f.) Of the numberless passages, in which it occurs, 
there is not one that indicates an allusion to the tonsure. This 
phrase is constantly used as meaning dignity or honoto:, and seems 
to have been introduced to mark the power of bishops, in die dame 
manner as the royal crown does that of kings. Thus Alypius in 
a letter to Paulinus : " Ad venerandum socium coronae tuae patrem 
nostrum Aurelium ita scripsimus." Paulinus and Aurdius were 
both bishops ; and what can socium coronae tuae signify except a 
partnership in episcopal authority ? Its being used iri Holy writ as 
expressive of glory, or of whatever causes respectability, authorized 
the application of it to bishops. We read in Proverbs, xviu'6* 
Corona senumJiliiJUiorum ; and St. Patd writing to the Philip- 
pians calls them (iv. 1.) his croum, inasmuch as their good conduct 
added dignity to his character. That St. Jerome did not mean by 
corona the ecclesiastical tonsure is evident from the well known 
passage of his Commentary on Ezechiel xliv. 20. where he says, 
that " we ought neith er to have our heads shaved as is ^one by the 
priests and worshippers of Isis and-Serapis, nor on the 6ther hand 
to wear our hair long, a fashion peculiar to luxurious persons, bar- 
barians, and soldiers ; but the priest's face should indicate a decent 
demeanour, without making the head bald with a razor or clipping 
this hair so close as to make it appear ad if shaven, allowing our hair 
to grow so as to cover the skin.'' This moHe, recommended by St. 
Jevome, was indeed a sort of tonsiore; but h was not peculiar to 
the fclergy. That, which ledlerwafd^' became 'a distinctive marie of. 
the clerical order, originated; in ^1 appearande, with soifie tironks-, 
chifefly of the Edst, who, in sigri^6f repentance aiid affliction, had 
their heads shaved, ei^ier entirely or in part. The Greek nionka 
used to shave tlie whole head, or, at l^ast, to clip all the'hvr 
quite close to the skin. Julian the apostate, when pretending in 


the re%n of Constantius to be a leal.nook, had his hair ^I^yped 
in this xnazmer. Others had their heads only half shaved or shorn, 
that is» from the forehead to the back of the head. St. Paulinus 
of Nolasays (Ep. 7*) of (be monks <of'his time, thitt they were 
<< ccLsta informiiate capUlur^ ad cuienn Cuesh ^ inc^qualiter semv' 
ionsh ^ (kstUtUafrorUe praeroMi." Henoe it appears that, at least 
in the Western church, there was no determined or pret^bed 
|brm of the monastic tonsure, tlien the only one, about the be- 
ginning of the fifth century. From the monks the tonsure, whe- 
ther of one sort or another, gradually passed to die secular cletgy, 
portly through the circumstance of monks having been raised to 
high stations in the church, yet still retaining their pracdoes, 
some of which were imitated by their subordinate clergy ; and 
partly owitfg to the monasteries having become seminaries for the 
education of persons intended for holy orders, and who, while re- 
siding in them, used to observe their regulations. 

(18S) This tonsure is still practised by some religious orders, 
and is much larger than that usually observed by the secular cleigy 
in Catholic countries. . The surrounding circle of hair is that, 
which was,: strictly speaking, called the corona^ and was, when 
mystical' interpretrations were introduced, supposed by some to re-» 
present the crown of thoams placed on tlie sacrsd head of our 1^-" 
viour. Others have exhibited it as an emblem of the royalty of 
the Chria;ian priesthood. . , 

(184) In.Geolfrid's letter we read;. '^ Tonsuram earn, quam 
Magum fernnt habuisse Simonem, quis, rogo, iidelium tion statim 
cum ipsa magia primo detestetur et merito exsufflet ?" Akihelm 
and others allege the same tremendous chaise. (See Usher, ^e 
924.) Ceolfiid ad& another lamentation on the Irish tonsure not 
exhibiting a. pei^ct corona, being, defective at the bade of the 
head. An unknoi#n wiseacre advanced, that the author of llie 
Irish ton^nre was a ^wine herd of king Leogaire, {»etending that 
St. Patrick had said so. (Usher, ib.) Bravo i - • 

(185)' In .the same letter it is sakl,' that << tonsunte discrimen^ 
non noceat quibus, pura in Deum £de8 et charitas in proxiifbum 
sincera est; maxime cum nunquam Patribus catholicis, sicut de 
Paschae vel fidei diversitate coniBictus, ita etiam de tonsurae dif* 
ferentia legatur aliqua fuisse controversia." Ceolfrid and his as- 
sistant Bede knew that the Greek tonsure differed fiom the Ro- 


tnan, as eiKempUfied in the case of Theodore, afterwards ardibislHip 
of Canterbuiy, by Bede himBetf (Zr. 4. r. 1) ; for Theodore^ while 
a monk, bad his whole bead shaved and wanted the corona. 
Bede says that this was the tonsure of St. Paul. I wish he had 
told us whence he derived this piece of information. 

(186) In the catalogue of Irish saints (ap. Udier, p. 915.) it 
is said that the first class, whidi b^an with St. Patrick, had one 
only tonsure, fi'om ear to ear, ab aure usque ad aurem^ viz. 
which went over the fore part of the head. The second class also 
observed it and no other ; but the members of the third class had 
not a uniform practice, some of them having the corona^ (as tlie 
Romans had) and others the caesaries, that is, their hair growing 
at the back of the head over the neck.. We find in the sixth 
canon of the synod called, of St. Patrick, Auxilius, and Iseminu8> 
(see Chap. vii. (.3.) a clause ordering that all clerg3rmen should 
be tonsured in the Roman manner. Admitting that the remain- 
der of said canon was drawn up in that synod, this part of it is 
evidently an interpolation thrust in by some stickler for the Roman 
tonsure. It is easy to see, that there was a contest about the 
form of the tonsure at the time it was written. Now in St. Pa- 
trick's days no such contest existed in any part of the world ; and 
it is more than probable, that during the pontificate of Cdestin 
I. when our Apostle was at Rome, the tonsure, called the Ro- 
man, was not used there. ( See Fleury, Instit. au Droit, Sfc, Part 
1. ch, 5.) It is strange that Usher allowed himself to be led astray 
by. that spurious clause so as to lay down, (p, 924.) that the ton- 
sure first introduced by St. Patrick was really the one known by 
the name Roman. Had it been prescribed by him, the Irish 
would not have dared to substitute another in place of it. 

(187) It is a mistake to suppose, that the semicircular tonsure 
was peculiar to the Irish and Britons. St. Paulinus, who was a 
native of Gaul and died in 431, the year next before St. Patrick's 
arrival in Ireland, speaking of some monks whom he knew, de- 
scribes their tonsure just as we might that of the Irish. He says 
that they were half tonsured, and the fore parts of their heads 
shaved; semitonsi et destituta Jronte praerasu (See above Not» 



Colman not agreeing with the decision of the Synod 
respecting Easter^ resigned the See of Lindis- 
fame — is succeeded by Tuda — Rata appointed 
bishop ofLindisfame — Colman took with him to 
Ireland some of the bones of St. Aedan, and lefi 
the rest at Lindisfarne-^Venerable Bedels testis 
mo7iy in favour qf Colman and his predecessors at 
Lindisfame — Several qf the nobles and others qf 
the English at this time resorted to Ireland for 
edtication — Colman^ on leaving Lindisfame^ took 
with him all the Irish, and about 30 qf* the Eng- 
lish monks qf that establishment — goes to tiie 
island of Inisbqfinde, now Innisbqffin — erects a 
monastery tJierC'-founds a Monastery at Maigh-eo 
or Mayo for the English monks, and leaves the 
Irish in the island^ resides in Inisbqfinde himself 
until his death in the year 676 — Diermit and 
Blathmac, joint monarchs of Ireland, die of the 
pestilence in 665, and are succeeded by Seachna- 
sach, who being killed in &71 is succeeded by 
Kenn/belius^^Kennfoelius killed by his successor 
Finnacta, who after a reign of 20 years, was 
killed at the battle of GrektchdoUa in 695 — St.Mo- 
lagga founds a monastery and school at Tulach- 
min — dies there — St. Finan the Leper — governs a 
monastery at Swords — is the reputed founder qf 
those qflnisfalkn and Ard-Finan — St. Cudbevet 
or Cuthbert, said to be an Irishmann^EgJrid, 
king qf Northumberland, sends an ea:pedition into 
Ireland'^they land on the East coast between 
Dublin and Drogheda — destroy churches and mo- 
nasteries, and carry a:way many captives-^this in- 
justice done by Egfirid, in revenge for the shelter 
given to his brother Alfrid by the Irish — Alfrid 
succeeds Egfrid in the kingdom qf Northumber- 
land, and is called on by Adamnan, abbot ofHy 


to restore tfie captives and property carried off 
from Ireland by ^gfrid^s pirales^^Failbe^ abbot 
of Hy — Adamnan again visits Alfrid — Another 
Adamnan^ a priest — Mailduff or Mnildulf an 
Irishman^ an eminent teacher at Malmesbury^ the 
first name of which was Ingebom — A monastery 
founded here hy Mailduff from which the place was 
called Maildufsburg^ since changed into Malms- 
bury—'Dagobert^ son of Sigebert kiyig of Aus- 
trasioj educated in Ireland — afier his return to 
Austrasia patronizes several Irishmen^ amongst 
which were SS. Arbogast and Fhrentius-'^Theo* 
datus or Deodatus — Hildulph or Hidulf^Eber^ 
hard or Erard — and Albert — all natives of Ire- 
land, accompanied FlorenUtis to th^ Continent, 
and became famous there-^St. JViro of Rttre- 
mond an Irishman — St. Dysibod accompanied by 
several persoris leave Ireland, and go into Ger- 

. many^i-^donius ^SednaJ an Irishman went to 
Rome with St. Aiideon or Owen, archbishop of 
Rotienr^St. KiUah Apostle of Franconia — a^- 
sisted in his labours by Coloman and Totnan who 
accompanied him from Ireland — St. Cataldus or 
CathaiduSj d native of Ireland — Donatus, a bro- 
thet of St. Cataldus, reckoned among the bishops 
of Lupiae or AleHum, now I^cce—Maldogar 
mhcip of Ferns di^S, afid is succeeded hy Dirath 
^St.Qmum and other Irish sain^-^SL Cera or 
\ Chier dnii five, other virgins apply 'to St. Fintan 
MwfMU^for a situation to establish a nunnery--^ 
Tdch^teUe'^Killchore or Kilcreaafew miles Jrom 

^Hork'-^^^i Ossan — revered at Rath-ossain, near 

. the tVe^tygate ^fTrivrh^St. Becan ofCtonard— 
Segen archbishop qf Armagh dies, and is suc- 
ceeded by *Flm Febhlor-^St. Moling, ot/ierwise 
taUedDdyrchelt; bishop of* Ferns succeeded by the 
bishop iand-abb^t Killen — St. Egbert and several 
ecclesiastics who had been educated in Ireland, 

.^undertook missions to the Continent — WilUbrord, 


or Vilbrord, and Suidherf mth seMral oAers 
sentjrom Ireland to preach the Oaspel in Fries- 
land — Adamnan^ abbot of^ Hy-^Synod of Flan 
Febhlan and Adamnan^-^'Canom-Of Adamnan-'^ 
St. Aidus or Aedh bishop of Sletty^-^olga ^bbot 
ofLusk — St. Kilien abbot of Saigir-^t. Mos- 
acra^ founder and abbot q/* Tegh^sacra, since 
called Tassagard, and fww Saggard — and St. 
Machonnay all attended the synod qf Flan 

SECT. 1. 

GOLMAN, although silenced by the king's logic 
and its approval by the assembly, did not renounce 
his Irish practices, but resigned the see of Lindis- 
farne, alias York, in the same year 664, which was 
the thirtieth from the commencement of the episco- 
pacy of the Irish in the Northumbrian kingdom, 
Aedan having governed that see for seventeen years, 
Finian ten, and Colman three, (l) He was suc- 
ceeded by Tuda, who had studied in the southern half 
of Ireland, and had been ordained bishop there. In 
consequence of his having lived in that part of Ire» 
land, Tuda observed the Roman practices as to the 
tonsure (2) and the Paschal computation. He had 
pome from Ireland during the administration of Col- 
man, whoiti he assisted in his pious labours^ After 
his appointment he lived but a very short time, hav- 
ing been carried off by the great pestilence ; and after 
his death the see was re-established at ' York. (S) 
Yet Lindisfame was not quite abandoned ; for, al- 
though none of the Irish monks chose to remain 
there, some of the English ones did, over whom was 
placed an abbot Eata, a disciple of Aedan, who, it 
is said, had been recommended for that purpose by 
Golman to the king Os win, who was vety f6tid of 
Colman. Eata was, some years after, appointed 
bishop of Lindisfarne, which thenceforth coiitinued 


to be an episcopal see in itself. Colman on leaving 
that place, and setting out for his home in Ireland, 
(4)-took with him a part of the bones of St. Aedan, 
and left the remainder in the church of Lindisfarne. 
** How disinterested,'* continues Bede, *' and strict 
** in their conduct he and his predecessors were, the 
** very place, which they governed, testified. On 
** his departure very few buildings were found there 
*' except the church, and not more tlian were abso- 
** lately necessary for civilized life. They had no 
** money, possessing only some cattle. (5) If they 
** received any money from the rich, they immedi- 
** ately gave it to the poor. For there was no ne- 
** cessity of collecting money, or of providing habi- 
** tations, for the reception of the great of this world, 
** who never came to their church, except for the 
<* purpose of prayer and hearing the word of God. 
** The king himself used, when occasion required, to 
** come with only five or six attendants, and to de- 
*^ part as soon as he had finished his prayers in the 
** church. And if it should happen that they took 
** some refreshment, it was merely that of the simple 
•* and daily fare of the brethren j with which they 
" were content, requiring nothing more. For the 
** entire solicitude of those teachers was to serve 
" God, not the world ; to cultivate the heart,,not the 
"belly. Consequently the religious habit was at 
" that time in great veneration, so that, to whatso- 
" ever place a clergyman or monk might come, he 
" was joyfully received by all as a servant of God ; 
** and should he be observed travelling on a journey, 
" ihe people used to run up to him and bending their 
" necks received his blessing with gladness, and di- 
** ligently listened to his exhortations. On Sundays 
^* they flocked with eagerness to the church, or the 
** monasteries, for the sake, not of refreshing their 
" bodies, but of hearing the word of God ; and if 
" any of the priests should arrive in a village, the in- 
" habitants immediately assembling, took care to ask 



" them for the word of life. For the priests them- 
" selves, and the clergy in general, had no other 
" view in going to the villages than to preach, bap- 
*' tize, visit the sick, and, in short, the care of souls. 
" And so little were they infected with the plague 
" of avarice, that they would not, unless compelled 
" by powerful personages, accept of lands or pos- 
** sessions for constructing monasteries. This sys- 
" tern was in all its parts observed for sometime 
** after in the churches of the Northumbrians." (6) 

During the time that Finian and Colman pre- 
sided over this vast Northumbrian diocese, many no- 
bles and others of the English nation were living in 
Ireland, whither they had repaired either to cultivate 
the sacred studies, or to lead a life pf greater strict- 
ness. Some of them soon became monks j others 
were better pleased to apply to reading and study, 
going about from school to school through the cells 
of the masters ; and all of them were most cheerfully 
received by the Irish, who supplied them gratis with 
good books, and instruction. T?) 

(1) Bede, L. S. c, 26. It is remarked by Simeon of Durham 
that the pontificate of the Northumbrian province, comprizdng 
York, was held for 30 years by the bishop of Lindis&me. Be- 
sides Aedan, &c he mentions Tuda. See Not. 107 ^to Chap. 


(2) Bede (lih.) writes of Tuda ; " Habens juxta morem pro- 
vindae iUitis coronam tonsurae ecclesiasticae, et Catholicam tem- 
poris paschalis regulam ojsservans." fleuiy, having misunderstood 
this passage, exhibit^ (L. 39. $. 37.) Tuda as tonsured like the 
Irish, but yet observing the Roman rules for Easter. This was 
not the meaning of Bede, whose words, jtixta morem provinciae 
iUius, are relative not only to the tonsure but likewise to the pas- 
chal computation. By the custom of that province he alluded to 
the difibrence, that existed between the practices of the Southern 
Irish, whom he calls Scotlos Austrinos, and those of the Northern, 
who still adhered to the old Irish modes, which the former had 
many years before renounced. And what renders his meaning 


^qiigls:^^Hr:Jaiii3 miyitigy that Tuda nadtfae con^na, ODranmn: ^<m- 
Mahie"€ddfosiaauiie./^^otcdronA wad" the exelusiye name of the 
RMia^'^iofllUKI, «^1i6#^tiii.tKe dftmiok<JuIatfrm^ sucH aa prs^ 
ltt£d:b^l2hrtKMh^ tti^B,' there T»a& no ^fim>«a. (Cimipam iwith 
^M$^.^\8$i^4^Hii! CbA^i.'!^^ Whatton adds (Anglkv Sacra 
Tjiki(iip^'M9^Yw^QeAe'i^ Scot^ Aust^^ seupiatos. > 

>Tbif is<0 f^'uy^firBied additi(»i. B6d«< never coiifi>Cind^rth^ 
i!icte<^;iitklk' the^. SkSotii^ ' Besides, doed Jiot Bede expnesilypdfod^y 
dmttl^dttvhasd^ come from Ireland? The Scots, asnttigfitnliohi 
h^VcfstOdi^VMo^Mthcf Roman. pmetiee&; but aU die Bii- 
dianSQdei^4(tf lho6li3>times:4d&^ed4^ the)I^ 

• (8X13^-kifig Oswih ^tioedioh the> see of Yotk^^ in prelbimbe 
td y^mid, €ei(dd^; a- bifo^tt^ of bishf^ . Cedd, and 'a dudi^e : 6£ 
,A!«^ldt Lint^rtlfi^ 4IB lik^^se^ali ifiiitator of his Tiitues and 
IjikOM'^ral e^aL pswip still retained a gieat, partiality for the Itish 
^Mi'Ohtir diso^l^. (See Bede, L. S. cOSl Eddis' 1^ of fm. 

frk,^!^ Fiej^yL. 59. §. 37.) 
m -See i^. 164- to Ckap. xviu 

• (S) Bede's WordB sHe ; " Ni^peoahiarimi a&s^e t)e^!0HiMiir habe^ 
4aht>" 'IRiey are trainslated by Fkuiy («^.) as if thipse hdymai 
had neither money nor cattle. Hut^hepilrtide ajiSf^cotr^KQI^ 
I think, the meaning, which I have' given. It is difficult to sup- 
pose, tliat they had not, at Feast, some cows* and shdi^, wer^ it 
iaierely fbr bdng suf^lS^d witlh milic, #hich wa&r mudi usMbytite 
Btsh nion^, aiid wool, df which the)' nfade their garii^Ms; 

(€^j' Bede, Z.'S. c. ^. flns fiStta^^tog account^ mwf be^efe 

sidered as descriptive of the practices and rules of the Irish nioiiI& 

and^ clergy in general, and henee ^e maf jcTi^^ w&t little 

credit is due t6 the stbribs of i^me hiagf^ldgiin^^ #h^ talM ^geem 

States granted to ou^ monasteriesr 9ind iSftatt^e^ bs^ t^ief^ ml 

even ea^li^ times* " - 

(7) Sede hlt^gobddffsdd that: Oiel^ea^ peaOetMse mgedakb 

*^^BtmiTibidm 6^ tM^^f^a^fndti d6lshain.8is)iil^«f niedirarium di^ 
feik^-A^^rdM^ fUi^ todfiptyie Fimot et Colmani 0p»CN)poni«9, 
nSIix^ iiasyik pk»im- ^ . dSAkam kofiobk^ vbL cdntingnAkSilf vilk^ 
^k 41to ieS^^m^r Et quidam. qddeiQ iimx. ^ Amoa$6C9^ 
iconvS^fiiaidi^ Adeik^ mftfl^i^aktift, . aliijad4gis,.jcirailfaieund^ 
<!eUai-ina|t8tr€if^^ leiafefti>l>|>teuadaieg«ttddiwl>t;i qiia&; odhmk 


Scotii libentisfiime sufldjnentes'viGtam &b quoddianum sine pretio, 
libitis :qaoque ad l^iendum, et magist^rium gratuitum pmebere 

» ^ • 

§ • : ii« Colman departing from Lindisfamb took 
along with him all the Irish and about thirty of the 
English monks belonging to that establishment. On 
bis way towards Ireland he went first to By/'where 
hb ^seeihs to have remained but for a short time. 
Thence he proceeded to the small island called Ihis- 
boimde, (8) now Innisboffin, in the ocean, off the 
bftrohy of Morisk and county of Mayo. Here 
Colman erected a monastery, (9) in which lie placed 
the ntonks, both Irish and English, who had followed 
himriirom Lindisfarne. Sotne time after, a disagree- 
ment having occurred between the parties, (10) 
Colin an thought it ad viseable to separate the mem- 
bers of the respective nations, and, having found a 
spot fit for the establishment of a monastery at 
M^h-eo, now Mayo, purchased it from a nobleman its 
owner^ with a condition annexed that the monki§ to 
be pladed there should pray for him. The monastery 
beinff, with the assistance of said nobleman and the 
neignbouring inhabitants, soon completed, Colmah 
removed the English monks to it, (11) leaving the 
Irish in the island. ** This monasteiry,'' adds B^dti, 
^'^ is still possessed by English redidents. FOf i^"' h 
^ that,' whBch having become a large otie is usudly 
'^ idHbd M4iijgh'eo ( 12) and, better regulations having 
** belsn received there, contains a distisi^ished con- 
gregation of monks, who, being oolfec^t^dfioiii 
Eh^and, live by their own labour in grectf stf Ict- 
*' ness and'purity under a canonical rudb atid ab1)ot.V 
(Id) Of Coltnan^s further proceeditigi^ I find tid M- 
coiSht Except that be seeiM to have resided ehiefly ifi 
Inisbofinde (14) uiitii his death, .wltich dccttrred oh 
the Stb of August (15) in the year 676. (16) = 


(8) Inifbefinie tneailB, as Bede has rightly observed, (L. 4. c. 


4) the island of the ivhite ctm. This Inisbofinde must not be 
confounded with an island of the same name in Lough-ree (that 
of St. Rioch,) as has been done by Smith, (^NoU ad loc) who fol- 
lowed one passage of Usher^ without taking notice of another, 
in which he corrected himself. (See Not, 176 to Chap, viii.) 

(9) According to Usher ( Ind. ChronJ) this monastery would 
have been founded 664*. Yet the Annals of Ulster, quoted by 
himself (p. 964. ) assign the sailing of Colman to Inisbofinde, 
and his founding a church there, to 667> and are followed by 
Colgan, (A A. SS. p. 423. ) If this date be true, we must sup- 
pose, that Colman remained much longer at Hy, than Bede seems 
to indicate, or than Usher supposed. For. according to Bede, 
{L. 3. c. 27.) the year 664 was that, in which Colman left 
Lindis&me, and it cannot be believed, that he was mistaken on 
this point. Either then the Ulster annals are wrong, or it must be 
allowed that Colman and his companions tarried about three 
years in Hy, waiting perhaps until the great pestilence should 
totally subside. Archdall, following Colgan, places the founda- 
tion of Inisbofinde, or, as he calls it, Bophin island, in 667. 

(10) Bede states that the Irish, whom, as usual, he calls ScoHi^ 
went in summer and harvest time from the monastery to various 
places, which they were acquainted with, per nota sihi loca, and 
that on retunung in winter they wished to partake in common of 
the articles which the English had prepared during their absence. 
This was thouight unfair and gave rise to jthe disagreement. It is 
plain that the places visited by the Irish monks were in Ireland, 
and, we may suppose, cliiefiy their native ones as being well 
known to them. It may also be justly conjectured, that they were 
principally in Connaught, the province nearest to Inisbofinde. Will 
it be now pretended, that the Scotti of Lindisfame were British 
or Albanian Scots ? 

(11) Usher, adhering to his supposition, which is indeed very 
probable, of Colman having returned to Ireland soon after his de- 
parture from Lindisfame, assigns (Ind. Ckron.) tlie foundation of 
the monastery of Mayo to A. 665y and is followed by Ware 
{Afitiq. cap* 26. at Moyo.) Yet it might have been at least a year 
later ; for it took place after the winter, in which the dissension 
occurred, and after the monks had spent at least one sununer in 
Inisbi^nde. It is hard to think that they could have been well 

CHAP. XVIII. OF iueland; 81 


settled there in that of 66if, and it seems more probable that the 
winter next prior to the establishment at Mayo was that of 666p 
coming 666. Archdall also has (at Mnyo) followed Usher as to 
A. 665, a very awkward computation on his part, whereas he 
places the foundation of Inisbofinde in 667. (See Not, 9.) Did 
he not know, that this establishment was prior to that of 
Mayo ? 

(12 J In the old editions of Bede we find, instead of Muigh^eo^ 
Invigeo which Usher has, p. 964?. But he observes, (Ind. Chrofu 
A. 665) that the true reading is Muigeo ; and so it appears m 
^Smith^s edition. It is evident, that Invigeo was an erratum of a 
transcriber, who mistook M for In ; and Archdall had no right 
to say, that Mayo was sometimes called Invigeo, 

(13) Bede Z. 4. c. 4. By saying, that the English monks of 
Mayo had adopted better regulations, than they had at first ; 
conversis jamdudum ad meliora instituta omnibus; he alluded 
to their having received the Roman cycle, &c. which, as will ap- 
pear from what will be seen hereafter, they did as early, at least, as 
the year 716. Colgan pretends, (A A. SS. p. 605.) that this mo- 
nastery was of the Benedictine order, and asserts, I am forced to 
say, most ignorantly, that even Colman belonged to this order, 
and that the monks of Hy had already received its rule from 
ages. He confounds subsequent ages, in which Hy adopted Be- 
nedictine regulations, with much older ones. How he could have 
imagined that Colman was a Benedictine may appear unaccount- 
able ; but he found that Trithemius, Yepes, and some other Be- 
nedictine writers had said so, and had made all the Columbians 
Benedictines. This was enough for honest Colgan, who be- 
lieved almost every thing that he met with in books, withoijit 
caring whether what he found in one were, or not, in opposition 
to what he read in others. The fact is that, wherever the Irish 
system, maintained by Colman, prevailed, there were no Bene- 
dictines ; and Wilfrid was, as he boasted of it, the first that intro- 
duced the Benedictine rule into the Northumbrian kingdom after 
the departure of the Irish (See Noi, 237 to Chap, xii.) If Col- 
man had been a Benedictine, would he have opposed the Roman 
practices as to Easter, &c. which were strictly adhered to by that 
4>rder not only m Italy, where it originated, but in England and 


every where else? Or would the English monks, who followed 
him to Ireland, have done so, had they been Benedictines ? 
Poor Archdall, in obedience to Colgan, bas (at Mayo) followed 
these strange mistakes. 

Usher observes, [p. 964«.) from the book of Ballymote, that 
in Adamnan's time, about the latter end of the seventh century, 
there were 100 Saxon (English) saints at Mayo. /From the 
English establishment in that place it has been called Maigh^eo na 
Sassotiy u e. Mayo of the English. It became in course of time 
a very respectable town and the see of a bishop, but is now re- 
duced to a petty village, situated a few miles to the S. E. of 
Castlebar, in the county to which it gives its name. 

(14) In the Ulster annals {ap. Usher, p. 964) he is (Med bi- 
shop of the Islandof the White cow, that is, Inisbofinde, whiere 
also the 4 Masters [ap. Tr. Th. p. 383.) place him as bishop. 

(15) 4 Masters, ib. 

(16) Usher, Ind, Cbron. from the Ulster annals, which have 
el5 (676). The 4 Masters (ib.) assign it to 674 (675). Arch- 
dall In his blundering account of the monastery of Mayo 
speaks of Colman, as if he lived until 697. He confounded the 
year of Colman's death with that, in wliich Usher, and after him 
Colgan, supposed, erroneously indeed as wiU be seen hereafter, 
that St. Gerald of Mayo died, 

§. Ill: AtMotig the distinguished persons, that died 
of the great peistrlehce in o65, were the joint kings 
of all Ireland, Diermit II. and Blathmac. (17) 
They were succeeded by a son of 'the latter, Seach- 
nasach who, having reigned six years, was killed in 
671. After him his brother Kennfoelius or Kenn- 
foelaid was raised to the throne, which he held only 
four years, having fallen in battle, A. D. 675, fighting 
against Finnacta his paternal first cousin, and son of 
Donchad. Finnacta succeeded him, and reigned 20 
years until he was killed in the battle of Greallach- 
d6llain695. (18) 

One of the Irish saints, who survived that mor- 
tality, was St. Molaga. (19) He was born in the 
territory of Feramugia,'a part of the now county of 


Cork, (20) of poor but pious parents, and is said to 
have been baptized, when an infant, by St. Cummin 
Fada. (21) Molaga received his education in his 
own country and, having distinguished himself by 
his piety and learning, established a monastery and 
school at a place there called Tulachmin. (22) He 
is said to have afterwards visited other parts of Ire- 
land, particularly Connor in Ulster, and even to 
have passed over to North Britain, and thence pro- 
ceeded to Wales, where he spent some time with St. 
David. But this visit to St. David is quite incon- 
sistent with the rest of his history, and with the 
respective times, in which they lived. (2S) Molaga 
seems to have had some establishment in the district 
near Dublin, now called tFingall. (24) At length 
he returned to Tulach-min, where he died on a 20th 
of January in some year subsequent to the time of 
the gr^at pestilence and consequeatly later than 665» 
His festival used to be celebrated on the anniversary 
of that day at Tulach-min, and at a place called 
Lann beachaire in Fingall. (25) He must not be 
confounded with other saints of the name of Molaga 
or Molocus, Whether he was the Molagga, from 
whom Timoleague (Teach-molaga) in co. Cork got 
its name I cannot determine, as I do not find that he 
ever lived in that place. St. Finan, sumamed Xo6- 
har^ or the Leper, from his having been afflicted for 
thirty years of his life with some cutaneous dis<* 
temper, flourished in these times. (26) He was a 
native of Heli, (Ely O* Carrol) then a part of Mun- 
iter, and of an illustrious family. It has been 
strangely said that he wa3 a disciple <^ Columbkill, 
and placed by him over the monastery of Swords. (27) 
But Finan was not, in all probability, born until after 
Columbkill's death, and his having been mistaken 
for a disciple of this saint was caused perhaps by his 
having been, as may be conjectured, a monk of the 
Columbian order. He certainly governed a monas- 
tery at Swords, which he was; most probably, the 

G 2 


founder of. (28) Two other monasteries are con- 
stantly attributed to him, viz. the celebrated one of 
Inisfaithlen or Innisfallen (29) in the lake of Kil- 
larney, and that of Ardfinan, the high place ofFinan^ 
in the county of Tipperary. (30) Finan spent some 
part of his life, apparently as abbot, in the monas- 
tery of Clonraore, which had been founded by St. 
Maidoc of Ferns. ^31) But the house of Swords 
was that, in which he seems to have chiefly resided, 
(32) and where it is probable that he died. ("33) 
Yet,- if it be true that he was buried at Clonmore, as 
one account states, (34) it must be allowed that this 
was the place of his death. Be this as it may, St. 
Finan died during the reign of Finnacta, monarch 
of Ireland, and accordingly some time between 
675 and 695. [S5) The day of his death, was very 
probably a first or second of February, (36) although 
in every martyrology, both Irish and foreign, in 
which he is mentioned, his name is affixed to the l6th 
of March. (37) 

{VI) See Chap. xiv. ^. 1. 

(18) Ware, Antiq, cap. 4?. and OTlaherty, Ogyg. Part 3. cap. 
93. The English translator of Ware has made Finnacta a nephew 
of Aldus or Hugh Slani. But he was his grandson ; for his &- 
ther Donchad was brother to Diermit II. and Blathmac, and con- 
sequently son to Aidus Slani. The translator, instead of render- 
ing the nepos of Ware's original by grandson, mistook it for nc" 

(19) Life of St. Molaga, cap. 22. Colgan translated this Life 
from Irish into Latin, and published it at 20 Januaiy. He la- 
ments that in several parts it is imperfect. 

(20) Feramugia is called at present Roche's and Condon's 
country. The name is still retained in that of the town of Fer- 

(21 ) Life, cap. 7. Concemmg Cummin Fada see Chap, xv, 
f. 8. 

- (22) 1 cannot find in the country about Fermoy any place now 
called by tliis name. In Molaga's Life some other places, which 


- 1 capnot discover, are mentioned as having been in those parts> 
ear. c, Liathmuine, which is represented as a famous town. 

(23) St. David did not live later than A. D. 593. (See Chap. 
IX. $.9.) How then could Molaga, who was i^ve after 665> 
have been the abbot of a monasteiy before David's death ? And, 
whdt comes still nearer to the point, we are told that Molaga was 
baptized by Cummin Fada, who was not bmn until 592. (Chap 
XV. j. 8.) How can this agree with Molaga*s being acquainted 
with St. David ? 

(21') It is said in the Life, {cap. 170 that Molaga placed a 
swarm of bees at a town in Fingall, and that said town was thence 
called Lann-^achaire. Lann or Llan means in Welsh what Kill 
does in Irish : and beach is the Irish name for a bee ; so that Lann* 
beachaire is the same as Bees-church or Bees'^M. It is added that 
these bees were derived from those, which St. Modomnoc had 
brought from Wales to Ireland. (See Chap. xiv. §. 5.) Whatever 
we may think of this story, the memory of St. Molagga was cer- 
tainly revered at Lann*beachaire in Fingdl, as appears not only 
from his Life, but likewise from the Calendar of Cashel at 20 
Januaiy. How that place is now called I cannot discover. 

(25) Life, cap. 22. (Compare with Not. prec.) 

(26) Colgan has endeavoured to put together the ^^cts of St 
Finan at 16 March. They-are very scanty and uncircumstantial. 
The Bollandists at said day have published a short tract, called a 
Life of Finan, which they got from Fltzsimon. It was written by 
some Englishman after the settlement of the English in Ireland, 
and is, though praised by the BoUandists, a wretched little com- 
[Hlation crammed with fables. It has the story about Finan hav. 
ing been placed at Swords by CdumbkilL 

(27) See Not* 109. to Chap. xi. 

(28) See ib. for ArchdalFs bungled account of this monasteiy. 
Ware makes no mention of it ; bnt Harris has followed the un- 
proved opinion of its having been founded by CoUunbkill. 

(29) Ware, having been led astray by the story of Finan's dis- 
cijdeship under Columbkill, assigns the foundation of Innis&llen 
to the sixth century, as does also Harris. ArchdaU, treating of 
this monastery, has some blunders as usuql. He makes Finan a 
son of Alild king of Monster, and disciple of St. iirendan, for 
which he refers to Colgan. Now Colgan, following several old 


writers, constantly calls Fman the son of Conall, who was a. de- 
scendant of the famous Aiild Oluin, a king that lived some hun- 
dreds of years before Euian was bom. As to his having been a 
disciple of Brendan, Cdgan has not a word about it. It is men- 
tioned also in the meagre account of Finan in Butla''s Live$ of 
SaintSy following the BoUandist Life, in which one Brendan is 
said to have taught Finan. Ardidall adds, that Dichull, son of 
Nessan, was abbot of Innisfallen in 640. On this point he is not 
quite so much to blame, except that he had not even Colgan's 
authority for marking any precise year. Colgan happenig (AA. 
SS. p,92.) to touch upon Dichull, one of the sons dP Nessui, 
confounded the Inisfaithlen, now Ireland's eye, (see Not. 61. to 
Chap, xi.) with the Inis^thlen or Inm'sjfallen of Kerry* But at 
15 March, where he treats expressly of the sons of Nessieai* he 
has guarded gainst tliis mistake. 

(30) Harris and Ardidall, following the mistake of F&um hav- 
ing been a disciple of Cdumbkill, assign this foundation to the 
sixth century. 

(31) See Ckap. xiv. §. 10. In the sketch of Finah's Life, ap* 
Butler, it is strangely stated, that he built the monasteiy of Clon-^ 

(S2) The Irish balendarists in enumerating the monasteries be- 
longing to Flnan always mention Swords first ; thus in the Calen- 
dar of Cashel at 16 March we read ; ** S. Finanus Lobhca fiHus 
Conalli^-^de Surdo, et de Cluaintnor Maidoci in Lagenis^ €t de 
Inis-faithlin in lacu Lenensi, de Ard-finain.'* In the account ap. 
Butler Swords is omitted ! 

(33) It id related in the Life of St. Maidoc, {cap, 62.) that 
there was a man, named Finan, who had lived 30 years in the 
northern part of Leinstery and that on the day of his festival (31 
January) this saint, accompanied by St. Brigid, appeared to 
Finan in a vision and announced to him that he was to be cedled 
out of this world within a day or two. Oblgan observes, tJiat ih 
/. en Irish Life of Maidoc this Fman is called Finan Lohhar, and 
it seems very probable that he really was tire St. Finan we are 
treating of. But Clonmore waS not, as C6^£m states, the pla<^ 
w^ere the vision is said to have occurred, as it was atuated-not in 
the northern but in the southern part of LeinSter. ff Finan the 
leper was the person meant in this narrative, as appears- almost 



certain, the scene of the yisioo was undoubtedly Swords, a town 
in-NortliXteinster; and consequently, according to this account, 
it was there that St, Finan, died, and 6n the lst<or 2d of Fe- 
bruary. Following the same supposition, viz. that Finan the le- 
per was the person here alluded to, we have aovadditional aigu- 
nientio show, that he lived at a lat^:pei^od tl^^ife^ assigned by 
Ware and others ; for he is represented as al^ve i^r the death of 
Maidoc, i, e, afler the year 6S2. (See Chap. xiv. $• 10.) 

(34) Colgan quotes from a little Irish poem on the church 
of Clonmore a passage, in which it ds s^ that the • body 
€£ St. Finan the leper was resting in that plaoa He attri* 
butes said poem to St. Moling of Ferns. If composed by this 
saint, there can be no question about the place of Finiaa's burial, 
^ and'Consequently death ; I say, consequently death, because, had 
h6 died elsewhere, eis. c. at Swords, or, as some have said, at 
Ardfiuan, it is not to be supposed that the monks of these estab- 
lishments would have given up his .entire remains to that of Clon-* 
more. But what authority have we for believing that St. Moling 
was the author of that poem? It was, I dare say, the com^iosition 
of a monk of Clonipore, perhi^s at aikte period, who, in honour 
of his monastery, wished to make it appear, that among the in- 
numeraUe reliques preserved there (see A A. SSL p. 277.) was the 
tohole body ,of St. Finan. It is probable that a part of his remains 
was to be&und in that collection, which might have been the case, 
although, as seems most probable, he died and was buried at 
^ords. That 'St Moling was not the author of the poem, is suffici- 
ently plain from the allusions in it to certain disputes concerning 
the place where the reliques collected by a St. Onchuo were de- 
posited. At what period this St. Onchuo lived, cannot be dis- 
4X>vered, .at least from the vague and confused account of him 
patch^ up by ' Colgan at 8 February. If he was contemporary 
with Finan the leper, as Colgan says, it would have been easy to 
know in St. Moling's time (the 7th century) wha*e he had left his 
cdlection of reliques, and the disputes on this point could not have 
then existed ; or if, as appeara much more probable, he lived at a 
later period than either Finan or Moling, he could not have been 
mentioned in a poem written by the latter. 

(35) Colgan* says (Finian's Acts) between 674 and 693, foDow- 
itig the 4 Masters, who marie these years for the rdgn of Finnacta. 


Hut their date 674 is the same ajs the 675 of Ware aiid others ; and 
their 693 is the same as 694, a date difiering only by one year 
from that of other writers. Archdall boldly lays down, (at Clone- 
more J that Finian died in 680. Where he found this dale, he does- 
not inform us. Yet (at Swords) he makes him die before 563, or,, 
at least, before the close of the sixth century* Bravo ! (See more 
Not. 109 to Chap, xi.) 

(36) SeeiVb^-33. 

(37) Cdgatt justly remarks, that this can be easily /iccounted 
for m consequence of the 1st of February being St. Brigid's day^ 
and the 2d that of the Purification of the Ifflessed Virgin. We may 
therefore suppose that, to avoid a cdlision, the festival c£ St. Fi- 
nan was transferred to 16 March. 

§. IV. The great St. Cudberet, or Cuthbert, bi- 
shop of Lindisfarne, was^ according to several dis- 
tinguished writers, bom in Ireland ; (38) but it is 
very probable, that he was rather a native of the 
Northumbrian kingdom, and of that part of it which 
is now comprized in Scotland. The name Cudberet^ 
if however it was his original one, indicates a Nor- 
thumbrian, not an Irish origin ^ It is certain that, 
when a Tery young man, he lived in a district to 
the North of the Tweed at no great distance from 
the river. (39) While charged with the care of a 
flock of sheep and watching in prayer, Cuthbert 
had a vision on the night of the death of St. Aedan 
of Lindisfarne, in which he saw the soul of this 
saint wafted by Angels to heaven. (40) He imme- 
diately determined on retiring into a monastery, 
and chose for said purpose that of Mailros^ si- 
tuated on the bank of the Tweed, the prior of 
which was then Boisil, a very holy man, and the 
abbot Eata, (41) a disciple of St. Aedan. Cuthbert 
was one of the monks, whom £ata took along with 
him to the new monastery of Inhrypum or Rippon, 
which he erected on ground granted to him by the 
prince Alchfrid, and from which they were ex- 
pelled some time after by the same prince, because 


they refused to abandon the Iridh practices as to 
Easter and the tonsure. (48) Having returned to 
Mailross, Cuthbert was, in consequence of the death 
of Boisil, which occurred about 661 (43) appointed 
prior of that monastery in his stead, and held that 
office until 664 or 665^ (44) when he was removed 
to Lindisfarne by his abbot Eata, who was then 
abbot of this place also. (45) Here Cuthbert was 
employed likewise as prior, and continued as such 
for several years, until, wishing for a solitary life he 
withdrew, in 676, to th^ small island of Fame Out ' 
in the sea some miles distant from Lindisfarne. 
But I shall not encroach further on the ecclesiastical 
history of England, to which that of this great 
saint prindpally belongs, (46) than to observe that 
be was, as it were, dragged out of that island in 
684 by king Egfrid in person, bishop Frumwine, and 
many others, for the purpose of bemg raised to the 
episcopacy ; consecrated at York in 685 and placed 
over the see of Lindisfarne ; and that he died on 
the 20th of March A. D. 687 in the island of Fame, 
to which he had again retired a short time before 
his death. (47) 

In the same year that Egfrid king of Northum- 
berland (48) prevailed on Cuthbert to quit the 
island of Fame he sent, yet some time earlier in the 
year, an expedition under a commander of the name 
of Beret against some parts of the Eastern coast of 
Ireland,, particularly that of Bregia, or the country 
extending from Dublin towards Drogheda. These 
marauders spared neither churches nor monasteries, 
and carried away many captives besides a consider- 
able deal of plunder. It is difficult to account for 
this wanton attack upon an unoffending people, an 
attack replete with ingratitude, as the Irish had been 
exceedingly friendly to the English and used to 
treat them with the utmost kindness and hospitality. 
(49) A modern writer, who stops at nothing that 
may suit his purpose, says that Egfrid was urged to 


this act by the clergy, whom he is pleased to call 
Romish, that isi the clergy who had adopted the 
Roman practices as to Easter, &c. ( JO) For this 
atrocious charge there is not the least foundation, 
and it is in direct opposition to the circumstances of 
tlie times ; and to the conduct and fieielii^ of the 
then advocates of said practices. (51 ) The only rea- 
son, that can be guessed at^ which Egfvid might have 
had for being displeased with the Irish nation, was 
the shelter granted in Ireland to his brother Alfrid, 
who having gone thither after the death of king 
Oswin, applied himself to the ecclesiastical and other 
studies, atiid became v^ry learned in every respect. 
He remained among the Irish during the whole 
reign of Egfrid, after whose death he was riecalled 
to Northumberland, raised to the throne, and go- 
verned his kingdom, for many years with consum- 
nutte wisd(»n and ability. (52) 

(38) Usher, Ware, Colgan, Harris, &c, held this opinion. 
Bede, beside what he has about, him in his Ecclesiastical history 
(JL 4.) has left us two Lives, one in verse, the other in prose, of 
St. Cuthbert, or as he calls him Cudberet, without mentioning 
the place of hi? birth. In Cap^ve's odlection, alias that of John 
of Tinmouth, there is a Life of this saint, in which he is expressly 
stated to have been an illegitimate son of an Irish king, who, hav- 
ing murdered another king, called -Muriardach, ravished his daugh* 
ter. Colgan in a note to this Life (AA. SS. ad 20 Mart.) says, 
that this Muriardach was Murchertadi Mac-Erpa, who is known to 
have Sttifered a cruel death ; but is puzzled to account for his be* 
ing the grand&ther of Cuthbert, who was not bom until about a 
hundred years later. For Murchertach Mac-Erca ^as killed, at 
the latest, in^SS or 584. (See Chap. ix. §. IS.) Hence Colgan 
omjectures, that Cuthbert's mother was not daughter, but either 
grand-daughter or great grand- daughter of said Murchertach. Then 
we are told, that the infant, the fruit of that violation, was bap- 
tized by the Irish 'iiame, NuUuhoCy that is, moaning; because, as 
Colgan explains it, his mother moaned and w^t for the injuty she 
had received. It is added, that some time after she passed over 


to North Britain, taking with her the boy, whom thoaoefbrtfa we 
find called Cuthbert, without being informed how he happened to 
get this name. 

Ware ( Writers at Cuthbert) has a different statement, aoooid- 
ing to whidi Cuthbert was bom at Kells in Meath, or, as some 
have said, at KilKmochudrick (Killmacudd), four miles distant 
from Dublin, and was the son of an Irish petty king. It is then 
said that Sabina, the mother of Cuthbert, going to Rome on a pil- 
grimage, left him in the, monastery of Mailros, &c. thcis account* 
ing for his arrival in Britain. This, story of Sabina, &c. is in di* 
rect opposition to Bede, who represaits Cuthbert as. a lad tendiag 
sheep on the mountains, probably of Berwickshire, when, in con- 
sequence of a vision, he determined on repairiftg to that mo- 
nastery. In the Life ap. Capgrave, Sabina is said to have been 
the wife of king Muriardach, and accordingly would have been, 
following that narrative, the grandmother, not the mother, of 
Cuthbert. But neither Wtt^'s nor ,Capgrave's account rests upon 
any sufficient authority, and it Is easy tQ perceive that tliey were 
stories made up for the purpose of bestowing on the saint a royvd 
descent, while it is clear fi:om Bede that he was not entitled 
to it. 

In another woric {Antiq. cap* 291 at Kenlisar Kelts) Waresays» 
that the g;reat ornament of Kells was Culhbert, who was bom 
there, as a writer of his Life states, out of Irish authorities. (See 
tkao Harris, Bishops^ p. 138.) He adds that this ^"^ot was in the 
Cottonian libmry under Vitelliusy D. xiv. 8. We ^d it in Mir* 
Planta's catalogue under Tji^ttf, A. n« 134... entitled, <' De ortu 
etwtaB. pahis CidhberH Kbellus de ScoHcisj i. e IfihemicUauo^ 
iorifms ccUectusr It iis the same as that, which Udier c^U (p* 945) 
the AcU of our Cuthbert eMradedfrom Irish histories^ observing 
that it appeared about the year 1160. I dare say that diose ex- 
tracts agree in substance with the accounts above given from the 
life ap. Capgrave and fit)m Ware. But their being found in that 
Cottonian tract does not add much to their authority. Ware (ti.) 
repeats, that some maintain, that Cuthbert was bom at Kill-mo- 
cudridc This is asserted in the i^i^^als of St. Atar)r*s-abbey of 
Dublin, in which (at A, 684) the most Rev. fother< Cuthbert of 
lindisfome, is mentioned with this addition ^ << de Hibernia nato 
in oppido KUmacrohuick^ There was a diurch in that jplace de- 



dicated to \a& memory, and whence was cterired the name KUl* 
mocudrick, that is, the church of my (mo) Ckidrick, or Cudberet* 
This circumstance was, I su^ct, the only foundation of the opi- 
nion that he was born there. 

ItiSy however, remarkable that many old English and Irish 
writers, treating of Cuthbert, makes him a native of Ireland and 
that his name appears in the Irish calendars, as if he had been 
really so, although, as there marked, he lived in Saxonia (Eng- 
land) (See A A. SS. p. 695. seqq.) The Bollandists, while at 
si. Cuthbert (20 March) they leave this questi(m undecided, yet at 
St. Wiro (8 May) seem to acknowledge^ that Cuthbert was bom 
in Ireland. 

(39) According to Bede (Lifcy &c cap. 4. ) Cuthbert was» 
before he entered any monastery, employed in tending sheep on 
certain mountains, which, as appears from the sequel were in the 
countiy, in which Maikos was situated. Simeon of Durham adds 
(D. of Dunelmensi Ecdesioy cap. S.J that Cuthbert was then near 
the Leder, now Lauder, a river in Berwickshire, that flows into the 
TwQed. Hence MabiUon {Acta Ben. Tom. 2. p. 882.) and others 
deduce, that Cuthbert was a native of that neighbourhood. This 
conclusion may appear not absolutely justified by the premises ; 
for from Cuthbert's living, even when a boy, in that countiy, it 
does not necessarQy follow that he was bom there. But until 
some stronger arguments than those we have seen be produced to 
show, that he was in his boyhood removed thither from Ireland, 
the balance of probability remains in favour of Mabillon's opinion. 
That Cuthbert was a native of Britain seems to be confirmed by 
a passage of Bede's Preface to the metrical Life, where, having 
mentioned several great saints, by whom other countries had been 
enlightened, coming* to Cuthbert the light pf Britain, he uses the 
word| genuit : 

hujusque Britannia consors 

Temporibus genuit fulgur venerabile nostris^ 
Aurea qua Cudberetus agens per sydera vitam 
Scandere celsa suis docuit jam passibus Anglos. . 

(40) Bede's life of Cuthbert, cap. 4. St. Aedan died on the 
Slst of August A. D. 651. (See Chap. xv. §. 14. 


(41) Bede, ib. cap. 6. and Ecd. Hist. Z. 4. c. 27. Concerning 
EataseeaboTe $. 1. It is stnmge that Flemy^X. 40* §. 43) 
places Mailros in the country <^ the Merdana, notwithstanding 
Bede's positive assertion that it was on the bank of the Tweed, 
and its being a well known place in Scotland near the town of 
Melrosd about 10 miles West of Kelso, and consequently very fo 
distant from Mercia, which comprized the central parts of Eng- 

(42) Bede's Life of Cuthbert, capp, 7. 8. (Compare with Chap. 
XVII. $.13.) From this narrative it is evident, that the mon^of 
Mailros were of Iri^ institution and followed the Irish system. 
Therefore Mabillon was mistaken (Acta Ben. Tom. 2. p. 878) 
in asserting that Cuthbert had received not the Irish but the 
Roman tonsure. This had been said before in an anonymous 
Life of Cuthbert ; but the Bollandists justly suspect, that the pas- 
sage relative to it is an interpolation. 

(43) Smith (in a note to Cuthbert's Life, cap. 8.) shows, that 
Mabillon and the Bollandists were wrong in assigning the deaUi of 
Boisfl to 664. 

(44) Smith fNote to Life, &c cap. 16.) follows Simeon of 
Durham, who says that Cuthbert was removed to Lindis&rne in 
664. This was the year, in which Eata became abbot of Lindis« 
iame. In the Life ap. Capgrave (cap. 24;) it is said that this 
removal occurred 14 years afler Cuthbert had put on the monastic 
habit in 651. Thus it should be assigned to 665. 

(45) See above §.l. 

(46) Were it certain that St. Cuthbert was a native of Ireland, 
I should think myself authorized to enter more fully, than I have 
done, into his history. But it appears to me more probable that he 
was not« If he was an Irishman, why did he not follow Colman 
on his return to Ireland, as aU the Irish of Lindis^tme d^d ? 
To this, however, it may be replied, 1. that Cuthbert was then 
not at Lindisfame but 0t Mailros ; and 2. that those, who make 
him a native of Ireland, represent him as so very young, when 
carried over to Britain, that he could scarcely have retained a 
recollection of it. Why,- it may be asked, was the memory of 
Cuthbert so much celebrated in Ireland, were it not the land of 
his birth ? I answer that this was owing to his connexions with 
the Irish of Northumberland, his being a member of their esia- 


tritthmontm his hitiring observed their practices, Ac. In like 
maniMir 6ildai (uid St» David of Wales were greatly revered at . 
Irola&iioiiaoeoiuii of their iiitereeurse with the Irish. 

(4^) See Bede, Ecd. Hiit. L. 4*. c. 9S. 9Q. 

(48) SgMd suooeeddd his ftther Oswin in 670. Bede, 

(4^) B^&^ writes ; fib^ cap. S6u) <' Anno Dominicae incar- 
nationis 684 Ecgfiid rex Nordamhymbronun, misso Hibemiam cum ' 
e^cejidtu diice 9<ffeto> vastavit misere gentem innokiam et naiioni 
Angbmtm semper amieimman / ita ut ne eeclesiis quidem aut 
mOiitfllei^ manus paroereir hostilis." We have seen above {j. 1.) 
with what extraordinary kindness the Ehgliidi, who went to Ireland 
for the& education or other purposes, used to be received there. 
Bedels wofds with regwd to the devastation of Ireland are not to 
be understood as tf he meant all Ireland ; nor would the short 
time, during which it lasted, have been sufficient for a general 
overrunning of the whole kingdom. The expedition was merely 
piratical, and was confined chiefly, if not solely, to the territoiy 
of Br^ia. The people were taken unawares, but fought, as Bede 
fib, J clbserves, as well as they could. This act of piracy is men- 
tioned in thelri^ annals, at the very year marked by Bede, and 
asiiavkig occurred on the coast and plains of Bregia. The 4 
Masters have; ''In the year of Christ 6S3 (664) and 10th of 
king Finnacta, tlie territory of Magh-breagh ({rfains of' Bregia) was 
laid waste, in the month e€ June, by the Saxons, (Engluh) who 
spared neither the people nor the clergy, and carried off to th&r 
ships itaany captives and much booty." (See TV. Tk. p, 585.) 
Hence it is- dear that this devastation was a partial one, and of 
sjh(^ duratkni, having taken place only in June. Hence idso we 
find, that it was prior to Cuthbert's leaving the island of Fame> 
which, as is known fixnn Bede, (ib* cap. 28.) occurred just before 
the winter of 664. 

(50) The reader wiU easSiy perceive, that this writer is Dr. 
Ledwiefa. These are his words : (Antiq. &c. p. 66.) *' Not 
eontent with this triumph (the result of the conference of Whitby) 
die Rooush clergy urged Egfrid, king jof Nor&umt>erland, to 
wredk their vengeance, a Jem years after ^ on the dissident ' Irish, 
an harmless and innocent people,^' &c Whether the Doctor was 
the inventor of this story or not, I am not able to decide ; but this 


much I ete slate, that it is a shttmeilil felsehood. Re talks of a 
f€fm years between the conference at Whitby, and the expedition 
agftiiist the Ir»h coast. But the reada* will please to recollect, 
that the eoi>fepenGe was held in 664^ whence there elapsed full 
#iee>ri^ yean until sttid expe4itaoti took place* 

(51) The paschal tfnd tonsural disputes had subsided in Nor- 
thuinberland long befe^ 684, in consequence of the departure of 
Colinan and his Iri^ companions. The principal ecclesiastics of 
that time \n said country had studied chiefly under Irish teachers, 
fhr instance Eata, who was bishop of Lindisfkme in that very year. 
Such men could not have entertained any hostility to the Irish 
nation ; nor tvet^ they over-zealous against Colman's party, having 
belonged to it themsdves in their younger days. Wilfrid, the 
great advocate of >the Roman practices, was then in disgrace, and 
' having been, some years before, driven from his see and imprisoned 
by Egfiid, was obliged to live oiit of the Northumbrian kingdom, 
to' which he did not return until after this king^ death. Bede, so 
&r fioBft hhiting that any clergyman excited Egfrid to this proceed- 
ing, highly c<Mklemns his conduct, aAd informs usifaat the very 
rei^erend father Ecgbert, an English holy priest, who, although 
living in Irdimd, observed the Roman Easter, ^c.had advised him 
to the contrary. Egfiid^a def^t and death in the following year, 
when %hting against the Picts, was considered as a judgment Of 
God against Inm for his unjust aggression on Breland. ( See Bede 
If 4. c. 26.) E<^bert now mentioned, and whom we shall meet 
with hereafter, had been in Ireland smce before the breaking out 
<df the great pestdence in 664, during which he resided In a mo- 
naistery, called m Irish, Rathmdsigi. (Bede, Z. 9. c. ^.) Smith 
in a note to Bede fib J makes Rathmelsigi the same as Mellifont 
in die county of Louth, for no other reason, it appears, than that 
the syllable Mei is found in both names. But there ia no account 
of any monastery at Mellifont until the I^ century. Colgan 
nakes menti<Hi fAA. SS, p. 793.) of a monastery Rathmailsidhe, 
where had been a St. Colman, different however from Colman of 
Lindisfame, and in his Ind. Topogr. (calling it Rathmilsige) places 
it in Connaught without telling us in what part of said province. 
Mr. Lhigard speaks (AngL S. Church, ch. xiii.) of Egbert as 
living near the eastern coast of Ireland. His reason for so doing 


was, I suppose, that he relied on Smith's authority as to Rath- 

(52) This Alfrid, or as Bede sometimes calls him, Aldfridy was 
an illegitimate son of Oswin, and older than Egfrid, who howev^, 
on account of his legitimate birth, was preferred to him as fit for the 
throne. We must not, as some writers have done, confound him 
with Alchfiid, the friend of WHftid. who ruled, as king, a part of 
Northumberland in the lifetime of his father Oswin. (See Chap- 
XVII. J. 13.) The names are different; and Alchfrid, besides 
having been a legitimate son, died before his father. {Note of 
Smith to Bede, L.5.C. 19 ) On the accession of Egfrid, Alfrid, 
.either through compulsion or indignation, went over to Ireland, 
and being out of the reach of his brother, and enjoying abund- 
ance of leisure, gave himself up to useful studies, in which he 
became a great proficient. William of Malmsbury writes ; (De 
Gegtis Regum , Z. I.e. 3.) '* Is (Alfridus), quia nothus, ut dixi, 
erat factione optimatum, quamvis senior, r^no indignus aesUmatus, 
in Hibemiam, seu vi seu indignatione, secesserat. Ibi, et ab odio 
,germani tutus, et magno otio Uteris imbutus, omni philosophia 
animum composuerat.** Bede says of him, (Life of Cuthbert, cap. 
24) that he had studied a long time among the Scots (Irish) in 
their islands, alluding, it seems, not only to Ireland but to various 
small islands, either in the ocean or in lakes, in which they had 
monasteries and schools, and that he was very learned in the 
Scriptures, vir in Scripturis dodimmus^ f'Eccl Hist. L, 4. c, 26.) 
adding, that, when placed on the throne, he nobly re-established, 
at least in great part, the Northumbrian kingdom, which had been 
much weakened in consequence of the defeat of Egfrid by the 
Ficts. Harpsfeld, treating of his return to Northumberland, 
describes him (Hist, EccL Angl, Sec. vii. cap, 27.) as having 
improved himself so much by his studies, particularly sacred, in 
Ireland, that he became highly qualified for being placed at the 
head of estate. (See aiko Gratianus Lucius (Lynch) Cambrerms 
0versus,'p, 128. 

§. 5. Alfrid was king of Northumberland, when 
in the year 685, or 68o, Adaranan, then abbot of 
Hy, was sent to that country for the purpose of re- 
covering the captives and property, which had been 


carried off by Egfrid*s pirates. His application was 
successful, as might be expected, considering that 
Alfrid could not but be attached to the Irish, and 
was, besides, the personal friend of Adamnan. (53) 
This great man was abbot of Hy since the year 679. 
His predecessor Failbe had succeeded Cumineus 
Albus, who died in 669. (54) Concerning Failbe 
I find nothing particular related, except that he was 
a native of Tirconnel (Donegal) and son of Pipan, a 
descendant, in the male line, of Conall Gulbanius 
the ancestor of Columbkill ; that, after his promo- 
tion to the administration of Hy, he visited Ireland 
once or twice ; and that he died in 679, on the 22d 
of March, the day marked for his festival in the Irish 
calendars. (55) Adamnan, who succeeded him in 
said year, (56) was likewise a descendant, in the 
same line, of Conall Gulbanius, and son of Ronan. 
(57) From his consequently having been of the race 
of the Northern Nialls it may be, fairly concluded, 
that he was a native of Tirconnel, or of some district 
not far from iu The time of his birth is doubtful ; 
but it was not later than the year 688. (58) Of his 
ydunger days I cannot find any distinct account ; but 
there can be no doubt of his having received his mo- 
nastic education either in Hy, or in some other mo- 
nastery of the Columbian institution. He was abbot 
of tliat of Raphoe, founded perhaps by himself (59) 
before he was raised to the government of the whole 
Columbian order. We find Adamnan again on ano- 
ther visit, two years later, that is, about 687 to the 
same king Alfrid. (60) He visited him also several 
years afterwards, as will be seen lower down. There 
was another Adamnan in these times, who, although 
perhaps of Irish origin, lived constantly in Britain, 
and was distinguished for the sanctity and austerity 
of his life. He was a priest and monk of the monas* 
tery of Coludi, now Coldingham in Scotland. (61) 

Some time before the period we are now treating 
of Maildulf, or rather Mailduf, (62) an Irishman, 



becftme eminent as a teacher in the place now cdiled 
Malmsbuiy. Its former name yv$s Ingebbone or In- 
geborn. Mailduf» pleased with the situation, iivetl 
at the foot of tli€ hill as a hermit, but afterwards, to 
supply his wants, set up a school, which was not 
long after changed into a small monastery. At what 
precise time he formed this establishment, I do not 
fmd recorded ; but it must have beeti several years 
prior to 675, in which the celebrated Aldhehn, the 
most distinguished of his scholars, became abbot there. 
The monastery being greatly enlarged by Aldhelm, 
who had received the tonsure and habit from Mail- 
duf, gave occasion to the name of the {dace being 
soon changed int<} Maildufsiurg^ (6S) whence has 
proceeded the modern name Malmsbury. Some 
writings have been attributed to Maild^uf, whether 
justly Gc not, I shall, not undertake to decide. He 
died either in 675, or some short time previous to 
it (64) 

(53) Adamoan, making meation (Viu S. Col. L. 2. o. 46.) of 
his tisitSt to Alftid, caUs himbis fiiend, and speaks of this visit as 
his first we after Egfnd's war* O'Flaherty (MS. note to Adajnnan, 
ib.) referring to Tigemach's annals assigns this visit to A. D. 686. 
The 4 Masters have .684, that is, 685, and maik it as the eleventh 
yearof thereign of Finnacta. It was that, in which the dieadfiil 
plague^ mentioned by them at said year, broke out, the commence^ 
meat of which is affixed by Florence of Worcester to 685. (See 
Tr. Th.p. SB5.) Adamnan having observed, (loc cit. ) that this 
plague raged when he was on that visit, and that the continent of 
Buropeand theiBlu:)d8 Scotia et Britunnia (Ireland and Britam) 
wore laid waste by it, except the parts of North Britain inhabited 
by the British Seots and the Pictis, who, he thought, were pre- 
served from it by the intercessicHi of St Columba. He visited 
AUiid more than once on some subsequ^t occasions ; but th&, his 
first embassy, was either in the latter end of 685 or in the banning 
of 686. 

(54) See Chap. xvii. §. 8. 

(55) At this day CoJgcin has given us as much as he was able 


te <x>lleot «aiioeriiiiig Eaift^. Ih rejects Tarious lies pi Dempster 
relfitiye to bi9i» fnaqng ojl^ns tfifU; of his living wntten certab 
tctMsts aUributad io i^ by |ha^ imppst?^. I^is ^^^ ^^.^ ^^^ 
bunaelf ibe trouble of 4m9i^8 tip an article ^r jPailb^ a^ aa ^hish 
{JOS) Usber* p. 1f&.a^ind* Chr^ at 67^. 

(57) Tr-TA-p, 480. It is ramaikable that, for more tl^ 
two centuries from the jEbund^ition of Hy, afanost b}\ \\» ^abbots 
were desceiuledi^m Cooall Gulbmus, thus oonoect^x nior^ or 
less, by relatioosb^) .with £clliimb-klll, and belonging to the' lin(^ 
of the northern NiaUs. fiee C0l|^n A A. SS. p. 408'450-7l9. 

(58) Colgan aajrs (Tn Ti^ p^ 9S5.) that, accordinf; to tb^ 
Rosorea and some other Annal^^ A4i»9)nan wets bom in 624<. This, 
as will be se^ii, iloes not agree wtb wh^ijt i^ said 4^ his.agp jot ttue 
time 4)f his death. 

(59) See Not. 112. to Chap, xi. As ^A^anupan was partigQi- 
odarlj severed at Hapboei as the patrpn saiut of its monastery 
and chureh, it is oMain liiat 4te had been closely connected with 
Ihat place, and that, if nqt absolutely the founder^ he was, at 
lefist, aUxit there. Colgas (Tr. Th. p. 506.) expressly calls Iuqi 
tMot of Bapkocy beforeli^ wftt prompt^ to Hy. Adamnan was 
the peeson, bj ^wboae name the jaucc^sion at £apbpe used tq be 
disdnguishad. Thus Midbcigid» whp died archbish^ of Anas^ 
in 9d6, is4:fille4 a ccimorba» (suQoessiH') not only of St. Patripk, 
but likewise of Adamnan, inasmuch as he had been abbot (not 
bishop, as Hanas states, (BiAopB^ p, 270.) i>f ^aphoe, before l^e 
was^raised to the see of Armagh. (See Colgam AA. SS. p, 386.) 
I strongly suspect that St. £unan> who is Usually cf^Ued ttie 
first bishop of Raphoe, was no other than Adamnan ; not Umt 
Adamnan was ^eyer a bishop ; ibr, were he so, he could not 
have beqome idobot 4if Hy ; but that he was the ancient 
patron saint of diat place before it becavie an epiaaopal «ee. 
Colgan neTor mentions this St. Eunan, nor could Ware discover 
anyjie^at of him. The first bishop of ili^oe, that we meet 
with, was Malduin Mac Kinfiilaid, who ikd about 9S0. (Tr. 
Th, p. 509.) These observations are not indeed sufficient to show^ 
that Adamnan has been changed into St. Eunan ; but it is a very 
r^nsarkable circumstance that the festival of the saint, called £u- 
Wa, is JkqpC on the 28d of Septembcar. Now this was the very 

H 2 • 


day, on which Adamnan died, and on which his memory was re- 
vered not only at Raphoe, but in many other churches. The name, 
Eunarij is, I allow, not &vounible to the conjecture of his iden- 
tity with Adamnan ; but there mi^t have been some reason for 
this variation of names, and a person better versed in the Irish 
language than I am might perhaps find some analogy between 

(60) Adamn. Vit. S. Cd, L. 2. c. 46. 
* (61) Bede treats of this Adamnan of Coludi, {Hitt^ Ecel. L, 
if. C.25.) and afler him Colgan (A A. SS. 31 January J who 
acknowledges, that he was not able to decide whether he was an 
Irish or British Scot. In fact, there is nothing to make it ^ipear, 
that he was rather the one than the other. All that Bede says in 
regard to his country is, that he was iie genere Scotiorum. Coludi^ 
where he lived about A. D. 679. belonged at that time to the 
Northumbrian kingdom. 
^ (62) Tlie name is spelled Mailduf by Bede (L. 5. c 18.) and 
by Leland, Collect, in. 158. (See Smith, Not. to Bede ik.) It 
was, I bdieve, originally. Moeldubh^ a name not uncommon 
among the ancient Irish. Its being written Maildulf was owing^ 
I dare say, to William of Malmsbury, who in the Life of Aid- 
helm (ap. Wharton, Anglia Sac. Vol. 2.) treating of Mailduf, 
writes ; <' Id (the monastery of Malmsbuxy) quidam, qui alio no- 
mine vocatur Meildulfy natione Scotus, eruditusque philosc^husy 
professione monachus fecerat.'* Hence Camden has called him 
MaUdulf, giving it a termination rather Saxon than Irish.. 

(63) The i&am of Mailduf. It was known by this name as 
early as the times of Bede^ who calls it {L.5. c. \Sy) Mail* 
dufi urhem. 

(64) It was soon afler the death ci Maildulf that Leullierius 
bishop of Winchester gave in 675 the site of Malmesbury to Aid- 
helm. (See Monastic* AngU Tom. I. p. 50. and Smith, Not. to . 
Bede, L. 5. c. 18.) Concerning Maildulf see xaore in Camden, 
{coL 103. Gibson's ed.) Usher {Ep. Hib. Si/UJad Ep. 12.) Ware 
and Harris (Writers at Maildtdph). 

§. VI. Alfrid was not the only foreign prince, who 
in those times was sheltered in Ireland. Dagobert, 
son of Sigebert II. or III. king of Austrasia, had 


, been sent, when a child, to a tnonastery in Ireland 
afler his father's death about the year 655 by 
Grimoald mayor of the palace. (65) The monas- 
tery; in which he was placed, is said to have been 
that of Slane. (66) Wheresoever it was, Dagobert 
remained in Ireland until about 670, when he was 
recalled to his own country, and received a part of 
Austrasia from Childeric the second. (67) On the 
death of Childeric he became in 674 sovereign of all 
Austrasia by the name of Dagobert the second, and 
ruled that country until he was assassinated in 679. 
(68) After his return to Austrasia we find some 
distinguished Irishmen in that country, particularly 
St. Arbogast and St. Florentius ; and it would seem 
as if they had either accompanied him from Ireland 
or went to Alsace about th^ same time that he was 
recalled. (69) Be this as it may, Arbogast, who is 
usually called a Scot or Irishman, (70) was Uving re- 
tired at Suraburg, where a monastery was afterwards 
erected in honour of him, (71) when he was raised 
by this king Dagobert to the see of Strasburgh about 
674. (72) Besides being a very holy man he is said 
to have possessed a considerable share of learning, 
and to have written some ecclesiastical tracts. (73) 
He died on the 21st of July in 679, and was suc- 
ceeded in the same year by his friend and former 
companioil Florentius. (74) That Florentius was 
a Scot, or Irishman, is universally allowed. (7^) He 
had come from Ireland together witli Arbogast^ (76) 
and took up his «bode in the forest of Hasle in Alsace 
near where the river Bruscha flows from the Vosges. 
(77) Here was founded a monastery either by him, 
or for him by Dagobert, (78) by whom he was 
greatly esteemed.: It is said that he restored her 
sight and speech to a daughter of that king. While 
bishop of Strasburgh, he founded, according to some 
accounts, the monastery of St. Thomas in tlmt city for 
the Scots or Irish. (79) Having governed the see 


of Strasburgb for eight years^ St. Floreritm departed 
this life on the 7«h of November, A. D. 687. (80) 

Among the persons, who accompanied St. Floren- 
tius from Ireiand, is mentioned a Theodatiis, or 
Deodatus, (81) of whom I cannot discover any 
authentic account. The celebrated St. Deodatos 
bishop of Neversl who lived in those times, and, 
having resigned his see, retired to Alsace to lead 
fliere a monastic life, (89) was indeed a particular 
friend of St. Arbogast ; (83) but there is no reason 
to think, that he W2» a native of Ireland. It may 
W eotgedtared, that the Deodatns, biBhop of Toul, 
Who by the direction of Dagobert II. accompanied 
St. Wilfrid of York to Rome in the ' summer or 
autumn of 679, (84) was perhaps the one, who had 
come frcym Ireland. We find a bishop Deodatus^ 
whose memory was revered m the monastery of 
Latiniactim or Lagny, and who, as that Was an Irish 
dsftaUiisiiment,' (85; may be supposed to have been an 
Imlnnmr. (86) 

(esf) According to M dbillon (Annal. AeM. ) Sigibert died ia 
Q5B; 6(ters bay, somewhat earlier. It wsteveiy soon tUttet his 
deodi that Grimoftld got Dagobert,. theo very young, sboiti by 
Didon biirho^ of Poitiers^ and sent him to Ii^land^ spreiidibg a 
%m df &18 dettll. 

fee) HijfithdtSi at Shne. I io noir fiad this nMention of SUslsit 
iny whtfe else. Afd)da!l.s««ttU( to feftr 10 Mieaemy, HiMirey 
^. ^hdr, as* far as I could &tm^Xy merely sAys that Digobeft 
^ito f\ac^ m Mae ^^ery r^ied Aiotfastety,' withotrt ntmmg any 
diie in parCSdilar. 

(67) See AhregS Chroh, fit DagoBett II. MabiHob obi^brees^ 
Annal. Ac^ ad A. 672) that Dagobert had retuiAied td Fnuhc^ be- 
Ibre t&ed^alh of Grink^Id, u e. before 671 d# &fQi 

(6S) Aeteoifdfng tiof L'Ari d^ ^tmifkr le^ dtiiH (S\hn. K p. 
5§7.) Dagobert U. becsone tting of ad Aiistnisitf ini 674!» H^ 
#ii6 UHed in 679. Million also hsM {H. atj M. 9801. pi Bt.}- M^ 
his death 670, imd taarks the ^d of Deceihber as the di^ of ^ 
He adds that Dagobert was revered as a' martyr at Stenay, the 


€£ ate ({itfdiy of Bar. Although MabiDoB k tlie course 
0S his work caife this prinee Di^pobert the seccndf jet in the Ge- 
neral index to Tom. 1. he appears partly ai the pdcowiy mi partly 
as the third. * This mistake of the fiettmner of said index k apt to 
confuse a person searching in it for the tmnsdctkms of this Elago- 
bait. Tli« kkig or half-king c^M DajgOtort the thirds belonged 
to the 8th century. (See LArty &c, Tom. 1. p. 548. and Ahregi^ 
&c at Dagobert III) 

(69) In the Ads of St. florenlius {6p. Suriiis 7 NoDemher) we 
read; ** Com Dagobertus rex ad regnf Francorum gubemacula 
sederet, sanctus Florentius^ cum beato Arbogasto, Theodato, et 
Hildulpho, e Sootia renit in Aldatiam." The Dagobert here men- 
tioned was the second, not Dagobert the fiiist his giandfather, 
with whom he has been often conlbunded ; whence, as Mabillon 
remarks, several religious establishments, founded during the 
reign of the second Dagobert, have been assigned to that of the 

(70) Gaspar Bruschius (De Oennan* Episcopctt, Epitome^ p. 
55.) makes ArbogaKI a native either of Aqoitain, or of Ireland, 
** etsi tint qui ex Hibernia ortum ajfirment" But Mabillon 
(Annul, i^c, at 667) spedu of him positively as an IrishnMm, 
<' ArbogaHiu origine ScottusJ* 

(71) MabiUon fib. at A. 676. p. 539.) says that thh motias- 
feiy was erected, ob merttum S. Ariogastiy during the reign of 
Dagbbert II. Soraburg nf^ in Che diocese of Strasburgh, and near 
the SiMy or Sttur^ a riVer that flows into ihe Moselle not fair fltnn 

(72) See Gtdlia Christiana, Tom. v. col. 182, where it is stated 
that Abrogasft flourished about 673, and was lippointed bishop of 
Strasburgh by DutgobM II. Hence, fbd from what Mabillon 
has, it is plain thcit Bruschius, who is followed by Ware and 
Harriil, (Writers itt AriogaaJ was wrong in assigning Arbogasfs 
protnodbn to 646. Brusdiius, in whose time the history of Da- 
gobert II. was scarcely known, supposed that the I>^bert, friend 
<^ Arbogast, wa^ the first king a( the niune. But cfi^^n in this 
hypothiys he fell iiito another mistake ; for Dagobert I. was dead 
bitM«6^, and dccordihgly could not have been the king l^ 
^bln Athc^ditt nftts ajipointed. 

(73) See Wire and Harris, loc. cit. 


(74) Gallia Christiana, Tom, v. col. 781. 782. Bruschius was 
tnistaken in assigning the commencement of Florentius' incum- 
bency at Strasburgh to the year 663. That it was in 679, is dear 
from its being known that Florentius, having held that see for 
eight years, died in 687* 

(75) Bruschius, MabiUon^ and the Gallia Christiana agree 6n 
this point. 

(76) See Not. 69. 

(77) Acts of St. Florentiusi Hasle is now called Haselae, 
and lies at two leagues distance from Molsheim in Basse Al- 

(78) See Mabillon, Annal, Sec. at A. 676. p. 538. 
(79)JVIabillon, ib. 

(80) Gallia Christiana, Tom. \* coL 783. 

(81) See Not. 69. (82) See Reury, L. 39. §. 45* 

(83) Mabillon, Annal, at A. 667. 

(84) See Acta Bened, Sec. 3. p. 186. and Fleuiy, Z.. 40. ^. 4.. 

(85) See Chap. xvi. §. 9-10. 

(86) The Bollandists observe, (at 3 Febrtiari/J that they have 
found in old copies of Usnard's Martyrology this Deodatus thus 
mentioned ; " Latiniaco Natalis S. Deodati episcopi,* and quote 
Molanus, who says that the reliques of Deodatus, Maldegarius, 
and others were removed to that place. They did not know who 
this Deodatus was, but thought, and I believe justly, that he 
was different from St. Deodatus of Nevers* Whether he was the 
same as Deodatus of Toul, I will not pretend to decide ; but it is 
very probable, that he was a native of Ireland. ^ 

§• vii. As to Hildulphy or Hidulf^ who also is said 
to have gone with Florentius from Ireland to Alsace, 
(87) it is exceedingly difficult to form any decided 
opinion l^onceming him. We have no account of 
any distinguished person of this name at that period 
except Hildulph bishop of Treves, who, quitting his 
see, is stated to have retired about 676 to the Vosges 
and there founded a monastery. (88) He was ap- 
parently the Hildulph supposed to have accompanied 
Florentius ; and it can scarcely be doubted that they 
were confemporaries. (89) But it is very uncertain 


whether Hild'ulph of Treves was a native of Ireland ; 
for^ according to some accounts, he was a Belgian, 
and, according to others, a Bavarian. (90) If it be 
true that he was a brother of St. Erard of Ratisbon, 
as has been very generally said, (91) it will follow 
that he was an Irishman. Hildulph had, perhaps, a 
brother named Eberhard or Erhard ; but it may be 
doubted whether he was the same as Erard of 
RatisboQ. (92) 

Be thii^as it may, St. Erard, although younger than 
Hildulph, was living in his times ; and accordingly I 
may be allowed to give some account of him in this 
place, (93) notwithstanding the contest that has beea 
carried on as to the century, in which be flourished. 
Some old writers assign his times to the seventh and 
the beginning of the eighth, while others represent 
him as flpurishing during the reign of Pepin father 
of Charlemagne, consequently in the second half of 
the eighth century. Although I dare not pretend 
to decide on a question, which very eminent men 
have left undetermined, (94) the former opinion 
appears to me more probable and better supported by 
such circumstances of the times as seem sufficiently 
authentic. And I cannot but think that the con- 
fusion, which has taken place on this point as well as 
on that relative to St. Hildulph of Treves, has pro- 
ceeded chiefly from Pepin Hiristall, mayor of the 
palace, and his son Charles Martel, having been mis- 
taken for king Pepin, grandson of the former 
Pepin, and his son Charlemagne. That St. Erard 
was a native of Ireland can scarcely be called in 
question, 'unless we are to reject the authority of 
almost all the writers, who have treated of him. (95) 
It is stated on respectable authority, that he wais 
bishop of Ardagh before he left Ireland. (96) Hav- 
ing resigned his see he went to the continent, and 
joined himself to St. Hildulph or Hidulf, who was 
then living retired in the Vosges, (97) and with 
whom he is said to have remained for a considerable 
time. From that trountry he went to Bavaria to 


prcaeh tke Gospel, without attaching hitliself to ally 
see »k bisfaop. (98) Hftppenmg t€i b^ ort setae 
oc()asi(»n He^ the Rbii^e^ Erafd bapt^ed Odilkb the 
in&ht &iughter of the duke Etico dr Attktts, who, 
hairing beett httk Uisd,^ became pft^d with sight, 
through the pr#yerd of Erard^ i» the ve*y act of her 
baptism^ (99) After this b^ retufrned W Bavaiia, 
nmi stopped at Ratisbon, where, after haviag led a 
most holy life and wrought many miracles, he terttAr 
nated his earthly cai*eer on an dtb of Jamiary. ( 1 00) 
This saint was canonized hf Pope Leo IX « in lO^S. 

(87> Sbe above, Not. 6&. (88) Fleuiyy L. 3^. §. 4f5. 

(S9> Several wtiliets assert, that Hildul|^ of Treves flouiii'Shed 
in the seventh century^ and died very old m 707. Vet Bfltt^odhis 
and others^ who are followed by C(Agmi (A A. SS. p. 96. sefqJ) 
pldoe him about the middle of the eighth. Mab^on maindaiiK, 
{Af^nd. &e. at A, 607.) that he wag before the tunes a£ Chatle^ 
'Martel^ that is, before 714« 

(90) £a some Lives of St< Hfldulph he is said to hilve beci^ a 
N^ryian^ Nerviorum duro &tius genere. (See BoUfliidus at St, 
Erards 8 Jaimary, and Ccrfgan A A. S8. p. 37) The N«r?ii 
Were d ^^le of Belgium, iiihabidiig the countiy about Toiirriay, 
Wi as some think, HaynauHI. In one of those Lives Bdlkmdus 
linitld Nienuorum, insiead of Nerviorum, and thot^ht it might 
have beeii a Bustake fbv Hhtmi&rufn, u e. Hihemorum., But ac« 
cclrdiilig to a Life published in the Acta Ben. Sec. 9. PaH, 2. Mil- 
dulphj or^ as there ealled, Bidulf) was a nadvd of Bavaria, iavl 
hoxtk tft Radsbon. Thisr isy I am sure^ a mistake foande4 on the 
fiJse supposittott that ^. Erard, who in said Lift; is repfesetxted 
a6 a ktither oThis^ was a nathre of that dty. For his Irish or^ 
we have, besides the Life of St, Florentius, the authot of which 
in all probability idbded to the Hildolph of Tieves, two Lives of 
St. Erard, an Office of this saint from the Bteviary of Ratis- 
bon, and some German liistotians qofoted by Co4gan, A A. SB. p. 
88. If he wa» a native dflrehmd, his ordinal naitie iv^ I dare 
say, jyWe^or Hidtlf. 

(91) That HHdulpit of Treves and Enird werg brothers i^ posi- 
tively stated in the livds of Erar<^ Office, &c. ntebtiobed in tha 
ptecedaig nbte. 

€HAT. Xrill. OF IRU^AHIIV t07 

(9^ Midbflloti ifliserres, fAmud. ad. A.0II.) Ikat to filM». 
kind <k Erhard wais said to have teeri^ btoth« to* Hild«i|^/ Mid 
^ifiewhere {ih. mi. A. 667v> that he was perhufi Ae Miei6 * 
Beard bhdiop of Rolisbott. Everbard, Ae? dupj^OMd l^ftithti^ tf 
Hihlalph, was the f^ abbot of SbeHhekii aeor grt in fe l lt a* & 
Alsace, a monastery founded by Duke Etico or Attitlii^- filMV <if 
JSt. Odilia, sotne time it aeemBin the seieond hM^ df th^ ^e^^ebth 
ceiitniy. Ebersheim is supposed lo hoffm gof6 kH" nftfiM fM# HA 
Ediard oi^ Ebeiri^ardy tts if it meatt the miMi dM ^ ikM^^. 
(MabillaD, ib.J Anotfier aceeiitit alaM, ihfi» Eb tf ifeft^ ij^- 
mfies the boars hMUtHoMi a» Adtagf lA« ^Itte^ #iM^, ft^ #^ 
ate told, a wild boar killed » sbit ^ D«ig6ier§ £lr irh^ iHk 
btoi^ to life ^^ by St. Aibogsat. Tlkl» £f^brd Hf IMMSbii 
lived for some time yHth Hildol^ y/flmi MiiM iik life Vbs^, 
is stated in two breviaries of AogM^i^ mi iilt Ht^ of Wuni- 
borgh ; (AA. SS. p. 52.) but neflhteg ia HM ^ tBcHr ftMrtg B^cMi 
brothers. Nor is thete iwy thiif im thiMM ov M^ Itfe LiveH alMit 
laa havmg been abbot of Sberaheiw. it il* al^ to be ^s^irvtiil^ 
diat Erard of Radsbon k n»ver ooUbyi ihtrkdfS, ait stpp6ai^MA 
the eljn^ologied of his naam f^W te the dodafeidilf^ ifi Whidirh^ 
fs expressly treated of; From what Ra^been now safid, k may ht 
cMijeetared, that, if Hidolph had a bf^^Kher hashed E9^T^keeM, he 
wa» difi^rent fwm Erard ef Ilatisboii* 

(93) BbUandus hiUi ptfftd^ed shlree I^ea- df 9ti ^nmf dt ft 
January, two of #hieh Kate beetf fej^bBidh^ l^ C6igito sHI saM 
^y/ besictes extraets relritite tb teft ftotit bi^liWM^. He H«d 
three other Lives; short oises^ ^Mtth he HiMigRe ufftEi tf eessa iy tb 
p&Uish. Muris has (Biskopi at ^c/e^Ar) a ^enytf suthnli^ df 
Erard*8 Acts ; but he ought not to have cified G^iMdf a Khrttt^ 
puMarum, (a phioe in Germany) one of ErtUKTs ftlidgHit^^, 
Conrad of Montpdker. 

{^) BoOoadus ( Carnm. pr. ad VH. S. Erardi, 8 San.) Ym 
iiot undevtakoa to & die times of this saiiit. M<dbfilon'edMitAulM 
C Jcfti B€nr. See. 9. part 2. p. 4^70.) that die^ hlM^ €^ ErtM, KM 
tiBwa^ Ac. is eqaalh^'eoilfiiBed and intricate as thtft- of St. V^ 
dolph. Yet» dkhoiigh he did net take the ttrdaftf)^ of inquiHii{( 
iBie it, he most haw been ifidiiied to thask^ that ErcMbdonged 
to the seventlr eentury ; whereaa he was of &p^k^ tliat HiMtilph; 
iikwhoietiiiieBEnBrdiB gehen^ aikiwed |» httve HtedJ did' n^ 


survive the early part of the eighth. (See Nat. 89.) Colgan 
nuuntains, f Appendix at St» Erard 8 Jan,) that Eraid fiounab- 
ed in the reign of Pepin or of Charlemagne, and strives to an- 
swer the aiguments to the contrary. But it would be easy to show, 
that, whatever may .be thought of his proofs, his replies are vay 

(95) In the first Life of Erard, written by one Paulus or Pau- 
hdus in the eleventh century, we read (L. 1. c. 1.) ; '^ Erhardus* 
qui gloria fortis interpretari potest, Narbonensis gentilitate, Ner- 
vhis dvilitate, genere Scoticus fuit/' Instead of Narbonensis gen-^ 
tUitate, alluding to his having been of a family settled at a place 
called Narbon, some other Lives or legends, not published by 
Colgan, have, " Narbonae in Scotia nattis"- Colgan conjectures 
that this place was the same as Ardboe or Arboe m the county of 
Tyrone, formerly a town of some note* I suspect that Narbon is 
a corruption of Nardach, that is, of Ardach or~ Ardagh, where 
Erard is said to have been bish<^. The N prefixed is a contrac- 
tion of na, of; so that Narbonensis signifies ofArbon^ and Nar* 
dachensisy if it was the original reading, would mean of Ardagh^ in 
the same manner as Nendrutnensis means of Antrim. (See Not* 
187 to Chap, VIII.) As to Nervius civUitate^ perhs^s the author 
intended to say, that Erard had spent some time in the territory 
of the Nervii, (see above Not. 90.) in which there were some 
Irish establishments. In the Life written by Conrad nothing more 
is stated than tliat his country was Scotia, that is as Conrad ex- 
plains himself (cap. 2.) Ireland, or Scotia major. In some Ger- 
man calendars, and in two breviaries of Augsbuigh togeth^ with 
one of Wurtzburgh, he is called tiatione Scotus. According to 
the breviaiy of Ratisbon he was bom in the ancient Scotia or 
the island of Ireland ; Erhardus in veteri Scotia seu Hibemia in* 
sula oceani nattts. Raderus f Bavaria Sancta^ Tom. 1.),. Bru- 
nerus (Rerum Boicarum L.S), and other German writers, quoted 
by Colgan (AA. SS. p. 58. segq.) agree on this point that Erard 
was not only a Soot but a Scot of Ireland. In (^^sition to all 
these testimonies there is no authority worth mentioning except 
that of St. Hidulf 's Life published in the Acta Bened. (see Noi^ 
90.) in which Erard is said to have been bom at Ratisbon. For 
this statement there is'no foundation whatsoever, unless it should 
be ai^ed, that, because Erard spent the last years of himself and 


died in that dty, it was therefore the place o£ his birth. What 
could tiave induced so many German writers of Erard's Lives, 
compilers of breviaries, historians, &c. to deprive - their country 
of the honour of having produced a saint bo highly revered there 
as Erard was, unless they had incontrovertible piWs of his hav- 
ing been bom elsewhere ? Hence it is plain, that the author of 
that Life of Hidulf was as wrong in making Eraid a native of 
Ratisbon as he was in assigning to it the birth of even Hidulf 
himself. Bollandus, having deeply studied this subject, states, 
as the most probable opinion, that Erard was an Irishman. 

In several of the docoments now mentioned Erard's name is 
spelled Erhardy following the genius of the German language ; 
and hence the author lef the first Life etymologizes it into gloria 
Jbrtis; for J?r, in Grerraan, signifies honour ^ and kard^ or hart, 
is strongs hard. Passing by this and some other etymologies of 
Erhard, the real name of the saint seems to have been Erard, a 
name, as Colgan observes, not uncommon in Ireland. 

(96) Besides the authority of the breviary of Ratisbon,' Ra- 
d^rus, and Brunerus, we have for this statement that also of 
Hundius, Catalog. Episc. Ratisbon, (See Colgan, AA* SS, p. 
S5, and 39-40.) 

(97) First Life of Erard, L. 1. cap. 2, second Life, cap, 2. 
Breviaries, &c. From the circumstance of Erard having been 
with Hidulf in the Vosges it seems almost certain, that he flou' 
rished in the seventh century ; for this was, in all probability, the 
period, during which Hidulf retired to that country, as appears 
from its being stated on very good authority that he arrived there 
before the death of St. Deodatus of Nevers, who, as has been 
seen, had also retired to Alsace, and whose death is universally 
allowed to have occurred about 679. (See Colgan A A. SS. p, 
36. Fleury, L. 39. §. 45. and compare with Not 89.) It is said 
in the Breviary of Ratisbon, that Erard went to Rome straight 
from Ireland ; but this cannot be reconciled with the series of his 
transactions, as related in the other documents. The journey to 
Rome must have been afler his arrival in Germany. 

(98) Several writers have called Erard bishop of Ratisbon. 
This is denied by Hundius, Raderus, and others, although they 
allow that he spent a good part of his time in that city and died 
there. Mabillon observes, (Acta Ben. Sec* 3. part 2. p, 470.) 

I H3 AN ECCL£$M^Tf |qi4l' #f STORY QffJ^, JSVlil* 

^^ JSr^^p9im4o»»^ fornix itlMs /C#al9g9e8 <!f ^e^ 

and gran4lW ^£pE;9hi9«al4> (tii^ a»a^ rf J(h9 |i$49oe jkmI ^a^ 

diinf^.^ j^^jfgfi .9f£lbi^^QC, A»t is, CJiildevip the ^^cond, kiog 
qCA\i^9ti^9^ flfki.4ift«miV^ of oil Fwnee, ^h/9 was kiUed ia -GTS. 
($^ Ah^t ^(4- .»t Ciilderic IL) This king bad made £tico4lvJ(e 
if QennmiirrwiiQ ^m^icU^i^y t^d^ at S^henheiHi aod Hohqiabiiii^ 
$t. OdiHa his da^^iter was the person baptized by St. Ei^id ^nd 
St. Hidulf. .FroiQ these drimrastoncef Balla^wjus justly c^clud^» 
that t]^ biip^oi^ ^ w^fe prior to the times of l^og P? pin 9fld 

• ( 100) J A. ^S. p. 35. The Breviary <^ Qatisbon and H\j»r 
dius state, that he died during the reign of Pepin &ther of (iJharie- 
ni9gae; but this«annot agree with other cinqimstancet^ p^rticu- 
Ifirly -the b^tisip of Odilifty not long after which his death occucr^d* 
Pepui's reigp did iiot b^gin until 751, while, on the other hj^, 
thebirth of Qdilia wasnot later than about ?QQ« Therefore io* 
Qtead asking Pepip^ X think we should say, Pepm mayor rf :^ 
palace, Fepin Heriatall, who had held that oiSce Sma about 688 
imtil 714, and was the father of another Cb^les, 1. ^ Chades 
MarteL It is right to observe, that this P^mu had governed Au»- 
tcasia with almost sovereign authority wee obout 68p. (Sloe 
4bregS, &C. at Thierry III.) 

§. vm. Whatever difference .pf c^niojo^ theiie 
9iay be in re^rd to Uildulph or Hidulf haviiig 
been a brother of Erard^ there is sicarcely wy as to 
his having had a brother called by forejign writers 
Albert. The names of the two brothers St. ^ri|r^ 
and St. Albert (101) go hand in hand tog^her, and 
the latter is not less conata^tl^ stated tp have beei^ ^a 

Ca4P«XVm. OP IREliAKJ^^ 111 

native of Ireland^ His real name waa probacy Ji^f 
(IQ^) apd be is generally said to havp ht^p pnv 
to quittwg his couAtjry, arpbbUhop of Ca^el, wiuch 
must be understood as to his haivif>g be^ii Iwhop of 
Emly. (103) It is stated, (hat hd left IrelosMJl, tc^psr 
tber wkh Erard and otlpuers, and tbat he accompai* 
nied him to Germany^ ivhenoe they are said to have 
gone to Rome. (104) Having remained there some 
time* Alhei^ on £rard'« peturniug to Oennwyt 
cootinuii^ Us pilgnn^ag^ proceeded to Jemsalem, 
wb^re 03l^>atricl$;j one ot hk ^om^Mmomt diad^ 
How \mg he stayed tberse wa ^ie sot infonae^f 
EetoH^i^g to Germany be lest JohH> anotW of Ua 
foUimers^ at JSaltzburg, aad mi arriving at Ratisbm 
fouad tbat Erard had, some ahoit tame before^ de^ 
parted this life. Not wishing to surviiv^e biw b^ 
praQ^^ to God to take him oat of this world ; a«d 
his petition was listened to aooji after. Albert's V9^ 
maina w^re depoc^ted at RaitishoB in a tomb, oAly 
Steven ieet distai»t from ^tbat o£ bis brother Eiwd» 

To the times of Pepin Heristall, during wboflo 
mayoralty the saints now treated of ^seem to have 
flourisbedi, belonged to St. Wiro^ of whose having 
been a native of Ireland I find no reason to diQiubt. 
{105) Even the Irish family, of which he was a 
member, is mentioned ; for he is stated ito have 
been the soin ^f Cuan^ son of Luffid> &c^ pf an an- 
cient £s^mily setUed in Corcobasc^in, ^in the now 
county of Clare) and that, from whi^b wa^ sprimg 
St. Senan of Inniscattby. (106) Wiro is said to 
have travellod to Rome and to have been there con- 
secrated bishop. It is added, tbat on his reiturn to 
beland he governed for a time some see (107) which 
be afterw^ds resigned for the purpose of leadii^ a 
more retired life. He went to Francf^^ where be 
vf^ most graciously received by Pepin Heristal], 
(IQS) who held bim in great veneration and used to 
confess to him barefoot. Pepin assigned to him a 
habitation, at Mom Petri, noyv OdiTie*berg in the 


diocese of Liege. This was the place where St. 
Wiro died on an 8th of May ; ( 1 09) but in con- 
sequence of its collegiate church having been trans- 
ferred ta Ruremond, the saint's remains were re- 
moved hither in part, and hence he is often called 
St. Wiro of Ruremond, while another part of them 
was preserved at Utrecht. (110) 

(101) Colgan treats of St. Albert also at 8 Januaiy, not because 
he knew what was the day of his death, or even what day his me- 
moiy was revered, but on account <^ its being assigned for St. Erard, 
with whom the German writers usually associate St. Albert, joining 
them together in their inquiries into the history of these two holy 
brothers. Of those writers Conrad is the only one, who making 
mention (Life of St. Erard, cap. 2.) of Albert, whom he calls 
Adalbert, seems to speak of him as not having been a brother of 
Eraid. Colgan had no Life of this saint, but has endeavoured to 
make up his Acts as well as he could. 

(102) This conjecture of Colgan is indeed not improbable* 
Albert was a name well known in Germany, and the transition to 
it from AUbei a name to which the Germans were not accustomed, 
was easy and natural. We fkid similar inflections in the names of 
several Irish saints aiid teachers, who in old times resorted to the 

(103) The passages of various authors, who agree in calling Al- 
bert archbishop, or, at least, bishop of Cashel, may be seen in 
Colgan at Albert. But, as he remarks, there was neither an arch* 
bishop nor bishop of Cashel in Albert's times, supposing him to have 
flourished even as late as the eighth century. He therefore con- 
jectures, that Albert or Ailbe might have been originally called 
archbishop of M unster, and, if so, that his see was Emly,' the 
prelates of which were sometimes called archbishops. ( See Not. 
97. to Chap. XVII.) In this hypothesis Albert or Ailbe would 
have been Ailbe the second of that see. He might have been there 
between Conang O'Daithil, who died in 661, (see ib.) and Cona* 
miul McCarthy, who died in 707. But as Cashel became in later 
times the metropolitical see of Munster, the writers referred tp sup- 
posed that Albert had been archbishop there. 

(104) Conrad says {Life of Erard, cap. 2.) that Albert virent 


with Erard from the Vosges to Bavaria, and Roderus states that 
Albert did not go to Rome until after he had spent some time in 
Grermany. (Compare with Not* 97.) 

(105) The Bollandists have St. Wiro at 8 May. Bollandus, 
who wrote the prefixed commentary was inclieed to think that he 
might have been a native of North Britain rather than of Ireland. 
But in the Life, published by his continuators, the island Scotia, 
that is Ireland, is expressly called Wiro*s country; << Scotia uber 
sanctorum patrtim insula ;" and we find it again called an island, 
ex, c. in the words, " apud incolas ejusdem insulae" It is there 
said that he imitated Patrick, Cuthbert, and Columba, the pil- 
lars of his country. And what still more proves this point, we 
find a bishop Wiro in various old Irish documents and calen- 
dars, who was in all appearance the same as the St. Wiro known in 
the continent. (SeeAA.SS.p.54}2) Mr. Lingardsays, {Angl' 
S. Church, ch. 13. Not, 12.) that Alcuin in the poem, De Pont. 
Ebor. V. 1045. calls Wiro an Anglo-Saxon. Now in said poem, 
which, by the bye, was not written by Alcuin (see Not. 12 to 
Chap. III.) there is not a word about Wiro at that verse, nor, as 
far as I can find,, in any other part of it. 

(106) AA. SS. ib. 

(107) It has been supposed by some persons unacquainted with 
the state of Ireland in Wiro's times, that he was bishop of Dublin. 
Suffice it to say, that Dublin had no bishops in those days. Fo- 
reigners were veiy apt, since Dublin became the capital of Ireland, 
to assign to it some of our bishops that had removed to the Con- 
tinent, of whose real sees they had no account. 

. (108) See BoUandus at St. Wiro. As Pepin was not invested 
with great power until about 680, (see Not. 100) Wiro's arrival 
in France must have been later than this year. 

(109) The year of his death is not known. Harris says {Bishops 
of Dublin, at St. Wiro) that he died in 650. He took this date 
iirom a marginal note in Surius ; but it is certainly a much too 
early one, as appears from the preceding note. Many of the dates 
maiiced in Surius's edition of the Lives of Saints are merely con- 

(110) BoUandus, loc.cit. 

§. IX. \Ve read in the chronicle of Marianus Sco- 
tus, at the years 674, and 67^9 that Ireland was 



then full of holy men, and that St. Dysibod, hav- 
ing given up his episcopal functions, went, accom- 
panied by several persons, from Ireland to Germany. 
(Ill) He is said to have been of a noble family, aiid 
gifted with great genius. Having been rai^d to the 
episcopacy, and officiated as bishop for some years, 
he left his own country, Ireland, and after ten years 
peregrination and preaching, stopped in the diocese 
of Mentz. There, together with three companions, 
he erected a habitation and an oratory on the side of 
a mountain. Several persons flocking to him, par- 
ticularly Benedictine monks, a monastery was estab- 
lished there, (112) in which the rule of St. Benedict 
was observed. Dysibod did not embrace it himself, 
as he led a stricter life than it required. Yet the 
monks refused to submit to any other person but him 
as their abbot. He is said to have died in the' 8 1st 
year of his age^ on an 8th of July. (113) 

About the same time that St. Dysibod went to 
Germany there was living in the territory of Rouen 
an Irish monk, named Sidonias (Sedna), who formed 
a monastery on some ground granted to him by 
Theodoric, or Thierry III. king of Burgundy and 
Neustria. He went afterwards to Rome with St, 
Audeon or Ouen, archbishop of Rouen, in the year 
677* Sidonius died on a I4th of September, at 
which day his name is marked in the calendars. His 
monastery be(4ame, in course of time, a cell belong- 
ing to the house of Fontanelles, and the adjoining 
village of St. Saens has been called from his name. 


(111) ** Hibemia insula Sanctis viris pletta habetur; de qua 
beatuB pater noster Dysibodius, q>isco[)atu abdicato, cuni pkrisque 
sociis egressus hunc locum inbabitavit, et divtnis laudibus hie se a 
fidelibus venerari apud Deum promeruit." Mabillon observes 
(AnnoL Ben. ad, 674.) tbatwhat is here said of Dysibod was per- 
haps inserted by Dodechin the continuator of Marianus' chronicle. 
This seems very probable ; for Dodechin was abbot of the mcmas. 
tery of St. Dysibod, and could have used thephrasea, our blessed 

CHAP. XVIII, OP iHeland. 1 15 

Jather^ this place, andAer^, with greater propriety than Marianus, 
who did not belong to that establishment, although he spent his 
last years not far from it, as it was in the diocese of Mentz. The 
Life of St. Dysibod, which Surius has at 8 July, was written by 
i\\,e abbess St. Hildegardis, and as if by revelation, in the year 
1 170. Much of it is mere common place narrative. 

(112) Mabillon states (/4nnaL Ben. ad A, 674<) that this mo- 
nastery was in the diocese of Mentz, and county of Spanheim, one 
mile distant from the monastery of Spanheim, and two from that 
of Creutznac. 

(113) Mabillon observes, fib, J that, according to the martyr- 
ology of Rabanus, the Natalis of St. Dysibod was celebrated 
in the neighbourhood of Mentz on the 6tlr of September. Ra- 
banus, he adds, calls him simply a confessor y without adding the 
title of bishop* But his being represented as such in the chroni* 
cle of Marianus is a good reason for believing that he really was 
so. As to the story of his having been bishop of Dublin, it ap* 
pears no where except in Wilson's Anglican martyrology. What 
has been remarked concerning St. Wiro (Not, 101) is applicable 
to this case. We naay also pass by Dysibod's having been author 
of a tract attributed to him by Dempster. . (See Ware and Harris, 
Writers at Disibod.) 

(114) See Mabillon (ib.) and compare with Fleury, Z. 39. §, 


§. X. The celebrated bishop and martyr St Kih'an 
the apostle of Franconia, flourished in these times, 
(115) That he was a native of Ii'eland is universally 
admitted; (116) but we have no account of the 
part of it, to which he belonged. He was of an 
illustripus family, and, having embraced the monastic 
life, (] 17) is said to have governed some monastery, 
of which, however, I do not find any particular 
mention. Having distinguished himself by his 
sanctity and great ecclesiastical learning, he was 
raised to the priesthood, and afterwards to the epis- 
copacy. (118) Notwithstanding his being very 
much beloved by his clergy and people, a wish for 
attaining a greater degree of perfection induced him 

1 2 


to visit foreign parts, and accordingly taking with 
him some companions, among whom are named 
Cojoman (119) a priest and Totnan a deacon^ he 
went over, to the continent and proceeded on his 
journey until he arrived at Wurtzburg in Franconia. 
Liking the situation, he determined on fixing his 
abode there ; but, being anxious to preach the Gos- 
pel to the people of that country, who were still 
pagans, he thought it necessary to apply to the Holy 
see for permission to do so, hoping that the then 
Pope, John V. would not refuse it to him. (1'20) 
On his arrival at Rome he found that John was dead, 
1)ut was very kindly received by his successor Conon. 
This occurred either late in the year 686, or early in 
687. (121) Conon finding him well qualified for 
the mission both by the purity of his faith and his 
learning, gave him every requisite faculty for that 
purpose. ( 1 22) Kilian then returned to Wurtzburg, 
accompanied by Coloman and Totnan, who assisted 
him in his apostolical exertions. He was fortunate 
enough to convert and baptize Gozbert, duke of 
that country, whose conversion was followed by that 
of a great number of his subjects. Geilana, to whom 
Gozbert was married, had been the wife of his 
brother. Although Kilian disapproved of his keep- 
ing her as his wife, he thought it advisable to be 
silent on this point, until Gozbert should be well 
confirmed in the Christian faith. The time being 
come when Kilian found the duke fit for receiving 
further instruction, he told him that one thing was 
still requisite for his being quite acceptable in the 
sight of God, viz. that he should part with Geilana, 
whereas their marriage was unlawful. Gozbert 
answered, that this was the most diflicult point as yet 
proposed to him by Kilian ; but that, as he had al- 
ready renounced many things for the love of God, 
he would also quit Geilana, although she was very 
dear to him ; adding however, that, being then hur- 
ried to proceed on a military expedition, he should 


defer until his return the arrangement and execution 
of his design. After his departure Geilana, who was 
informed of what had passed between him and 
Kilian, became determined on revenge, and seizing 
on a convenient opportunity sent at night one of her 
men (123) to put him and his companions to death. 
Kilian, Coleman, and Totnan were singing the 
praises of the Lord, when the assassin arrived. 
They made no resistance, Kilian exhorting . his bre- 
thren to receive the wished for crown of martyrdom, 
and were immediately beheaded. During the same 
night their remains were hastily thrown into the 
ground, together with their clothes and pontifical 
ornaments, the sacred books, cross, &c. This mar- 
tyrdom occurred in 689 on the 8th of July, at which 
day the names of St. Kilian and his companions are 
marked in the Roman and other martyrologies, and 
Kilian is particularly revered at Wurtzburg as its 
patron. saint. (124) 

When Gozbert returned to Wurtzburg, he inquired 
for the servants of God. Geilana said that she did 
not know what was become of them. But the 
whole matter was soon discovered ^ for the assassin, * 
running about in all directions, complained that 
Kilian was burning him with a dreadful fire. Gos- 
bert, calling together his Christian subjects, asked of 
them how that unhappy man should be treated. A 
person present at the meeting, who had been 
suborned by Geilana, proposed that he should be left 
at liberty, for the purpose of trying whether the 
God of the Christians would avenge' the death of 
the martyr," which if he do not, we will, said this 
wiseacre, worship the great Diana as our forefathers 
have done. This proposal was agreed to ; and the 
assassin, being let loose, got into a phrenzy and tore 
himself with his teeth until he expired. It is added 
that Geilana was seized with an evil spirit, whicli 
tormented her so much, that she died soon after. 
The remains of the holy martyrs were found in 752 


(125) by St. Burchard, bishop' of Wurtzburg, and 
removed by him to a great church, which he had 
erected in th^t city. 

(115) Canisius has published (Antiq. led. Tom. 4. al. Tom, S.^ 
part. 1.) two Lives of St. Kilian ; onp rather large, the author of 
which he conjectured to be Egilward a monk of St Burchdrd's 
monasteiy near Wurtzburg, who lived, according to some writers, 
in the 11th century; the other shorter, but more exact, by an 
unknown author. The former is also in Surius (at 8 July) 
and has been republished by Messingliam (Florilegiuniy &c.) and 
others; the latter was preferred for republication in the Acta 
Bened. Sec, 2. p. 991 . particularly as various interpolations have 
been foisted into the larger one. 

(116) It would be useless to collect the many testimonies, that 
might be adduced on this point. In the large Life Kilian's coun- 
try is thus described ; " Scotia, quae et^Hibemia dicitur, insula 
est maris oceani, foecunda quidam glebis, sed sanctissimis darior 
yiris ; ex quibus Columbano gaudet Italia, Gallo ditatur Aleman- 
nia, Kiliano Teutonica nobflitatur Francia.'' Rabanus and Not* 
ke^, in their martyrologies, say that he came from tiihemia Scot' 
arum insula ; Marianus Scotus has Hibernia insula. These and 
other passages to the same purpose, such as from Bellarmine, 
Serarius, &c. may be seen in~ Messingham, FlorU. p. 324*. seqq. 
Among the more modem writers it is sufficient to mention Mabil- 
lon and Heury. 

(117) It is said in St. Kilian's Office in the Benedictine bre- 
viary, that the monasteiy in which he professed the monastic 
rule was that of Hy. Trithemids also calls him a monk of Hy^ 
monachus Huensis in Hibernia ; but this Appears to be only con- 
jectural. According to the large Life Kilian could not have been 
a tnonk of Hy ; for it is stated that he became superior of the 
very hionastery, in which he had made his profession. Now it is 
well knoi^ that he was never abbot of Hy. Trithemius' mean- 
ing was perh^s, that Kilian belonged to the order of Hy, al- 
though livii^ in Ireland. It is odd, that Burke f Office of St. 
Kilian J makes him a Benedictine, which, omitting other observa- 
tions, he could not have been, were he of the order of Hy. 

(118) According to the short Life Kilian was a bishop before he 


left Ireland. And in an old chronicle, quoted bj the abbot Tha- 
daeus of Ratisbon (see Messingham, FlorU. p. 324.) he is spoken 
of as a bishop, prior to his settbg out for the Continent This 
statement has been followed by Fleuiy, Z.. 40. f . 38. But, as 
will be seen lower down, other accounts represent him as having 
been consecrated bishop at Rome. 

(119) In some documente, rdative to St Kilian, Colomanis 
erroneously called Colonat. 

(120) At this part of Kilian's transactions the author of the 
large Life, or rather some interpolater, introduces the fable of 
Ireland having been under an apostohcal censure on account of 
the Pelagian heresy, and accordingly of tlie necessity Kilian was 
under of going to Rome for the purpose of being absolved from 
it. To what has been already observed on this subject (Not 
95 to Chap, XV.) I shall here add, that there is not the least 
allusion to such a censure in the other and more correct Life 
of Kilian ; nor among the old authors, ex. c. Rabanus, Notker, 
Marianus, Scotus, &c, some of whom mention his having got per- 
mission to preach from the Holy see, is there a word about this 
story of Irish Peli^ianism. Nothing relative to any general cen- 
sure or interdict laid upon Iretimd appears in Bede, and the only 
charge brought forward, yet still unaccompanied by ecclesiasti- 
cal censure, against any considerable portion of the Irish people, 
was on the ground of their Paschal and tonsural observances. 
How could the peopte or clergy of Ireland be supposed to lie un- 
der an interdiet, while such crowds of Irishmen were, as was well 
known at Rome, instructing the continental nations i while Fur- 
sey, Foillan, Livinus, Arbogast, Florentius, Wiro, &c. pre^hed 
the Grospel to them without any previous absolution from censures ? 
National interdicts, or general censures of the kind alluded to, 
were scarcely known at that period ; nor is there any historian or 
canonist, who, in his inquiries into the origin of interdicts, has evter 
alleged this pretended Irish one as a specimen of them. (See 
Fleury InstU. au Droit, Sfc. Part. 3. chap, 21.) I shall waste no 
further thne on this silly faWe, except to observe that the pas- 
sage, in which it is contained, is to all appearance an interpola- 

(121) The death of John V. and the accession of Conon have 
been assigned by some writers to 687 ; but Pagi (Critica, Sfc, ad ' 


A. 687. ) maintains that John died in 686, and was succeeded by 
Conon in the same year on the 21st of October. 

(122) In the lai^ Life it is said that Conon raised Kilian to the 
prelacy, in praestdatus officium constituit ; so that he might ex- 
ercise functions peculiar to bishops. The author's meaning seems 
indeed to be, that Kilian was consecrated bishop by Conon, and 
so it has been understood by several writers. This is very proba- 
bly a mistake, founded on the circumstance of Kilian having re- 
ceived from the Pope certain extraordinary powers, with which 
bishops are not usually invested, such as that of erecting episco- 
pal sees, and other privileges requisite in the case of a new mis- 
sion, such in short as those which Gregory the great had granted 
to Augustin towards the formation of churches in England. His 
having obtained such privil^es at Rome might have easily led 
to the supposition, that it was there also that he was consecrated. 
But we liave better authority for believing, that Ejlian was a bishop 
before he lefi Ireland. (See Not. 118.) 

(125) Some accounts state, that Greilana sent two assassins. 
This is a matter of no consequence. It is somewhat singular, that 
Rabanus and Notker, in opposition to every other account, attri- 
bute the order for murdering ICilian, &c. to Gozbert. 

(124) Although St. Kilian is called the patron of Wurtzbui^ 
Mabillon, (at Kilian's Life, Acta Ben. Sec, 2.) Fleuxy, (L, 40. §. 
38) and Basnage (Preface to Kilian's Acts in his edition of Canisius, 
Tom. 3. Part. 1.) deny that he was bishop of that city, as its see 
was not established. until many years later in the eighth century. 
Colgan had said fAA. SS. p. 331.) that, although he was bishop 
of all Franconia, he was not of Wurtzbuig. Yet Marianus 
Scotus (ad. A. 687) expressly calls him bishop of fVurtzburg, and 
so he is named in the chronicles of Sigebert and Rhegino, and by 
many other writers, some of whom, ex. c. Notker, add4hat he was 
its first bishop. This question is easily settled ; for it is not doubted 
by any one, that Kilian was a bishop, nor that, although he 
preached and exercised episcopal functions throughout Franconia^ 
his chief residence was. at Wurtzburg. He was not indeed imme- 
diately succeeded by any bishop there ; whereas firom the time of 
his martyrdom about fifty years elapsed until St. Burchard was 
appointed bishop of that city. But had this interval not taken 
place, and if there had been a bishop .fixed there immediately 


after the martyrdom^ Kilian would have been universaDy called 
bishop of Wurtzburg and its first bishop. What is the reason why 
some old sees are considered as fixed and regular in preference to 
places, in which bishops have presided ? It is no other than that 
in the former there has been an uninterrupted succession of 
bishops, which was not the case with regard to the latter. The 
question therefore is one of mere words, and it is an afiectation of 
canonistical precision to say, that St. Kilian was not bishop of 
• Wurtzburg. He lived there not as a hermit or in a retired manner, 
as, for instance, St. Erard had at Ratisbon, but as a bishop actively 
employed in practising episcopal duties; and this was surely 
enough to authorize the old writers, who treat of him, to give him 
the title of bishop of fVurtzburgy and ^rst bishop of that see, 
whereas no bishop had ever resided there before him. Serarius 
observes, ( Notes to Si Kilian* s Life ap, Messingham, FhrU^ &c. 
p. 328.) that liie ecclesistical monuments of Wurtzbui^ point him 
out as its bishop, and joins those, who call him its Jirst bishop. 
St. Kilian is spoken of as also an author, but, I suspect, on weak 
grounds. (See Ware and Harris, Writers at Kilian.) 

' (125) See Pagi, Critica, &c. ad A. 689. and Colgan, A A. SS, 
at 14 February, where he treats of the translation of the remains 
of St. Kilian and companions. 

S.xi. St. Cataldiisor Cathaldus, (1S56) whose his- 
tory has been already touched upon, (127) flourished, 
I believe, in these times, that is, in the latter half of 
the seve.nth century. It has been strangely sup- 
posed that he lived in the second ; (128) but from 
the accounts, however confused and mixed with 
fables, that are given of his transactions, it is evident, 
that he must have lived at a much later period. As 
to his having been a native of Ireland, there can be 
no question ; (129) and Munster is mentioned as^ 
the province, to which he belonged. (^130) The 
very town, in which he was born, is spoken of; some 
say it was Raschau, and others Catandum, (ISl) 
both which in. our times can scarcely be guessed at, 
except that they were, particularly the latter, sup- 
posed to have been not far distant from Lismpre. 



It is said that his father was named Euchus (Echu), 
and his mother AchlennUf or Athefia. He studied 
at Lismore, where after some time he became a 
professor. (132) His lectures are stated to have 
Wn attended by a ^reat number of students from 
various countries. (133) The times, in which 
Cataldus was thus employed, cannot be precisely 
ascertained ; but they were undoubtedly later by 
several years than 633, about which time the Lismore 
establishment itas founded by St. Carthag. ( 1 34) 
Cataldus, besides instructing others, edified them by 
. his extraordinary piety. He is said to have erected 
a church at Lismore in honour of the Blessed Virgito 
mother of God. ( 1 35) It is added, that Some how 
or other he incurred the displeasure of a king, (1 36) 
who ordered him to be thrown into a dungeon. The 
king soon repented of this violent measure, and, to 
make some amends for the injury Cataldus had sus- 
tained, is stated to have made him a grant of a dis- 
trict, which had belonged to a duke or chieftain 
recently dead, whose name was Meltridis. (137) 
This must be understood with such limitations as 
the discipline of those times, particularly in the Irish 
church, required, and can mean no more than that 
the king asi^igned to him sotne land for endowing a 
church at Rachau, of which place Cataldus was im« 
n^ediately appointed bishop. (l.'iS) This was pro- 
bably about the year 67O. (139) Having governed 
that see for some time he is said to have gone on a 
pilgrimage to Jerusalem, and, on his preparing to 
return thence to Ireland, to have been admonished 
in a vision to proceed to Tarentura. According to 
certain strange stories he found, on his arrival in 
that city, almost all the inhabitants immersed in 
. paganism ; (140) but this monstrous assumption is 
quite irreconcileable with the times of St. CValdus. 
It is, however, very probable that vices, although not 
amounting to idolatry, prevailed there at that period^ 
in consequence of the revolutions and vicissitudes of 


that country. (141) The saint, having landed at 
«otne dfetance from the city, ettrbd on his way to it a 
woman, who had been deaf and dumb, and on enter- 
ing the city relieved a man from blindness. He was 
immediately taken notice of, and preaching to the 
inhabitants was listened to with great attention. 
Not long after he was unanimously appointed to the 
see of lai-entum, which he governed for many years 
with great wisdom and zeal. The year of his death 
is not known ; but it appears that the day was an 
8th of March. (142) It would be unnecessary to 
enlarge on the extraordinary veneration, in which 
this saint is held at Tarentum and elsewhere, and on 
the great number of miracles, which are said to have 
been wrought at his tomb. (143) A curious pro- 
phecy relative to the state of the kingdom of Naples 
about the latter end of the 15th century, and the 
times of Ferdinand of Arragon, the French invasion, 
&c. has been attributed to St. Cataldus ; but it is 
evidently a forgery made up on the occasion of those 
troubles, and has nothing to do with the real history 
of the saint. (144) 

St. Dpnatus, a brother of Cataldus, is reckoned 
among the bishops of Lupiae, or Aletium, now 
Lecce, (145) a noble city of the kingdom of Naples. 
It is said, that these holy brothers lived together as 
hermits for some time near a small town, now called 
San Cataldo. ( 146) Concerning St. Douatus I can 
find nothing further, unless we should admit the 
fiction of Dempster that he was author of one or 
two books. ^(147) 

(1%) The name w Spelled in both these Vays. The ori^nal 
name of this saint was, as Colgan observes, Cathaly or Cttthdld, an 
ftf^Bation very common in Itdand, now softened into CcJial or 
CtihtU, According to our pronunciation of the letter ty the ofd 
Irish would not have v^iVen ^Catald. 

(127) Chap, I. §. S. Colgan, omitting the Cataldias or poetical 
Life of St. Catalaus by Bonaventure Moroni, has published ( at i 


March) the prose Life in two books by his brother Bartholomefr, 
besides a short account of him from Petrus de Natalibus, and an 
office <^ St. Cataldus from the breviaiy of Tarentum or Taranto. 
Usher treats lai^ely of this saint. Prim. p. 751. seqq. The ac^ 
count given of him by the BoUandists is at the 1 0th of May> the 
festival of his Invention and Translation. 

(128) John Juvenis says, in the preface to his History of Ta* 
rentum, that Cataldus was at Tarentum in the year 160> but 
elsewhere he places his arrival there in 166. According to the 
Life by Barth. Maroni his entry into Tarentum was about 170. 
Other writers assign his times to about 500. (See Usher, p. 759, 
and Colgan, A A. SS. p. 560.) Ughelli, in his account of St. 
Cataldus, {Italia Sacroy ad Tarentini Archiep.) merely relates 
the stories of Juvenis and Petr. de Natalibus. They are not worth 
the trouble of refntation. 

(129) Dempster, with his usual effrontery, pretended that Ca- 
taldus was bom in Scotland. - His lies and contradictions on this 
subject have been well exposed by Usher (p, 753.) and Colgan 
(A A. SS. p. 561.) The BoUandists, while they admit that every 
circumstance tends to show, that Cataldus was a native of Ire- 
land, yet, as if to display their ingenuity, throw out a conjecture 
that he might have been from Ragusa. And why ? Because it 
had been said that the name of the place, in which he was bom, 
was Bachau, and that he was sometimes called Cataldus Rachau, 
Then they ask ; might not Rachau have been the same as Rau- ^ 
slum or Ragusiiun ? But those, who thought that Rachau was 
the birth-place of Cataldus, say that it was situated in Munster in 
Ireland ; and as to Ragusa, the BoUandists themselves observe, 
that Ragusa did not exist until it was fonned out of the ruins of 
Epidaurus, which had been destroyed in the 7th century. Not 
only the Maroni in their Lives of Cataldus, but Juvenis, Petrus a 
Natalibus, PhiUp Ferrarius, and many other writers, besides various 
martyrologies, and Offices of St. Cataldus, aU agree in making 
him a native of Ireland. (See Usher and Colgan, locc, citt,) 
And it is to be observed, that in every passage relative to this 
point his country is caUed Hiberniay or the island Hibemia, the 
equivocal name of Scotia not being even once used. 

(130) Barth. Maroni (Life, &c L. 1. c 1.) caUs it Mononia^ 
for which Colgan has justly substituted Momonia. In some old 

CHAP. XVIII. OJ* iRELAltfD. 125 

Offices of St. CatalduB it is written Numenia, which has been 
corrected in a Roman edition into Mononia. (See Usher, p, 

(131) According to the Office ap. Colgan, and others rSPenied 
to by Usher, (ib,) with which Juvenis agrees, the saint's native 
town was Catandum. Maroni says, (Joe. cit) that by some he was 
made a native of Rachau, but observes that the former is the 
more probable opinion, and that the latter was seem'ngly found- 
ed only on the saint's being sumamed Rachau, which, he adds, 
ought to be understood not as if Cataldus had been bom there, 
but as relative to laa having been bishop of Rachau. Colgan has 
some conjectures as to the situation of these places ; bat they 
are far from satisfactory. With regard to Catandum, his suppos- • 
ing {A A. SS. p. 544.) that it might have been a Baile-Cathal^ or 
Cathel's-town, in the county of Tipperary might be admitted, were 
it called, as indeed it is by P. de Natalibus, Cntaldus, so as that 
it had the same name as the saint. There is a place called Bal- 
lycahill in said county at the borders of the baronies of Kilne- 
mana and Kinelogurty. But, besides its being far distant from 
Lismore, the name of the saint's native spot is usually written Ca- 
tandum. As to Rachau, which, Morani says, was formerly a dty 
of some note in Munster, Colgan thought the real name was Ro" 
than, observing that there were three places so called in the 
Nandesi country, in which Lismore is situated, and that one of 
them is now called Sen-Ratkany or Old Rathan. This must, I 
am sure/ be the same as Shanraghan in the barony of If&, county 
of Tipperary. According to the Irish sound of th, Rathan is the 
same as Raghan or Rahan, It is really probable that Shan- 
raghan or Old Rathan is the place meant by Rachau, particularly 
as it is within a short distance of Lismore, not far from which 
Rachau is represented to have been situated. If, instead of i^a- 
chau, we should read Rachan^ {u and n being often interchanged 
in MSS.) the probability would be still greater. Although Col- 
gan's conjecture as to Rathan for Rachau is worthy of attention, 
yet Buike, when republishing (Officio propriay &c.) the Office of 
St. Cataldus from the AA. SS. ought not to have thrust into the 
text Rathan, instead of Rachau, which Colgan has preserved. 
This is not the only alteration he has made in said Office motu . 
proprio, and without any sufficient authority. 


(132) Lifehy Barth. Moroni, X. l.r. 4. and Office. 

(133) In the Office we read ; " Adolescens (Cataldus) liber- 
alibus disdplinis eruditus ad earn brevi doctrinae excellentiam 
pervenit, ut ad ipsum audiendum Galli, Angli, Scoii, Theiitones, 
aliique finitimaruni aliarum regionum quamplurimi Lesxzioriam 
convenirent." Bonaventure Moroni has described thi» conflux in 
the foUQwing verses ; 

" Undique conveniunt proceres, quos dulce traiiebat 
Discendi studium, maior num cognita> 
An laudata foreL Celeres vastissima Rheni 
Jam vada Teutenici, jam deseruere Sicambri : 
Mittit ab extremo gelidos Aquilone Boemos 
Albis, et Arvemi coeunt, Batavique frequentes, 
£t quicmique colunt alta aub rupe Gehennas. 
Non omnes prospectat Arar Rhodanique fluenta 
^ Hdvetios ; multos desiderat ultima Thule. 
Certatim hi properant diverso tramite ad urbem 
Lesmoriam^ iuvenis priHX)8 uhi transigit annos." 

(See Usher, p, 755.) 

(134) See Chap, xiv, J. 14. Not few years must have elapsied 
from the foundation of Lismore until Cataldus began to teach 
there. He had studied himself in that school and spent some 
years at it, befdre he became qualified to be a professor. In his 
time Lismore was well known in foreign countries, which its re- 
putation Goujd not have reached all of a sudden. 

(135) Life, cap, 4. Office, &c. Co%an observes, (A A. SS. p. 
555.) that among eight cliurches, that were in Lismore in his 
time, there was oo^ under said title. 

(136) P. de Natalibu9 makes him king of all Ireland. But, if 
thiSre be lusy truth in the maitter, he must have been rather a king 
of Mtmster. The same 'author as well as^ Moroni and otliers 
assign a very silly cause, not woith mentioning, for the king's 

(137) It can scarcely be doubted that Meltridis, as he is called 
by the Italian writers, was the same person as Moelochtride, a 
chieftain ,of Nandesi, who had granted to St. Carthagh the ground 
for his monastery of Lismore. (See Chap, xiv. §, 14.) There 


is every reason to tbink, that Moelochtnde sunrived St. Caitbaghi 
wlio died in 6S7» and, it is highly probable> even his own ^so 
BniB-finn, who was killed in 666. (See Colgan, A A. SS- p. 561.) 
Kow supposing that he lived until about 670, we have the period, 
at which Cataldus was raised to the episcopacy. The name Mel* 
tridis has been mistaken by some writers as that of the Duke's 
tanritory. There was no principality so called in Ireland. 

(138) In the saint's Life, &c. it is ridicubusly stated that, hav* 
ing obtained this wonderful grant of a whole prindpalijty, he di- 
vided it into twelve bishoprics, and raised Rachau to the rank of 
an archiepiscopal see. Burice, perceiving the absardity of this 
fable, has, in his edition of the Office, diviged the bishoprics into 
parishes and the archiepiscopate into a simple bishopric. 

(139) See 2Vo/. 137. 

(140) This story might agree well enough with the supposition 
of Moroni and others, that St Cataldus arrived at Tarentum about 
the year 170. But as the hypothesis is fidse, so are its conconi* 
tant parts. It is odd, that Burke has retained this tale, whereas 
he lays down, erroneously indeed, that the saint died about 492* 
How could he have imagined, that Tarentum, or a^y other city 
of southern Italy, was at that period almost devoid of Christi- 

(141) The Goths had been driven out of Tarentum in the 
sixth century by the Greeks, who in their turn were expelled by 
the Lombards under RomoaM, duke of Beneventum. (See Pau- 
lus diaconus, De Gestis Langobard. L^ 6* c. 1.) Accoiding to 
Bollandus and Muratori, (Rer. ltd*. Scriptor. Tom. 1. p. 490*) 
Romoald ruled the dutchy of Beneventum from 671 to 687* It 
was, I think, during this interval that St. Cataldus arrived at 

(142) Some writers say it was on 8th of May ; but tbe archives 
of the church of Tarentum and other authorities have the 8th of 
Mflirch. (See A A. SS, p. 559.) 

(143) The second book, whkh is rather large, ^ Berth. Mo- 
roni's woric IS full of accounts of these miracles. 

(144) Whoever wishes to know more about this pcetended 
prophecy may ccmsult the Life by Baith. Moroni, L. 1. and Ware 
and Harris, Writers at Cataldus^ Dempster, in his usual way, 
took it into his head to ascribe to him abo a Book rf Homilies. 


(l^S) See Ughelli, (Italia Sac, ad Aletini sive Lupienses Epis-^ 
ce^i) who quotes J. Ant, Ferraria and Jul. Gaes. Infantinus for' 
iDonatus having been bishop of that city. . Following the fable of 
Cataldus having been at Tarentura in the tsecond century, he ac- 
cordingly assigns his brother Donatus to the same period. He 
speaks of Lupiae and Aletium as one and the same place ; but 
Baudrand (Lexic. Geogr, at Lupiae) states that the ancient Lu- 
piae was a maritime town some miles distant from Aletium, or 
Lecce, and that is now called La Rocca, although, as he observes, 
others think that it was the same as San Cataldo, likewise at 
some miles distant from Lecce. Be this as it may, the see, 
named Lupiensisy is now at Lecce. Barth. Moroni (Li/e of St. 
CatalduSy L, 1. c. IL) makes mention of Donatus as being said 
to have been the first bishop of Lupiae and a brother of St. Ca- 
taldus. Juvenis also relates the same tradition ; ( see Usher, 77. 
760.) and we find it likewise in Philip Ferrarius (Catalog, &c. at 
22 October). As to the name, Donatus^ no object can be de- 
rived from it; fi>r the Irish used to latinize Donagh inta 

(146) Moroni, ib, Juvenis has swelled the time of this eremiti- 
cal life gp to 14 years, observing that San Cataldo lies within ten 
miles of Otranto. (Usher, ib,) 

(147) See Usher, ib, 

§. xiL While this swarm of holy and learned 
men were teaching and edifying foreign nations, 
some persons, distinguished for sanctity or eccle- 
siastical rank, died in Ireland. Maldogar, bishop of 
Ferns, the immediate saccessor of Tuenoc, (148) 
departed this life in 677> and was succeeded by Di- 
rath, who held that see until 6y I . (1 49) In the 
same year died a St. Coman or Com man, whose 
memory was revered on the 18th of March, and 
who is called a bishop in various Irish calendars, but 
of what see is not mentioned. (1^0) Another Co- 
man, sumamed of FemSj and erroneously supposed 
by some to have been bishop there, [151) died in the 
following year 678. (159) To this year is assigned 
the death of Colman abbot of Clonmacnois, (1^3) 


as also that of Kennfael, abbot of Bangor, Mrkose 
memory Was revered on the 8th of said month. 


The holy virgin St. Cera, alias Chier, died in 
680. (155) She is said to have been the daughter 
of one Duibhre, and of an illustrious family of 
Muskerry in the now county of Cork. It is sup- 
posed that she was the St. Chier, who, together 
with five other virgins, applied to St. Fintan Munnu, 
when residing in Heli (Ely O'Carrol) for a situa- 
tion to establish a nunnery, and to whom he is said 
to have assigned the place, where he had lived him- 
self, afterwards called Tech-telle. (156) That St. 
Cera spent some time in this place I do not find any 
sufficient reason for denying ; (157) but it is very 
doubtful whether she got it from Fintan Munnu, or 
whether he had ever resided there. (158) How 
long she remained in Heli we are not informed. 
Returning thence to her own country she founded 
a nunnery, called, from her name, Killchree, now 
Kilcrea, (159) a few miles S. W. from the city of 
Cork, which she governed until her death. The 
reputation of this saint was very great, and her fes* 
tival was kept at Kilcrea not only on the 5th of 
January, the anniversary of her decease, but like- 
wise on the 1 6th of October, as a day of commemo- 
ration. Russin, son of Lappain, a comorban, or 
successor of St. Barr of Cork, and who was in all 
probability a bishop, departed this life in 685. (686) 

St. Ossan, whose name is in the Irish calendars at 
1 7 February, in some of which he is called a bishop, 
died in 686 (687). He is said to have been a 
descendant of king Leogaire j and his memory 
was revered at Rath-ossain, a place named from him 
near the west gate of Trim. (l6l) The death of St. 
Becan of Clonard is assigned to the 16th of April, 
A. p. 687 (68«). (]62) I do not find him stiled 

VOL. m, K 


bishop or abbot ; but he was probably either one or 
the other.' 

(148) See Chap. xvii. }. 7. 

(149) Four Masters and Colgan, 2>. Th.p,564!. According 
to their practice of anticipating the Christian era, they assign the 
demise of Maldogar to 676, and that of Dirath to 690. 

(150) See Not. 36. to Chap. xvii. (151) See ib. 

(152) Usher, p. 968, and Ind. Chron. 

(153) Archdall at Clonmacnois. (154) Idem eX Bangor, 

(155) Colgan, treating of this samt at 5 January, has, from the 
Irish annals, A. 679. i. e. 680 for her death. 

(156) Archdall places Tech-Telle or Teaghtelle in the county 
of Westmeath, because Colgan says that, from having been in 
Heli, it ailerwards was comprized in the western Meath. But by 
toestem Meath Colgan, and the older writers whom he quotes, 
understood not only the present Westmeath, but likewise the 
King's county, in which Tech-Telle ought to be placed, whereas 
no part of Heli ever extended as far as what is now called West- 
meath. Tech-Telle, or the house of Telle, got its name fit>m St 
Telle, sou of Segen, who was contemporary with Fintan Munnu, 
and accordingly lived in the early part of the seventh century i 
l^nd whose memory was revered on the 25th of June. (See A A. SS. 
p. 15. and 713.) Archdall has for this saint another Teach-Telle at 
Teltown in the county of East Meath. And why ? Because Col- 
gan, speaking of him (at /?. 713 ib.) places Teach-Telle in Midia, or 
Meath in general. But he had elsewhere (p. 15.) observed, that 
the part of Midia, in which Teach-Telle lay, was the western ; 
and we have just seen that it was in the tract now called the 
King's county. It is plain, on comparing the passages of Colgan, 
that he knew of only one Teach-Telle. As to Teltown, a place 
not far from Kells to the East, there is no reason to think that it 
owes its name tp any saint, and it is more than probable that it 
is the same, at least in part, as the ancient Tailten, celebrated for 
the sports held there in former tiraes» (See Not. 6. to Chap, v.) 

(157) She is stated to have been in that place before it was 
occupied by St. Telle, The only difficulty is that Telle flourished 
before the death, in 635, of Fintan Munnu. But St. Cera seems 
to have been young at the time she is said to have been there. 


Suppomg that this wius aboat 625^ her having lived until 680 
contains nothing contradictory or unchronologicaL 
(158) See Not. 7S, to Chap.xv. 

(159) Colg^, in the Acts of this saint, which he has endeavoured 
to patch up, pretends tha^ she had founded the nunnery of Kilcrea, 
befime she went to Heli. The only reason, that appears for this 
position, is that he thought, and indeed very strangely, that she was 
the St. Ciara who is mentioned, in the Life of St Brendan of 
Clonfert, as a holy virgin, contemporary with him, and living in 
Muscrighe Thire* He confounded Muscrighe Thire with the Mus^ 
kerry of Cork, not recollecting, as he often does elsewhere, that the 
former was the tract now called Lower Ormpud in Tipperary, whereas 
the Jatter was known by the nam,e of Muscrighe Mitine, This is not 
the worst part of his hypothecs ; for he knew that St. Brendan was 
dead sjnce 577* And yet he would fain make us believe that a per- 
son, who lived until 680, was a distinguished saint in his days* 
To enable us to swallow this anachronism^ he says she might 
have reached the age of ISO. Harris w^ so led astray by this 
stuff, that he assign^ thp foundation of Kilcrea to the sixth 
centuiy. ' Ai^dalli£ays nothing (iE^ Kikre^i) about the time of 
this fepndatioQ ; but (at TepifhUUe) he introduces St. Ceia build^ 
ing an abbeyj ^& he pfdls it 4t Teachtelle, before the year fflQ* 
Passing hf diese absi^rdities, I shall only add that, if there was 
a St., Ciara or Cer^ in Bren4an's time, she was different from 
the ope of Kilcrea, and that she belonged to Lower On?3ond* 
Cdgan ebservei t^, be^i^es the St. Cera of Kilcrea, three other. 
My viijpps of the si^e xisme ^xe mentioned in tJie Irish calen- 

(160) 4 Masters, and Colgan, A A. S$. p. 150. Ware has not 
Russin aoEipng.the bishops of Cork, but Harris has. 

(161) See Colgan, A A. SS. p. 366. 

(162) lb. p. 406. As the date 687 is taken fiom the 4 Mas- 
ters, it may be concluded that it was the same as 688. Yet Ware 
«id Harris (at Bishops of Meath) have retained 687. 

§. xni. Segeti, archbishop of Armagh, having 
held that see for 27 years, (163) died on the 24th 
May, A. 688. (164) and Was succeeded by Flan 
Febhla, sen of Scanlan, whose incumbency lasted 

K 2 


for the same number years. Dirath, bishop of Ferns, 
whose death is assigned to 69 1 , had for successor St; 
Moling, (1 65) who is said to have been otherwise 
called Dayrchell. (l66) He was a native of Hy- 
kinselagh, in Leinster, (16?) and his genealogy has 
been traced to the royal house of that province. (l68) 
According to some accounts he was a disciple of St. 
Maidoc of Ferns. If so, he must have been very 
young at that time, as St. Maidoc died, at the latest, 
in 682. Having embraced the monastic life, he 
founded a monastery at Aghacainid, or, as called 
from his name, Tegh-Moling, now St. Mullen's, near 
the Barrow in the county of Carlow. The precise 
time of this foundation is not known, but it was pro- 
bably about the middle of the seventh century. (169) 
He governed this establishment for many years, part 
of which he is stated to have spent at Glendaloch, 
until he was raised to the see of Ferns in 691. (170) 
We find him under the title of archbishop of Ferns, 
inasmuch as the sort of precedency, which king 
Bran-dubh had procured for that see, still continued 
annexed to it. (170 I^ ^^ y^^r 693 he induced 
Finnacta, the monarch of Ireland, to exempt the 
province of Leinster from the tribute of oxen, with 
which it had been burdened from a very long period 
of time. (172) Some prophecies, relative to the 
kings and affairs of Ireland, have been attributed to 
St. Moling. (173). He died on the 17th of June, 
697, (174) and has been considered as one of the 
principal saints of Leinster. {1*75) His successor at 
Ferns was, it appears, the . fe^qp and abbot Killen, 
who lived until 714. (I76) 

(163) See Chap. xvii. §. 7. 

(164) Ware and Harris (Bishops at Armagh), Colgan has 
from the martyrology of Don^all, A, 687» u e: 688. Hams has 
strangely misrepresented his words (.2V. Th. p, 294<)-on this point, 
stating that he places S^en's death in 686, in consequence of 
his having followed a faulty copy of the Psalter of Ca^heL 


Now the fact is quite the reverse. Colgan found the date 686 
(687) in the 4 Masters, but preferred that of 687 (688) ; and 
the reason he assigns for this preference is, that in the catalogue 
of the archbishops of Armagh, taken from the Psalter of Cashel, 
27 years are allowed for the incumbency of Segen. Thence he 
concludes that, as Segen became archbishop in 660 (661), his 
death ought to be placed in 687 (688). So far then from com- 
plaining of a faulty copy Harris ought to have told his readers, 
that one of the chief authorities for the date 688 assigned by 
Ware, and, before him, in substance by Colgan, is that very 
Cashel catalogue, which may be seen, ib. p. 292. 

(165) Usher {Ind. Chron. ad A. 670.) calls St. Moling second 
bishop or archbishop of Ferns. This is a mistake, which he would 
have avoided, had he not published his primordia before Colgan's 
woiks appeared, in which the true succession of the prelates of 
that see is to be found (See A A. SS, p. 223. and Tr. Th. p. 
S64.) It is strange that Ware, notwithstanding liis having these 
works before his eyes, followed Usher's mistake. He seems to 
have mis\mderstood a passage of St. Moling's Life, in which we 
read that, being conducted to Ferns, he was appointed archbishop 
.of the see of St. Maidoc. It adds, that it had been determined 
by Bran-dubh, king of Leinstef, that the archiepiscopacy of that 
province should be annexed to Ferns (See Usher, p, 864.) 
Ware perhaps imagined, that Bran-dubh was still alive, when Mo- 
ling was raised to the see, and might have been thus induced to 
place him there next after Maidoc, who (h'ed in 632. But Bran- 
dubh was dead since 602. (See Chap. xiv. ^. 10.) But, as I 
have not the Life of St, Moling, wliidi Ware had, I will not deny 
that there may be something else in it, upon which he founded 
his opinion. Yet I find that Colgan, who also had a copy of it, 
reckons several bishops of Ferns between him and Maidoc, without 
even hinting that in said Life he is any wise spoken of as Maid- 
oc*s next successor. According to Colgan, Maidoc was sue* 
ceeded immediately by Mochua Luachra. (See Chap. xvii. §. 7.) 
Yet he observes (^AA. SS. p. 219.) that in an Irish Life of St. 
Maidoc this Mochua has been confounded with St. Moling. 
Colgan proves that this is a palpable error. In the first place 
they were fix)m different parts of Ireland. Moling was a native 
efLeinster, and Mochua of Munster. 2. Mochua died in 652 


(653), and Moling in 697* Next we find their names marked at 
different days in the calendars ; that of Moling being at 17 June^ 
whereas Mochua's is at the 22d of said month. That Mochua 
was the immediate successor of St. Maidoc is evident from what 
is related in this saint's Life, cap, ST. It is there stated, that. St. 
Maidoc, being about to cross a certain ford, said to his diarioteer 
that the person, who would open for them the entnEnce ta it, would 
sit in his see after himself. A number of students, among whom 
was Mochu, as he was afterwards called, were at that time amus-* 
ing themselves heat the ford, when on the saint's coming up Mo- 
chua ran and opened the passage to it. He then with great hu- 
mility said to St. Maidoe ; " O holy man of (rod, I wish to go 
along with ycKi arid to live under your discipline." The saint 
asking him Whence he was, and what was his name, he an- 
swered ; << I am from Mansten and of the people who inhabit 
Luachiia^ and my name is Cronan, The saint then said ; *' Hence- 
forth you shall be dialled Mochua Luachra, (my Chua or Crohan, 
the names Veing the same) come then and follow me." Accrtrd- 
ingly Mochua went off with St. Maidoc, and remained witlrliim 
as long as the saint lived. His progress in piety and 'learning 
was so great, that St* Maidoc appointed him as his successor to 
the see of Ferns. We have already seen, (Not. 84. to Chap* 
VI. and Not. 6. to Chap, xi.) that Luachra was a territory com- 
prized in the now county of Limerick, tmd probably stretching 
into Kerry. Mochua is sometimes called'Dachiui ; but as Colgan 
observes, there is no difference between these names. 

(166) Ware, Bishops at FernSy and Writers, Z. 1. c. 13. ah 

(167) Ware, ih. 

(168) See A A. SS.p, 219. Colgan observes that the mother 
of St Moling was from Luachra ; and this he assigns as th^ rea- 
son for his being sometimes named MoUng Luachra, 

(169) Harris was grossly mistaken {Monasteries) in assigning 
this foundation to the sixth century. How could he haVe ima- 
gined that St. Moling, whom hei admits to have lived until 697, 
had been an abbot before 600 ! 

(170) In consequence of following the. erroneous hypothesis 
of St. Moling having'been the second bishop of Ferns, Ware assigns 
kis accession to A. D. 632. If this were true, his incumbency 


would have been an extraordinary long one, whereas, according 
to Wai« himself he did not die until 697* But how account for 
that see having been held in the interval by Mochua Luachra, 
Tuenoc, &c ? To shove off thk difficulty^ Ware tells us that St. 
Moling bad resigned the see long before his death. W^ere he 
found this information I cannot discover, nor could he, I believe, 
have adduced sny good authority for it. He thought, however, 
that such ojMist have been the case, as otherwise it would be im- 
possible to reconcile the accession of St. Moling in 632 and his 
death in 697 with the fact of there having been four other bishops 
of Ferns in the mean time. 

(171) See JVb*. 135. to Chap. xiv. 

(172) See O'Flaherty, Ogygia, PaH3.cap.56. 

(173) Ware and Harris, }Vriters. 

(17*) The 4 Masters (pp. Colgan, J A. SS. p. 223) have A. 
696. t. e. 697. 
(175) Jb. p. 610. (176) See ib. p. 223. 

§. XIV. Ill these times several zealous and learned 
English ecclesiastics, who had studied in Ireland and 
there practised the monastic life, undertook missions 
to the continent,^ which were set on foot chiefly by 
St. Ecgberetj or Egbert. (177) 'I'his holy man in- 
tended to reach Friesland, by sailing round Gr^t 
Britain, for the purpose of preaching the Goispel in 
that country ; but, in consequence of a violent storm, 
which, before he embarked, drove the ship on shore, 
and conceiving that he was ordered by the Almighty 
to proceed to the monasteries of Columbkiirs insti- 
tution, he desisted from his enterprize, and remained 
in Ireland. . In his stead Vickberet, who was to be 
a compani<m of his, and who also had spent many 
years in Ireland^ \^adertook it in 690, and preached 
for two years in Friesland, but with so little advantage 
that he returned to his retreat in Ireland. (178) 
St« Egbert, jitall not despairing of success, appomted 
to that mission Willibrord or Vilbrord. a very holy 
priest, who was then in Ireland, where he had been 
for twelve yearly (179) and gave him eleven com* 


panions, (180) the most celebrated of whom was 
Suidberet. Having sailed from Ireland in the year 
692, (181) they preached with great success in 
Frieslandf being protected by Pepin Henstatl, who 
^had conquered part of that country from its duke 
Rathbod. (182) About the same time, two English 
priests, both of whom happened to be called Hewald^ 
and who had lived many years in Ireland, went 
thence on a mission to the country of the old Saxons 
in the North of Germany ; but, soon after their ar- 
rival there, they were putlo death. (183) 

Adamnan, abbot of Hy, who had come to Ireland 
in 692 (184) on a visitation of the monasteries 
subject to his jurisdiction, returned to it in 697* (185) 
It must have been on this occasion that the synods 
called that of Flan Febhla, archbishop of Armagh, 
and Adamnan, was held. (186) There are extant 
certain decrees, usually termed the Canons of Adam- 
nan^ and which are chiefly relative to some meats 
improper for food, together with a prohibition of 
eating such of them as contain blood. It is said 
that they were passed in this synod ; ( 1 87) but it 
can scarcely be supposed, that its labours were con- 
ffned to matters of such little consequence as these 
Canons are relative to. 

(177) See above Not 51. 

(178) Bede, Z. 5. c. 9. and Fleiny, JL. 40. J. 47. 

(179) See Alcuin's Life of St. Willibrord, add Colgan, A A. 
SS. p. 433. 

(ISO) Bede, L. 5» c. 10. This number of twelve missionaries 
was fixed upon in imitation of several Irish saints, w1k>, when pro- 
ceeding on missions, took along with them twelve assistants, fol- 
lowiqg the example of our Saviour, who appointed twelve apostles. 
Thus Columbkill was accompanied to Hy by twelve persons, and 
Columbanus took with him the same number to Ifrance. Several 
other instances of this practice are mentioned by Colgan. AA^ 
SS. p. 436. In like manner Egbeit, the framer and director of 
the Frisian mission, sent his twelve co-operators to that country. 


(181 ) See Smith's Notes to Bade, L. 5. c. 9-10. Usher asa^ 
(Ind. Chron.) this expedition to 6^, and fleury (£. 40. §. 4?.) 
to 690 ; but Smith's dates are more correct. 

(182) Bede, L. 5. c. 10. It does not belong to me to inquire 
into the situation or present den<Mninations of the countiy caUeid 
by Bede Frena, as these points do not form any part of Irish his- 
tory. On them the curious reader may consult Smith, NtnteSf tb. 
For the same reason I shall not eater on the further proceedings of 
Sc Willibrord and his con^nions. 

(183) Bede, ib. Mr. Lingard says, {AngL Sax* Church, ch. 
id.) that the two Hewalds were brothers. Had they been so, 
Bede would not have omitted to mark it. Nor had Mr. Lingard 
a r^t to make them disdples of Egbert. We read indeed in 
Bede's martyrology, (at 3 October) that they came with St. Wil- 
libnnd to Germany. But this cannot mean, that they belonged to 
the party of the eleven assistants given to him by Egbert ; for 
Bede {Histor. &c, ibJ) expressly distinguishes them ifrom that party. 
And Mr. Lingard himself represents them as distinct from it, and 
as not having left Ireland untO after it had arrived in Friesiand. 
Its bemg stated in the martyrology, that they came to Grermany 
vrith WiUibrord, if however there be not some mistake in the text, 
must be understood as to their having come about, or soon after, 
the time of his arrival there. That they were not disciples of Eg- 
bert, is evident irom the manner in which Bede speaks of them- in 
his history, ib. Having made mention of Egbert but a few lines 
before, and related how he sent WiUibrord and his oompani<ms to 
Friesiand, he then states that certain two priesU, duo quidam 
preshfteriy named Hewald, following their example, &c. Would 
he have written in this manner, had they been disciples of Egbert? 
On the contrary, he speaks of them as persons apparently unknown 
to him. Mr. Lingard, not content with this unfounded supposi- 
tion, tells us that they set out on their mission ivith the permission 
and benediction of their teacher (Egbert.) Now of this permission, 
&C. Bede has not a word, as he certainly woukl have had, were the 
matter true. This gentleman would fisun make his readers believe^ 
that all the English clergymen, monks, and students, then in Ire- 
land, were under the care of Egbert and instructed by hhn. If 
such were the case, he should indeed have had a monstrous great 
establishmeW. But the fact is, that there is no reason to sup- 


peee, ibBl Egbert goTented any mosiastefy or r^igbiis h6tm in 
Ireland. Bede, who is the best aothord^ op this nabjecty as Mf- 
ing been his contemporaiy, (for he sunrived hitn onl^ Jtbont wot 
yean) fdthough he makes mentaofi of him Yeiy .o^eoy never c^ 
him an abbot or head of an inttitution^ He represents him ao a; 
holy (wiest-zealoua in teaching and gmpg goodjuivjc^ (sefe X. ^* 
c« 27* and Li 5&^. 22*) but does dot say a woed about his haWng 
been a mperior of any establiahnKaoit. He qbUs Ytdkbexet a comV 
panion of his, (L. 5. c. 9.) that is, not a e(mstant one* whefeiks 
Vickbei^led the life of a hermity. (see .2&O but. as one .of those, 
whom he had induced to join him in his intended nu'sson to Frie&- 
land. Akdn m;^ (Life of Si. Wmtrard) thatnot onlj Vkk^ 
beret but likewise Egbert iSpent his time in. solitude, attending to 
conteo^lation and Ihe^ senaoe. of Q6d\ ^ dqlcissimos supetnae 
canteinplariofHir froctus- isecuk) nisdus, Deo plenus, soUtctria^O" 
tide haaiid)at ' contfertatione" He adds, that Willibrord, who 
went to Irdand in the 20l3i year of hia.age» because, be heard that 
scholastic erudition flourished theie> *\ fuiain Hiiemia $chok^ 
ticam erudHickam vigim^ dut&vk, attached Ihim^lf (0 Egbert and 
YidLfoeret, bywhosetxibvematipn he. waa greatly. ampi:«tTed m {^iet^ 
and virtue. But as to^ the learning, which he ap^'|:ed duijiig 
twelve yeasr study, Alcuin attribtifa^ it to the iostnKstion f)ot of 
these his two iiiends, as Cressy i^ates {Ckur;;h hkU &c. B, 20. 
ch. 6.) nistramdating his words^ but of others, whom he calls 
exctUmt masters h6th qfhafy rdigion and sacred reading, and that 
these welie kish teaefam^ he expresriy states in the second book of 
said Life, ex. tl just ator tbe beginning; 

'^ Auem tibi jam genuit foecunda Britannia mater 
Dociaque nutrivit studiis sed Hibemia sacris, 
Nomine Wxttbrordus," 

And again in ch* 38. 

^ Xk dudum oeebu, foecunda Britttmia mater, 
Fatria Scottorum clara magistra fiat*" .« 

Egbert^s sending WiUibrord and others on the Fxiesland mission 
proves nothing more than that his influence was great, particularly 
0verhi8 cauntrymen; and as to WiUibrord he had an especial 




claim on him, as he was one of his chief directors in the pracdoe 
of piefy. Bede sajrs, (L. S. c. 27.) that Egbert was very service- 
able both to the English and Iridi, &c. among idiom he lived, 
(for he never returned to Britain) by the example of his life, his 
assiduity in giving instruction firutantia docendij, his freedom in 
reproving, and his charity in giving ahns out of what he used to re- 
ceive from the rich. The instantid docendiis relative^' merely to 
his zeal in preaching, catechizing, &c» and ctonot be understood 
of his having been abbot or superior of any particular establish- 
ment ; for Bede represents him as then miidng with the tarious 
nations, among whom he reckons even the i^cts, not those of 
Britain, but such of them as Egbert met with dsewhere, for in- 
stance in the Western Isles, in which he spent a great part of his 
later days. For it is to be observed that, after he gave up his in- 
tention of proceeding to the continent, he withdrew from his ie.« 
ti-eat, and moved from place to place, ihstmcting the people and 
visiting chiefly the Columbian monasteries. (See Bede, L, 5. c.9.) 
On the whole there is not the least foundation for supposing, that 
Egbert governed a great school res6rted . i by English students* 
The monks, students, &c.from England were, exclusively of the 
establishment formed for them at Mayo, (above §. 2.) dispersed 
throughout various monasteries and schools in different parts of 
Ireland. (See §. 1.) Their numbers were so great, that they ex- 
cited the jealousy of Aldhelm, and induced him to write his 
angry, macaronic and ridiculous letter (iVb. 13. in Ep, Hib. Syll.) 
to Eahfnd, or Eadfrid, who had been one of them, and who after- 
wards became bishop of Lindisfame. Among other complaints he 
says, that whole fleet-loads of Engilish students used to saO to 
Ireland. '< Hibemiay quo catervatim isthinc lactores dasribus 
advecti confUiuntr 

(184) Usher, Jnd. Chron. (185) Usher, tb. 

(186) Coigan says (,AA. SS. p. 478) that he had the AcU of 
this synod, and that it was attended by forty aniistHeSj that is, 
bishops or abbots, as he explains himself in TV, Th. p. 218. fn 
the fonner place he assigns it to A, D. 695 (696); but in the 
latter he states that it was held aboiU said year. I wish he had 
published these Acts. 

(187) Coigan (AA. SS* p. 882.) mentions the Canons of 
Adamnan as part of the Acts of said synod. Tliey are eight io 


number, and may be seen in Martene's Theasaur, Nov* Anecd. 
(Tom, 4. col. 18). They are of very trifling import, except inas- 
much as ' they show, that the {»BCtice of abstaining from blood, 
according to the Apostolic precept, {Ads xv. 29.) continued to 
be observed in Ireland as late as the times of Adamnan. The se- 
cond canon runs ,thus ; Pecora de rupe cadentia, si sanguis edrum 
effusus sit, recipienda. Sin vero, sed fracta sunt ossa eorum, et 
sanguis Jbras nonjluxit, refutanda sunt. Others of them con- 
tain rules with r^ard to using or not using the flesh of animals, 
that had eaten morticinumf u e. the carrion of animals that died of 
themselves. In the eighth the owner of a horse or beast grazing 
in land annexed to a town, which may have wounded or hurt a 
person belonging to said town, is ordered to pay a fine to the in- 
jured person. 

§• XV. Among the fathers, who coinposed said 
synod, I find the name of St. Aldus or Aedh, bishop 
of Sletty, who died in 699, (188) and whose name 
is in the Irish calejidars at the 7th of February. (I89) 
This was the Aidus, to whom a writer, called Mac-^ 
cuthenuSf addressed his Life of St. Patrick, of which 
only some fragments remain. (190) Colga, abbot 
of Lusk was dso one of them. (191) Concerning 
him nothing further is recorded, except that he was 
the son of one Moenach. (192) Another of the 
members of that synod was St. Killen abbot of 
Saigir, who is called son of Lubne, and whose 
memory was revered on the 12th of April. (193) It 
was attended also by St. Mosacra, the founder and 
abbot of the monastery of Tegh-Sacra, ('Ike house of 
Sacrot this being his original name) which is stated 
to have been not far distant from Tallagh or Tallaght 
in the county of Dublin. It was afterwards cafled 
Tassagardj now contracted into Saggard. St. 
Sacra or Mo-sacra is said to have been of an illus- 
trious family, and the son of one Senan. He go- 
verned for some time also the monastery of Finn- 
magh in Fotharta, apparently somewhere near Wex- 
ford. (194) It is said, that he had been likewise 


abbot of Clonenagh; (195) but I suspect^ that he 
has been confounded with another person of the 
same name. (I96) The year of his death is not 
known ; but he must have lived until after the hold- 
ing of the^ynod in 679. The day marked for it is 
the third of March. A Mochonna, who subscribed 
the acts of said synod under the title of Antistes 
Dorensis^ is supposed to have been abbot of Derry. 
(197) He must not be confounded with St. Mo- 
chonna, called of Dore-Bruchaise^ who died in 688 
(689). Mochonna of Derry was a very holy man, 
rad lived until 704f (705). His name is marked in 
the calendars at 8 March as the anniversary of his 
death. (198) 

(188) Tr. Th. p. 218. The 4 Masters have A. 698, t. e. 699. 

(189) A^. SiS.p.221. 

(190) Usher, p. 818. Concerning this Maccuthenus Colgaii 
has(rr. Th.p. 218.) three conjectures. 1. That he might have 
been the same as Mocumthemne, one of the twelve pawns who 
accompanied Columbkill to Hy in the year 563. But this can* 
not, as he acknowledges, be reconciled with the circumstance of 
Maccuthenus having been contemporary with Aidus of Sletty. 
2. That he was Cucumneus, sumamed the Whe, who, according 
to the Annals of Ulster, died in 746, or, as the 4 Masters state, 
in 724 ; and who wrote a hymn in honour of the blessed Viigin. 
By prefixing the particle Mo to his name he would have been called 
Mocucumnetu, Although this name is very unlike MaccuthenuSf 
Hnd, there is some difficulty as to the times, yet Colgan prefers this 
conjecture to the others, and it is the only one of them, that 
Hanris relates (Writers at MacctUhenus.) Now the third conjee* 
ture is fuc better than it, and 1 think, the true one. It is, that 
Maccuthenus is only another name for Adamnan, who, it is well 
known, wrote a Life of St. Patrick. (See Chap, iii. §. 5 ) He 
was the grandson of one Tenne and accordingly was sometimes 
called Hua- Tenne or Mac-ua- Tenne, a descendant of Tenne. In 
the passages of the Tripartite histoiy of St. Patrick, where the 
older writers of the saint's Acts are mentioned, he is sumamed 
Huu'Tenne. The name Maccuthenus ia plainly Mac-ua^Tenne 


latQii^sed. Af Ibepa is no s^ccowal er tradition in Iriib' histoiy of 
anj Mapcuthei}^ biopuph^ pf St. Patrick, dijEerent from J^dam' 
nan, it ppfe^po vf^ qgite de^ tbfri^ the imly difference on this 
point oonsifts in the swoame having been sbnetiBies used instead 
of the pppernain^ as was ijqe^entiy the case among the ancient 
Irish. I 9ped pot remind the reader, that Adanman and Aidus 
were^ecntemppraries and aequaiDte4 with each other. 

(isi}) Ck^gan, fnd. qhr(m, Ap 695. ad AA.^S. 

( \92) See A4* SS. p. 382. (19?) Hf p. 473. 

(194) (^<^aqm% Fotharta see Nst. 138 to Chap. 1. 

(195) AjrChdall (at Clonenagh) quotes Colgan as if assigning 
the death of the abbot Mosacra of that place to A,^50. Colgan 
9ajB no such tlungi noi? indeed could he» as he knew that Mosa- 
cra was present at the grand synod more than 401 years after 
that date* 

(196) Among the documents rrferred to by Colgan fAA. SS. 
at 3 Mart. p. 454.) where he treats of St. Mosacra, are tibe Ca- 
l^^dar (^ Csflhel And the MaEtyiokgy of Donegal^ in both of 
w)udi he is callM abbot. of Clonenaghy a(id is stated to have 
]j9r^ in jtbe time of Neill Glaadubh king of Ireland* Now this 
king did noit begin to reign until the 10th ccptuiy. It is diere- 
lore probaibte, that the Mosacm xrf* Clonenagh was idifferent from 
the one (of T^h-sscra. ^ 

(197) Colgan, having observed ( A A. &S. p, 666.) thai, there 
wef^ many places in Ireland, whose names began with Dare or 
Daife^ from ]the oak fonests in which they were situatedj lliiliks 
Aat Poicei, wb^i^ejthis JKochonna wias abbot, was Ikfrf^ iiuuh 
much as it was the most celebrated of th^n ail, and accosdingly 
it was not necessary to join to the signature Darensis its addi- 
tional name Chalguigh. Had Mochonna belonged to any odier 
Doire, its distinguisbmg name would have been added. .Accoid- 
ingly he reckop^ him {Tr. Ti. p, 603,) ampng the abbots of 

(198) A A. SS. p. 666. Yet Colgan eisewheise (Tr. Tk. p. 
503. and 506.) says that his memoiy was revered on the Sd of 





Lohgsech — Congatl Kennmagar — Fergal, son qf 
Malduin^^Fogartach Hua Cemach^^Kineth and 
Flahertach successively m&narchs qf Ireland'^ 
SS. Herhg or HierologtiSf and Colman bishops 
qf Lismore — Theodoric or Turlough king qf 
Thomond, retires from the world and receives the 
monastic habit Jrom St. Colman^Fouruiatij^ni qf 
. the see qf KiUahe^-^t. Flanndnitsjirst l4?hop^ 
Monastery of KiUaloe founded by St* Molua 
L^bhar-^St. Aidan brother of St» Flqaman — 
Adammm^ abbot qf Hyy again sent on an embassy 
to Alfrid king qf Narthumberland^^^adQpts the 
Roman mode of ob^ruing the Paschai festival-^ 
persuades, several qf the Northern Irish to do 
so^-r-Deatk qf Adamnan — succeeded as -abbot qf 
Hy by Oman Mae Failb/ie-^St. Mooldobhorchon 
bishop (f KildarC'-^Lochan Meann^ sumafned 
. the mse-^^reat conflagration at Kildare'^Cona- 
mail Mac Cartiaig bishop qf Mmfy dies, and is 
succeededby Cellach'^Death qfSt. Qaide or Caidm 
bishop at Hy — Succession qf several abbots qf 
Hy — The priest Egbert sent Jrom Ireland toHy, 
prevailed on tfte monks of that estabUskment< to 
receive Jhe Roman Paschal Cycle*^ Death, qf 
Dunchad abbot of Hy-^Folchua mfte JDorbene 
abbot qf Hy^--People qf Hy expelled by Nectan 
or Naitan king qf tlie Picts^^St. Cak-Obristus— 
St. Cronan bishop of Lismore-^Colman 6 Liathan 
'^SL Adamnan bishop qf Raikmuighe-^Monas- 
tery (f Mayo possessed by the English^-^t. 
Segretia Virgin^^^St Samthanna and oth^r holy 
virgins^^Death qfSuibhne archbishop, qf Armagh 
— St. Foeldooar bishop qf Clogher^^Reign qf 
Aodh Ollain and other Irish monarchs-^Deaths 
^ ofSS* Mancldn qf Taaim-greine, Cormac bishop 
qf Trim, ^.^^Feargal or VirgiliUs bishop qf 


Saltzburg — St. Alto a companion of Virgilius^^ 
Deaths qf MoeUmarchan and other holy bishops 
and abbots^ Jrom A. D. 7^7 lo A. 787. — St. 
HemeUn^ St, Mono, St. Rumold and other Irish 
Saints who flourished in the Continent — Deaths of 
Ferfiigill bishop of Clondalkin and others. 


Finn ACT A, monarch of Ireland, who fell in 
battle A. D. 695, (l) was succeeded by Longsechy 
a grandson of Domnald the second (2) by his son 
Aengus. Having reigned nine years (3) he was 
killed, together with three sons of his, fighting 
against Keliach, son of Ragall, king of Connaught. 
Congall Kennmagar, ^who was also a grandson of 
Domnald II. by hjis son Fergus, and consequently 
a fii*st cousin of Longsech, was then raised to the 
throne in 704, and held it for seven years, when he 
died suddenly in 711. (4) CoragaU's successor was 
Fergal, ^on of Maiduin, and great grandson : of 
Aidus Hnaridni or Huanriodnach. (5) He reigned 
eleven years, and was killed at the battle bf Cath- 
Almain by Murchad, son of Bran, king of Leinster, 
on the nth of December, A. D. ^&'^. (6) Next 
after Fergal was Fogartach Hua-Cernach, son, of 
Niell, and great grandson of Diermit IL (7) Fo- 
gartach reigned only one year and some months, 
having lost his life in J^if, fighting against Kineth, 
who succeeded him as monarch of Ireland. Kineth 
was a son of Irgalach, and grandson of Conang, a 
nephew of Diermit II. After a reign of three 
years he was killed in the battle of Drum-chorcain, 
A. 727, (8) by Flahertach, son of king Longsech, 
who, having ruled retired seven years, (9) for in 734 
to a monastery in Armagh. 

St. Hierlog, whose name has been hellenized into 
HierologtiSj was bishop aud abbot of Lismore in 
the^latter end of the seventh century. I find no- 


diing further concerning him, except that he died 
on the l6th of January in 699. (10) He was suc- 
ceeded, both as abbot and bishop, by St. Colman, 
^ native of Ibh-Liathain, (in and son of Finbar who 
belonged to the illustrious house of Hua Beogna, 
dynasts of that country. Colman has been called 
also MocholmoCj that is, m^ Colman. (12) He had 
embraced the monastic life at Lismore, where he 
distinguished himself by Ihs piety and learning. 
His incumbency lasted only about four years, as he 
departed this life on the 22d of January, A. D. 
703. ( 1 3) St. Colman is said to have been already 
bishop of Lismore^ when he was visited by the 
Dalcassian prince Theodoric, or Turlough, king of 
Thomond. He was the son of Cathal, and grand- 
son of Aodh or Aidus Coemh, (14) who had been 
king of all Munster and brother to St. Molua* 
iobhar. (1.5) Theodoric had ruled his kingdom 
for some time, and was the father of several chil- 
dren, among whom was St. Flannau of Killaloe, 
when he determined on retiring into a monastery. 
Accordingly he repaired secretly to Lismore, and 
received the monastic habit from St. Colman. As 
this saint was then a bishop, (16) Theodoric must 
have been far advanced in years as that time ; for 
his father Cathal is said to have died in 625. (17) 
Notwithstanding his age, which, according to this 
date could not be less than 75 years, it is related, that 
he employed himself at Lismore in breaking rocks 
and making a convenient road up to the monastery. 
It is added, that, with the permission of Colman, 
he afterwards returned to his kingdom fqr the pur- 
pose of repairing the ravages it had undergone. (18) 
It is probable, that this pious prince died npt long 
after his return to Thomond, and he is said to have 
been buried in the church of Killaloe. (19) 

{!) See Chap, xviii. §. 3. • (2) See Chap, xiv. §• 1. 



{9) Oindhcrty, Og^g. Part.S.c.9^ Ware, ( AnttquUm cap. 
4.}6ajr», 8y00rs. 

(4<) This is the year tnaiked by O'Elfldieity, ib. Ware has A, 
TlO. Bat they agree as -to the seven years of Conq^'s r&ffx, 
Wfut ^hairing ^placed its commencemeiit in 70S. 

(5) See CAflp. XIV. J, 1. <. 

(6) 'Ware, id. This date comes :to ^e same point With tb« 
cmnjnitaHoo of OTlaberty, who aliovra eleven years from tfaft 
i«^ of Coog&ll, reckoning fiiom 711} while, accordmg to th^t of 
Ware, it lasted twelve. 

*{7) See CAa/>. Xfv.=§. 1. ' 

(8) GTlaherty, ih. Ware has, in 728, thus allowing four years 
for 'the reign of Kineth. 

' (0) Ware says, mx years. 'His'Computation and O'Flaheety^s 
's^e ats to the 'termination of 'Flahertach's rdgn in 7S4«, whereas 
\ie assigns the beginning of it to 7^8, which O'Flalierly places in 


(10) 4 Masters, and Colgan, A A. SB. p. 155. Their djiAj^ 698, 

(11) Ibh-fLiathain, orthe territory of the O'L^hans was, as al- 
ready observed ihore than onee, in ^ now county of Cork. 

'Colgan, treating of thislSt. Colman^t@!2 Januaiy, matksitssi- 
tii&tion in a 'veiy 'dear manner by stating, that it lay betwecD 
Cork and YooghdL . 

(12) Colgan remarks that Colman and Colmw are the same 
ilatne, ^bemg'both diminutives 6f'Cdtm(<isc Co^m) contracted for 
tHolumia.^ In lik^ mannier another St Colman, who was contem- 
porary with the one of Lismore, and whom Colgan calls -Colman 
ofX/ann, got also the name of Mothohnoc, As the history of 
Colman of Lami is exceeditigly obscure, I' shall avsol myself of 
this opportunity merely to* mention what Colgsm has - endeavoiH-ed 
to pick up conceming'him at 30 Mardi. 1. He was a native of 
a part of Odter, called Hz-Guo/^ or* OaiU-Jiney perhaps the Gal- 
len hills in the County of Tyrone* ^. He governed three monas- 
teries or churdies, viz. Cambos, now' Camus, a monastery i^' the 
diocese of Deny, which had been founded by St. Comgall of 
Bangor (see Not. 201. to Chap* x.); a church, either in the 
diocese of Down or in that of Dromore, at a place called Zann- 
Mocholmoc ; and another, apparently in the diocese of Dromore, 


at a place called Linn-HuachaUle. S. He die4 on the SOth of 
March, A. D. 699, u e, 700 Colgan adds, that he was maternal 
brother of another St. Golman, son of Luachain, and known hj 
the name of Coltnan qf Lann'itmc. Luachain in Meath, whose 
name is in the calendars at 17 Jun^. 

(13) The 4 Masters and Colgan have A. 702> the same ^ our 

<14) Ogygia, Part. 3. c. 83./?. 389. 

(15) See Net. 9S. to Chcq) xii. 

(16) It is expressly stated in the lile of St Flaonan, quoted 
by Colg9p, {A J. SS. p. 154.) that Colman was hmbop of lis- 
more when c^Ued up<Mi by Theodoric. 

(17) The 4 Masters, referred to by Colgan {ib, p. 149) assign 
the death of king.Cathal to A. 62^ (625.) 

(18) See Colgan fib.p* 154.) from the Life q£ St. Flannan. 

(19) Ware, Antiq. cap* 29 at Killaloe ; and Harris, .jB»Aqp, 
at said place, 

§. IT. To these times, that is> to the latter .pi^ 
of the seventh, or the beginning of the eighth .cen- 
tury/ o^ght, I thii>k, to be assigned the mundation 
of the see .of Killaloe. l\a first bishop was St. Flan- 
nan, who, acco^diog to every account, was, a sou qf 
,the ^above po^ntiooed king Theodoric. (20) He 
,^Qu]d mot have been a disciple of St. Molua, (Si) 
lyhp yvas undQubti?d|y dead before fl^nnan was bora. 
tint it is very prpbable that he studied in th^ moni^- 
tqry^of .Killaloe, which seems to !have been found' 
Qd by the St. JVlplua surnamed Labhar, or the h^- 
p^r, who was his great grand uncle. Hence w 
might have been csQled a ;sicholar of St. Molua, ;iji 
^consequ^nce of .having been ,a student of the house^ 
lyjiiah was known by the name. of that saiut* Ap 
what .pi;ecise time he . became bishop of Killaloe is 
qipt k^own.; hut it must Mvcbeen many years later 
than the period which ;spme writers have assigned 
f9r it. ^3^ It is said that Tbeodoric, the father of 
jSt. Flannan, endowed .this see with ample revenues ; 

L 2 


(23) but whether it was founded before that prince 
retired to Lismore, or after his return to his king- 
dom, I ani not able to determine. Nor can I find 
how long it was held by St. Flannan, nor in what 
year this saint died. (^4) His festival is kept on the 
18th of December. A St. Aidan, whose history 
is still less known, is said to have been a brother of 

(20) Colgan had a Life of St. Flannan, which he intended to 
publish at 18 December, as had also Ware, who quotes the be- 
ginning of it in his first book of Writers, cap. IS; al. 15. They 
were different works, as appears from the disagreement between the 
words adduced by Ware and those, with which the Life extant at 
Louvain in Harris's time began, and which was undoubtedly the 
one referred to by Colgan. These words are ; " Flannus itaque 
ejusdem Theodorici regis Jlliiis" (See Harris's addition to Ware, 
loc. cit) They are quite difierent from those given by Ware. Yet he 

'calls Flannan son of king Theodoric, following, we may be sure, 
' the authority of the Life, which he had. 

(21) Ware says {ArUiq. cap. 29. and Bishops at KiUaloe) that 
Flannan was a disciple of the abbot St. Molua, who lived about 
the end of the sixth century, for some time at Ejllaloe, which 
from him got its name. He speaks of St. Molua in general, so 
that a person may think that he meant the celebrated Molua of 
Clonfert-molua. But as far as I am able to judge, the Molua of 

' Killaloe was, although contemporary with him, a different person, 
and the same as Molua Lobhar. (See Chap. xii. §. 7.) Flannan 
CQuld not have been a disciple of either of them ; not of Molua 
Lobliar, who, as above seen, was a grand uncle of his father 
Theodoric and, in all probability, did not survive the sixth cen- 
tury; nor of the other Molua, who died soon after the com- 
mencement of the seventh. (See iBJ) Nor was he bom before 
this century was pretty far advanced ; for, as his father was, when 
at Lismore, during the episcopacy of St. Cohnan,'and consequetitly 
about A. D. 700, still able to work at making roads, &c he can- 
not be supposed to have been at that time more than eighty years 
of age. Accordingly Flannan's birth must, at the earliest, be as- 
signed to between 640 and 650. 


(22) Aocoiding to Ware {Bishops at KilUUoe) Flannan was 
consecrated at Rome by Pope John IV. in 639. Harris and 
others have followed him without any examination. Whether 
Flannan was ever at Rome I shall not stop to inquire, although 
I must observe^ that Colgan in a long list (A A, SS,p, 900.) of 
Irish saints, who travelled to Rome, has not Flannan among 
them, as he certainly would, had he found such a circumstance 
related in the Life, which he had in his hands. Ware must have 
taken it from the other Life; (see Not. 20.) but it is to be recd- 
lected, tliat some of our hagiologists have sent to Rome several 
Irish saints, who never were in that city. As to John IV. and 
A, 639, I cannot but suspect, that in Ware's document no par- 
ticular year was mentioned, and that the Pope was named John 
in general without the addition of any number. Ware might have^ 
thought that he was the fourth of that name, in consequence o 
his supposition that St. Flannan was a disciple of St. Molua, and 
consequently flourished in the early part of the seventh century. 
As John the fourth was the earliest Pope John of said century, he 
was the fittest for Ware to fix upon. He then laid down the year 
639, thinkiiig that John was then Pope. In this, by the bye, 
be was mbtaken; whereas John was not consecrated until very 
late in 640. (See Not 88. to Chap, xv.) Had Ware not been 
wrong as to the period in which Flannan flourished, .he would have 
looked to Pope John V. in 686. or to John VI. in 701. Whether 
Flannan was consecrated, or not, by a Pope called John, it is 
certain that he could not have been a bishop either in or about 
639, a time, at which it is more than probable he was not as yet in 
the world. (See Not. prec.) 

(23) Ware, Antiq. cap. 29. and Harris, Bishops at Ktikdoe. 

(24) On these points Ware and Harris are silent. Colgan has 
scarcely a word about St. Flannan, except at A A. SS. />. 154. 
where he calls him bishop of Killaloc. 

§. III. Adamnan, having returned to Hy after 
the synod held in ()97» was again sent by his Irish 
countrymen as legate or ambassador to his old friend 
Alfrid, king of Northumberland, some time» it 
seems, in the year 70 1 » or 702. (25) On this oc- 
casion he was urged by some persons to receive the 


Roman Paschal computation, &c. (26) Examining 
the tsrtibjecW in question, and observing the Roman 
pi'actiees, he became persuaded that the Roman cycle 
Was preferable to the old' Irish one, and had no ob- 
jection to whatever other observances were followed 
to England. (27) While 6n this embassy, Adam- 
han presented to Alfrid his work on the places of the 
Holy ktndf &c. (28) On his return to Hy he en- 
deavoured to introduce there, and in other places 
itobjeict to its jurisdiction, the Rdman computation, 
but was hot able to bring the monks over to it. He 
i^lefd^ to Irefend apparently in the latter part of 70^, ' 
^nd- teierted himself to induce the Northern Irish to 
Mopt thiat Computation, and was so far successful as 
to persuade almost all of them to do so, with the en- 
cepticm' of those, who were immediately under the 
croiltroul of die monastery of Hy. (29) Adamnan 
remained in Ireland until after the Easter of 704, 
whi^h he celebrated at the time prescribed by the 
Roman cycle. Then returning to Hy he Kved only 
for a short time after, as he died on the 23d of Sep- 
tiettiber in the course of said year, (SO) and in the 
77th of his age. (3 1 ) AdamnaH has been justly con- 
sid<ered as 6ne of the fathers of the Irish church, (3^) 
and his memory was held in great veneration, p'ar- 
ticBlariy at Raphoe. (33) Besides tb6 Life of St. 
Go^lamba, the Treatise on the Hk>Iy land, and the 
Life of St. Patrick under the name of Maccuthtnus, 
this great and good man is said to have drawn up a 
Monastic rule. (34) Some other tracts have been 
attributed to him, concerning which I am not able 
to form any opinion. (35) Adamnan was succeeded, 
as abbot of Hy, by Conain Mac-Failbe, who go- 
verned the order for six years. (36) 

(^) Bede, who mentions this embassy, (£. 5. c, 15.) does not 
Aiark the: year ; but Smith, Allowing Matthew of Westimnster, 
asdgns it to 701. Perhaps it was rather in 70!2, about two years 
before Adatnnan's death. 


(96) Thfi abbot Ceolfiid iahb letter to the Pictiah king Nai- 
ton (pp. Bade Z»« 6* c 21.) relates a. conversation, wIikiK be bad 
at liiat time witb Adamnan. concerning the tonsure, and praises 
bim 83 a ma» of admiiable prudence^ humilty, and reli- 

(^), Bede, (jL. 5. c. 16.). who observes, that Adamnan was 
a good and wise man> and most deeply versed in biblical know- 
ledge!^.. xUntiOt Scrifturarum nohilisiime instrtujius. 

^%S) Bede (t6w) calls it Be LQci!& lanctis, and {fiapp. 16-17.) has 
acMn^ extracts from it Besides an old edition of this tract, (see 
Ware and Uanis, Writers, at Adamnan) there is a later one in 
Act^ Benedict. (Sec. 3. Part. 2*) Adamnan composed it on in* 
formatioiH which be received from Arculf a Fi:^ch bishop, who 
had been in Palestine and other parts of the East ; and who, 
returning by sea, was driven by a storm to the western, coast 
of Britain. Having visited Adamnan he was veiy- kindly re- 
ceived by him, and on relating his adventures and every thing 
remaikable, that he had observed in those- coimtries, was listened 
to with great pleasure by Adamnan, who -put to paper in a re- 
gular Ibrm the substance of bis narrative. 

(29) Bede,; ib. Dr. Ledwich is very angry with Adamnan for 
having recommended the ad<^tion of the Roman cycle. At p. 
669 amidst a heap of falshoods, he says tliat Adamnan- aposta- 
tized, and (at p. 412.) biamea him ibr having, brought over 
most of the Southern, tnonks to Rome^ whom he represents- as ig- 
norant and bigotted. What mountains does this pseudo-antiquaiy 
raise out of trifles i Am. I to tire the reader with over and over 
reminding' him, that there was no question of peligion properly 
Hoderatood, dut is, of &ith or morals, between tlie Anglo-Ro- 
mans and the liiBb, and that, notmthstanding their not oelebrat- 
ipg Eaater -at the same time, or using the same tonsure, they 
maintained ecchsiastiad communion together ? Adamnan was as 
miick incommoinon with Ceolfnd and the other advocates of the 
Romaa piacticea before he received their Paschal cycle as he was 
after be agiwed to it. Why then- talk of apostatizing or changing 
^reli^on, as this ignorant Doctor is constantly plaguing us with ? 
Adamnan's adoptk^ the Roman cycle, which our Qoctor must 
aUow to bet &r more correct' than the Irisb one, no more implied 
a change of religion than the conduct of the church of England 




in having, after too long a delay, received the GregoriaD 0tyle# 
Will the Doctor say, that the English Protestant church by so 
doing toent over to Rome T If in proceedings of this sort there 
be any going otfer, according to his phraseology, from one religion 
to another, this church was guilty of a much greater apostacy 
than Adamnan had been. For it toent over to Rome not only as 
to the festival of Easter, but likewise with regard to those of the 
whole year round, Christmas day and its concomitant festivals, 
Lady days, the feasts of Apostles, Martyrs, &c. I am really 
Weary of this nonsense, whiclv Usher, Prideaux, Smith, and others, 
who have written on the Paschal question, would have been 
a^med to mention as indicative of a difference of religion, while 
on the contraiy they show that the Irish cycle had been derived 
from Rome, (see Chap, xv ) and which no learned Protestant of 
this day would disgrace himself by laying any stress on. The 
Doctor, while enforcing these fooleries, was not content with 
bungling in theology ; but he must bungle also in history. He 
says that the monks, brought over by Adamnan, were those of 
the South of Ireland^ Now he ought to have known,, that not 
only the monks but all the clergy and people of the South had 
received the Roman computation c^ Easter fuH seventy years be- 
foore Adanman prevailed on the greatest part of the Northerns to 
agree with them. (See Chap. xv. J. 6.) 

(30) The Annals of Ulster, Innisfallen, and of the 4? Masters 
agree in assigning the death of Adamnan to A. D. 70S, that iff, 
704. Smith was therefore wrong (at Bede, L. v. c. 15.) in marie* 
ing it at 702. He reckoned only one year from that in which be 
supposed that he was on his last embassy to Alfrid ; (see above 
Not. 25) but it is plain fit)m Bede's account of his subsequent 
proceedings, that a longer time must have elapsed besween said 
embassy and Adamnan's death. Instead of the month of Sep- 
temberj'which the 4? Masters and Colgan have, (TV. Th. p. 499.) 
Usher at A. 704. (Ind. Chron.) has October. This is probably a 
typ<^raphical mistake ; for not only in the Irish calendars, but 
likewise in the Benedictine, the festival of St. Adamnan is marked 
at the 23d of September. 

(31) 4 Masters and Colgan /ac. ciV. Keating says f History , 
&c. B. 2. p. 45. ed A. 1723.) that Adamnan died aged 77 years. 
It is very probable, that this is a mis-translation instead of 77tfc 


year, Acoording to these statements, Adamnan* must havie been 
bom not in 624, (see Not. 58. to Chap, xviii.) but in 627 or 

(32) See Alcuin*s lines, Not, 56. to Chap. ii. 

(33) See Not. 59. to Chap, xviii. (34r) Tr. Th. p. 471. 

(35) See Ware and Harris, Writers at Adamnan, and O'FIa* 
herty, Ogygia Vindkatedy ch. 10. 

(36) Usher, p. *J02. and Jnd. Chron. ad A. 704. Colgan, 
(Tr. Th.p. 499.) calls Conain Conamal, and tells us, that his me- 
mm-y was revered on the 11th of September. 

§. IV. St. Maoldobhorchon, bishop of Kildare^ 
died in 705, on the 19th of February. (37) Nothing 
further is known, as far as 1 can discover, concerning 
this prelate, nor of his predecessors since the time 
of Aedh Dubh or hlackf about A. D. f)38, unless it 
may be supposed that some persons, who are called 
only abbots of Kildare, were also bishops, such as 
Lochen Meann, surnamed the WisCj who died in 
695, and Forannan, whose death is assigned to 698. 
(38) The clergy of Kildare is said, but on doubtful 
authority, to have been violently persecuted by the 
king Congall Kennmagar, for what caqse I do not 
find mentioned. (39) This is most probably a mis- 
statement founded on the circumstance of a great 
conflagration, that laid waste Kildare in 709 during 
that king's reign, and in which we may suppose that 
many clergymen lost their lives. (40) 

In these times Conamail Mac-Cartiaig (McCarthy) 
was bishop of Emly. He died in 7O7 and was sue- 
ceeded by Cellach (Kelly), who held that see until 
7 1 8. (41) St. Caide or Caidin, who was bishop at 
Hy» died in 7 1 1 ; and his name is in the calendars at 
24 October. (42) To the preceding year, 710, is as- 
signed the death of Conain Mac-Failbe the abbot, 
(43) who was succeeded by Dorben, surnamed the 
long J a descendant of Conall Gulbanius. (14) Dorben 
governed Hy until 713 in which year he died on the 
28th of October. (45) His immediate successor 


tras^ r beHeve, Dunchad, (46) son of Kenfoehiif sanA 
gtatrdson of the monarch M^lcovus w Moelcowv 
consequently of the favourite line of Conall Gut- 
banius. (47) Uunchad was superior of a Columbian 
monastery at Kifl-Iochuir, a maritime town in the 
S. E. part of Ulster, (48) before he was raised to the 
government of the whole order. He was »tili' abbot 
of Hy, when in the year 716 the holy priest Egbert 
(49) went thither from Ireland, and at length inmiced 
the monks of that establishment to receive the^ 
Roman paschal cycle and tonsure. (50) Thenceforth 
Egbert continued to reside for about 1 3 years in Hy 
until 729, when he died at a very advanced age on 
Easter Sunday, the @4th of April, alier he had 
celebrated the festival in the morning together with 
the brethren. (51) 

PVom the year 716 we find nothing further with 
regard to those controversies, as far as the Irish were 
concerned, either at home or abroad. 

(37) Tr. Th. p. 629^ from tiie 4 Masters, whose date is 704, 2. 
e, 705. Ware observes (Bishops at KUdare) that others place 
his death in 708. 

(38) Tr. Th. ib. I have added, as usual, a year to the dates. 
See also Harris (J9»^fy« at KUdare) and Archdall at said place. 
Lochen's festival was kept on the 12Vh of January or I2th of Junev 
and that of Forannan on the 15th of Januaiy^ 

(39) Keating hasthil story (for it probably deservses no better 
name) in his second book, p. 46, It cannot agtee with what is 
recorded by old writers as to Ae prosperoue and peaceable reign 
of CdngaO. O- Flaherty quotes {Ogjfg* Ptirt 3. cap. 93.) an old 
firish. distidi, translated by him into Latin^ in whioh his govermoenf 
over fioisfinl (Ireland) is i^ a happy one at sertn 
years ; ** Cunts Iidsfdiae septenmh' Jausta potesttts" 'And 
O'Halloran {Hisioiy, &c. Book kl ch^. S). observe that Congitt 
K. 2s caHed by &io\lit Modcid^ a wticer whci died about 1148, ai 
beneficent prince, during whose time there was neitheo battle, tyut 
contest, adding that he died! in peaoe after a miga of seven yeaisv 
Keating^ff story was piefced up by that superficial writer CwnagMi 


f Strictures on the Historic of I^dandy sect. 6. p* 96)' irho, not 
satisfied with repeating what Keating has, mz. that CongalT pei^ 
secuted the church and humed the secular and regular deigy at 
Kildare, adds that he was a pagan. And* why ? Btoiuse, as- he 
sajrs, " a deed so atrocious could scartee have been pekfietfated 
by Christian men.'* Did, not to go beyond Irish lidslory^ Caibp^ 
bell never hear cS an Earl of Kildare^ who, about the yebr, 1495, 
set fire to the cathedral of Cashel for the purpose of buniing Che 
archbishop Creagh, whom he supposed to be within it P |^or of 
an Earl of Inchiquin, . who at a later period, af^ stonning' said 
cathedral, put to the sword^ aJmidstt heaps Of olhcM^ ^ernons whtln& 
he found there, many clergymen dragged fhM <iv6n' under th^ 
altar ? Indeed it is but too well known, ehftt nieh dtlled Christians; 
have not scrupled to bum and desdwiy the clergy; Cili&pbdl 
wished to show that not only Congalf but Ukewisc? the bull^ of th« 
people, at least in Kildare, were t^en pagam. Now supposing 
that Congall was guilty of that atrocity, vrfay^ charge the inhabtb^ 
a&ts of KildlEure as his accomfdices ? If he evev^perpctrated it, ho 
was supported not by them bat by ia\ am^ brought fitim- else^ 
where. To imagine that Congall wad a pa^nx is a most ridicDdww 
conceit. We have seen that his ancestors -mite, Ibr^ sev^en^ ge^ 
nerations^ Christians, and some of them vefy* picms Gtoes. He 
was a grandscm of king Domnald II. (above $ « I.) the p^'os^r^ 
prince who had been blessed by Cohmibltiili (See' Not. 206. tU 
Chap. XII. and Not* 7 to Chap, xiv.) Cohgall was undoubtedly 
educated in the Christian religion, and to sUppotei^t he apo6« 
tatized to paganism is a gross idisurdiiy, as if the people- of fre-^ 
land, and its numertius derjf^ and monk* ti^sukl iMtve mitMMJ^ « 
pagan to the throne, or <)uietly submitted to an a^rowediiafideltai H 
time when the whole nation was Christian. Mini aily ilf 6ur htn^ 
of that period been guiky of such apestacy^ the Ivkh* annate ti^ 
histories would teem with accounts of ft. They dto ttot e^Mtkiiit 
a word of the kind ; and the laest insanoe of p a gaft i b ttfy whi^ I 
find recorded^ in them, is that of the islandc»il of^ft»Mgh,:>«^ 
were converted by St. Fecfani* (Se* Chttp. *vn. f . W,} 

(40) This cottfeigratioir is assigned 1^ tile # W&astew (ap Tr. 
Th.p. 629.) to A. 706.1. e. 709- merefyi* these' wowb " KUi^)s 
det)iutaia by fir^T M k happened dbriflg Itic i^ign elf €d<N' 


gall, some wiseacre might have thought that ^e was the incen•^ 

(4*1) Ware, Bishops at Emly. 

(42) Tr. TL p. 4-99. from the 4 Masters, who have A. llO, 
the same as 711 • Concerning the bishops, tliat resided in Hy, 
see Notes 234 and 235. to Chap, xi. 

(43) Usher, p. 702, The 4 Masters {ap, Tr, Th. ib.) have 
708 (709). 

(44) The 4y Masters, and Colgan; Tr. Th, Instead of Dorben, 
Usher, (;?. 702. and /«(/. Chron, ad ^. 710.) places, next after 
Conain Mc. Failbhe, Dmichad, with whom he terminates his list 
of the abbots of Hy. Colgan follows the 4 Masters, and observes 
{A A, SS, p, 745.) that it is a mistake to make Dunchad the im- 
mediate successor of Conain. It seems that Usher did not meet 
with Dorben's name in the Annals of Ulster, by which he was 
guided; and consequently h)e might not have known that he was 
abbot of Hy. The omission of his name in said Annals can be 
easily accounted for, as nothing remarkable occurred during his 
administration. This Dorben was, in all probability, the Dorbe- 
neus, who wrote a copy of Adamnan*s Life of St. Columba, and 
added at the end (see Colgan's edition) a request, in which he 
conjures those, who may wish to transcribe it, diligently to col- 
late tlieir manuscript with that which they took it from, and begs 
the reader's prayers for himself. 

(45) 4 Masters and Colgan, Tr. Th. p. 499. Their date is 
713, which must not be changed into 714. For, as 0*Flaherty 
remarks, {MS, note» ib,) Dorben's death was according to Ti- 
geroach's Annals, on a Saturday, on which day the 28th of Oc- 
tober fell in 713. In his Ogygia vindicated O'Flaherty says, . 
(chap, \0,) tliat Dorben died in 713. He adds that he ruled U.y\ 
only five months. This is in direct opposition to the 4 Masters, 
and to every other authority I have met with. 

(46) The account (ib,) of the succession to Hy after Dorben is 
rather confiised. The 4 Masters throw in Foelchus between him 
and Dunchad. But, as Colgan observes, some of their dates 
Telative to the accession of Foelchus, are evidently wrong. Be- 
sides they have this same Foelchus again as abbot of Hy after. 
Dunchad, who died in 717, and assign his death to 720^721.) 
Hence it appears, that their interposing him between Dorben and 


Dunchad is founded on some mistake. In a MS. note (fi.) pro- 
bably written by Conry, Dunchad is placed immediatdy after 
Dorben's deadi in 713. 

(47) See Tr. Th. p. 480. and A A. SS. at 24 Mart. p. 744, 
where Colgan has made up some Aids of Dundiad. 

(48) A A. SS.jb. From the description, which Colgan gives 
of KiU-lodniir ais a place frequented by mariners, who considered 
Dunchad as their patron saint, its lying on the eastern coast, Ac 
I think it must be the same as KiUough in the county of Down. 

(49) See Chap, xviii. §. IS. 

(50) Bede Z.. 5. c. 22. al. 23. To what he has concerning this 
agreement having taken place in 716 under the abbot Dunchad 
Usher adds (p. 702. and Ind. Chron, tui A. 7 16.) from the Annals 
of Ulster, that it was entered into on a Saturday the 29th of Au- 
gust. Prideaux (Connection, &c. Part 2. B. 4^ sums up the matter 
in these words; " In the year 716 Elcgbert, a pious and learned 
** presbyter of the English nation, after having spent many years 
** in his studies in Ireland, which was in that age the prime seat of 
^ learning in all Christendom, coming from thence to the monas- 
** tery of Hy proposed to them anew the Roman way, and having 
^' better success herein than Adamnan— brought them all over 
« to it." 

(51) Bede, ib. Having stated that Easter fell in that year on 
the 24th of April, he observes that it was never before celebrated 
at Hy on the corresponding day of any year. In this he was right ; 
fer, according to the old Irish cycle, it could not have been put 
off as late as the 24th of April. (See Smith's Dissertation. &c. 
No. 9, ^pp. to Bede.) 

§• V. Dunchad died in 71 7 on the 25th of May, 
(53) the day on which his festival was usually kept, 
although it seems that his memory was revered in 
some places on the 24th of March. The immediate 
successor of Dunchad at Hy was, as well as I can 
find, Foelchuo Mac-Dorbene, who lived until 72 1 . 
{53) To the year 7 1 7 is also assigned a curious cir- 
cumstance, which has not as yet been sufficiently ex- 
plained. It is the expulsion of the family qf la 
beyond the Dorsum Britanniae (Drum-albin) ^ the 


JmgNiCiBnt t(^) la k^en^d^y^upfK^ed to mean 
^t;be i^lwidaf Ify.; .and hingMeckm wa^ certainly the 
same as Naiton the Pictish king, iwho rhad received 
the Hawnn ^cyicle, &q^ since 71Q9 whom the 
abbot Ceolfjiiil bftd mttien iiis Jeacned epistle. {55) 
J^ rfthc^ reapi of .Maitdn, ^al Naitmi, or Nectan^ 
Fh«^nin;7iliO.Andiiontkiiu$dttirtil73^^ (5&X But by 
%\^^Jbmiiy\(f la we cwnot ^understand jthe .monks 
r^«»diag in Hy, (fif7) wh^efts Nectan had no juris- 
diction over that island, as it belonged not Co his hut 
^ tl» .Sottish .kingdam in iBrit^, (58) Or if by 
iA(m)#<sh0iM}e) iwhjcb by [the bye^saniuit even beguessed 
j|;».}ieJ^d<gnt.|ia^aeaskuiof ily, how.jcpuld it be said 
4l^t ,he .^f^l^d its monks beyond Drum- albin ? In 
fje^rfm^ his ^0(a]4 instead of rieoipeUing them, have 
ibnmght them over to his own kingdom, which lay to 
^th^/Nf and ;N.r£« of those mountains, andwas se- 
ipMHt^d by thi^m ifrom the Scottish, to which .Hy iwas 
..a^jf^^} (lying to the<Sk)uth and South* West (69) 
.There jis. lapt a^vogd in any old document, either 
J4sh or JBritish, of «ny e^ipulsion, dispersion, or per- 
secution of the resident monks of Hy in those 
jtim^ J ^nd-tibat they remained undisturbed in .717, 
md.antil.^<er.tbe r^gn of JSTeol^n, is evideot from 
the KQmumtmcei of Egljert haviijig }\\4^ quietly 
lamong them fwm 716 to .729. TbeBefoire the ^- 
fmlmn qf the j^mlj/ of /a means nothing mcwre 
than that Nectai^ sent out of his kingdom some 
Columbian monks, that is, of the family or order of 
,Hy» andimade^thain cross Dirum-albin on their way 
,to the Sfiottish territories. What was ;his reason, for 
i tjiis proceeding it . is i difficult to i conjecture. Jt . has 
ibeen Auppoaed thiit .some Columbians, stationed in 
;£]ctland,;Fefiised to. submit to :the.gen^l orders lie 
.had issued fEHTithejadqptiQn of the Koman jcycle, .&c. 
and ithatjiniconseguence lie expelled them from his 
-kuigdosn. ((!60) But why wait until 717 to thus 
oigovou^Aenfoirjpe said orders, which, had been pub- 
lislHid in 7^Q, or, at the latest, early in 711 ? If 


the cause of the expuldon of those monki m 717 
was their opposition to (the Roman -praclAoea, it will 
ilaUow^diat they disobeyod adot only the. (king, but 
likewise their superiors of Hft who ihad tieoBimd 
them in the preceding yeair* Timt sueh 9W^ the 
case it is difficult to believe.; (6l).iind .wme iother 
fiBBson ^ximst be Jooked for» why Keatan was idispjaased 
.jtt^thlhoae monks. The pvoJbabilitiy is thatlaey ar- 
:iaiigned his fconduct on (some maistesa of a tdiflbnnt 
inatttre,:andithBt he wa& dissatisfied withiheiriMeflovi 
-of temonstranee. (62) .Nectan .does not .appear 40 
^hayi^ihadianyidi^te with (the abbot at ^numastoPf, 
whecea&during his reign and after it the abbot con- 
tinued to exercise his usual ecclesiastical jurisdiction 
over the countries inhabited, by his suigeots )the 
Iforthern Bicts. (63) From what has beenrhithexto 
stated it ifi olear^ that itis/aimoat absurd iniitdce to 
jnippose, .that the .monks expelled by Naotan were 
those, who inhabited the island of Hy. (64^) 

{52) 4 Masters and Colgan, Tr. TJi. p. 499 and A A. iSS.ip, 745. 
The year marked by the 4 Masters is 7I6f whkrh waa also that of 
ihe Ulster Asnals Justly changed by Usher {Ind.- Chran^} into 717, 
Besides such change being authorized by the usmal ohronokgiod 
»yst«9i'foUowedinboth these Annals, there is a v particular ifason in this case ; whereas it is known fiom .Bedey 1^ 4iat Ike 
year^ in which the monks 4>fHy> then ^uacbadi. |^ 
ceived the Roman cycle^ &c. was .716, and on the ^h of <Au- 
tgusL -Now, as Dunchad died ona 25th of May, instead of A, 
716, we naist read J. 717. 

(5d) See 4 Masters and T/^ Th. ib. and cotoipase with N^.iS* 
The Annals of .Ulster (in Johnston's £xtcaa# 'after Afitiq. Celfo 
,^jimH.yBAer mentkoh^ the change of £aster^ A,. 715.(716) 
.:filaQe'4t. said; time the aooes^ion to Hy of fa/phox M^Dprhon%(pr 
.£e<dchq^ Thus it would aecw» that Dunchad r^rigp^d. the 4id- 
^miniiMl^ion sorae^raoiaths before his death, as I find stated in a 

..4SA)> \Ubstp. 102^ md.Ind. Chron, at A. 717» fixxn the An- 


(55) See Bede, L. 5. 21. al 22. 

(56) Chalmers, Caledoniay vol. l./i. 206. 

(57) Usher seems to have been of that opinion ; but he bad not 
sufficiently inquired into the subject 

(58) See Nat. 146 to Chap. xi. 

(59) See Not. 151. to Chap. xi. 

(60) Of this opinion is Mr. Chalmers, who says, {Caledon. Vol. 
I. p. 397.) that Nectan expelled many of the Columbians,, who 
officiated among the Northern Picts, and adhered to their ancient 
practices. Bede observes, (L. 5. c.21. al. 22.) that Nectan, or 
Naiton, promulgated his command for the observance of the Ro- 
man computation of Easter, immediately after he had agreed to it 
himself, and accordingly in the year 710, or very soon after it. 
(See Smith's notes, ib.) 

(61) Bede, who was living in these very times, and is very 
minute in every tiling relative to the reception of the Roman cycle, 
&c; speaks (ib.) in glowing terms of the unanimity, with which it 
and the Roman tonsure were submitted to by oiZ the deigy and 
monks throughout tlie Pictish provinces, without as much as hint- 
ing at any opposition. 

(62) Keating states (B. %p. i^,) that^^ Nectan expelled ftom 
his dominions a convent of monks, who presumed to reprehend 
his conduct, and by that means excited discontent among his sub- 
jects." That he meant the same expulsion as that of the Annals 
of Ulster is clear from his placing it in the year, in which was 
fought the battle of Cloch-Mionuire between the Britons and Dal- 
riadans (of Britain), which is assigned in said Annals to A. D. 716. 
f. e. 717. (See Johnston's ExtractSy dec) 

(63) Bede, who brought down his Ecclesiastical history to A^ 
731, that is, six years after the death of Nectan, makes mention 
of this jurisdiction as existing at the time he was writing it. (See 
ib. Z. S. c. 4. and compare with Not. 234 to Chap^ xii.) 

(64) Dr. Ledwich says, (Antiq. &c. p. 66.) '* by the instiga- 
tions of Ceolftid, abbot of Girwy, Naitan, king of the Picts, ex- 
peUed the Culdees from Hy. This happened A. D. 717." As to 
his [M^etended Culdees, by whom he meant the monks of Hy, we 
shall see elsewhere. Had he merely stated that Naitan expelled 
the monks from Hy, we might consider his assertion as the mis- 
take of one, who had not studied the subject. But his adding 


that this was done by the instigatkms of Ceolftid shows a peddtar 
mab'gnity and indiffefence about tiiith. Upon what authority 
could he found this.charge ? The only account we have of any cor- 
respondence between Nectan and Xleblfrid is that of the letter 
written by the latter, which still exists at fuH length, and which 
does not contain a syllable of instigation against the monks of Hy 
or any other Columbians. Is it because Ceolfnd, in said ietter, 
instructed Nectan as to the Roman cycle, &c. and thereby con« 
tributed to his adoption of them? Was this a i i i-tigation or insti- 
gations to persecution ? If CeoUnd excited the king to punirii the 
monks of Hy, why was his vengeance delayed from TIO^ in which 
the letter was received, until 717 ? Or will the Dr. pretend that it 
was in the very year 717 that Ceolfrid instigated him ? He may,^ 
to be sure, invent what stories he thinks fit for his purposes ; but 
he ought, at least, to make them appear not quite improbable. 
So then in 717, the year marked by the Dr. himself, CeolfKd 
prevailed upon Nectan to expell the monks from Hy. Pkay, for 
what ? It could not be for the reason meant by our antiquary, vis. 
dieir adhesion to the old Irish practices; for, as Ceolfrid well knew, 
they had exchanged them in 716 for his favourite Roman ones. 
What then was their crime ? Surely the Dr. cannot be so stupid 
as to think that Ceolfrid and Nectan fell foul of them, because they 
had come over to their own party. His moans on the down&l of 
the seminary of Hy, which, he says, expired on this occasion, are 
absolutely nonsensical. That seminary neither expired at that 
time, for it flourished fcnr centuries after, nor did it change its te- 
nets, unless the time of celebrating Easter and the form of the 
tonsure are to be considered as dogmas of religion. 

I cannot but here animadvert, although it does not appertain to 
Irish history, on a similar false assertion of the Doctor, (ib.) viz. 
that Aldhelm, who flourished in the latter part of the seventh 
century and died early in tlie dghth, ** excited Ina, the West 
Saxon king, against Gerontius prince of Cornwall, because he and 
his subjects preserved the fluth at first taught them." Upon what 
foundation he could build this falshood it is difficult to conceive, 
unless he alluded to the epistle written by Aldhelm to Gerontius, 
in which he endeavoured to prove that the Britons were wrong in 
adhering to their Paschal cycle, &c But what has this to do with 
the wars between Gerontius and the West Saxons under their king 



IdaF Qrwbtte ca&it be fixihd, that Aldhdm excited Ina to 
cany them on? The Doctor, with unbloshing audacity refers to 
Oeety, who hasjqoite the revene.«f hit assertfoo. For CreBsyy af- 
ter giving a translation of Akihefan's epistle (B.xix. cA. 17-) ob- 
B&rrt$f that the Saxons did not use any^ violence against the Bri- 
tons; and) qpealdng (J3. xxi. ch, 10. the veiy part of his wor 
pomted out by Ledwich) of the war between Ina and Genmtiusy 
has not a weni about Ina's having been u^ed on by Aldhehn, 
^■Uley on the oontraiyy he states that it is not easy to know the 
causeof thequarrel, and that Gerontius was the aggressor, who, 
he adds, perhi^ thought he might take Ina unawares as being 
then employed in acts of piety. Of all writers in the world the Dr. 
•honld not on this occasion have directed us to Cressy. 

S . vi. This would be the place to treat of St. 
Rudbert or Rupert, bishop of Worms and after- 
wards of Saltzbourg, who died in 718, were there 
any reason to believe that he was a native of Ire- 
land. But, as it is certain that he was not, and 
very probable that he had no Irish connexions, (65) 
I shall leave an account of him to the ecclesiastical 
histdVians of France and Germany. 

St. Cele Christus, or Christicola died in 722.(66) 
He was a native of Ulster, and is said to have belonged 
to a branch of the Nialls. Having left his own province, 
he went to a western part of Leinster^ called Hi- 
donchadha, where he erected an oratory, which from 
his name has been called KilUcele'Chriost. It is 
said that he travelled with some other persons to 
Rome. In several Irish calendars his name is 
marked at the Sd of March with the title of bishop 
of Kill^ele-chriost. He had a brother named 
Comgall, who was abbot of Both-chonais in Inish-^ 
owen, and whose memory was revered there on the ] 

4th of September (67) 

. In these times the archbishop of Armagh was 
Suibhne or Sweeny, the successor of Flan Febhia, 
(68) who died in 715 on the 24th of April. (69) 
Suibhne was son of one Cronnmail, and held the 


sec for 15 years, as he lived until 739* . During 
his incumbency some distinguished' men departed 
this life at Armagh ; in 7^1 Colman surnamed 
HtiamachensiSf who wrote some Acts of St. Pa- 
trick ; (70) in 726 Eochod Mac-Colgan, an an- 
choret of that city ; in 727 Ferdomnach, a scribe 
,or writer ^ and in 728 Dochuma, surnamed Bolgan, 
an anchoret. (71) 

St. Cronan, bishop of Lismore, who was probably 
the . immediate successor of St. Colman, (72) died 
in 718, and his memory was revered on the first 
of June. (73; ' Next after him we find in that 
see Colman O'Liathain, a celebrated doctor, who 
died in 726, (74) and, * 1 dare say, on a 25th of 
July. (75) To the same year J^ifi is assigned the 
death of St. Adamnan, bishop of Rathmuighe in 
Dalrieda, (76) a part of the now county of Antrim, 
and also that 0f Dachonna, bishop of Connor. (77) 
In said year died !St. Manchen of Leighlin, who 
was, in all probability, at least abbot there ; a St. 
Colman of Telach-uallen, perhaps Tullihallen, a 
place in the county of Louth ; and a St. Bree, sur- 
named the Wise. (78) 

(65) Colgan has (at 27 Mart,) from among other Lives of St. Ru- 
pert, published by Canisius, a very fabulous one, in which this 
saint is said to have been baptized in Ireland by St. Patrick, to 
have gone to the continent with St. Erentrudis, and one Trudbert, 
whom i£ calls sister and brother of his, and to have died in^ 62S. 
It would be veiy strange that a person, baptized by our Apostle, 
could have lived until this year ; and Colgan's substituting in this 
case a Patrick junioi' for the great one, is a pitiful evasion not wordi 
attending to. And who will believe that Rudberty &c were the 
names of persons bom in Ireland? The Bollandists not only re- 
jected this Life, but observe (at said day) that they would not 
even mention it, had it not led astray Colgan and Le Cointe in 
his Annal. Ecd, Fn They liave given us two other Lives of St. 
Rupert, which appear tolerably correct, and in whidi there is not 
a word about Irdand, nor of what is said in the fkulty one (fol- 

M 2 


lovrtd on this point by several writers) concerning this saint hav-^ 
ing been of the xoyal blood of Ireland as well as of France, to 
whidi latter hereally belonged. In the Acta Bened. (Sec. 3. Pari. 
1.) there is a short but very ancient and correct Life, in whieh nei- 
ther Ireland* nor its blood royal is even hinted at. Yet I will 
not deny that St. Rupert might by his maternal line have been 
connected with some Irish princes ; but it will not hence follow 
that he should be redconed among the Irish saints. Mabillon {ih* 
Elog. Histar.) shows that he died in 718. The Office of St. Ru- 
pert, patdied up by Builce, (Qffic* propr. at 27 March) but 
which IS not used in Ireland, is taken from the febulous Life and 
from Colgan's conjectures. It is odd, that among the authorities 
mentioned at the head of this Office we find the name of Bol- 
iandus, f* ۥ the Bollandists, notwithstanding the scornful man- 
lier iii which they speak of that Life. As to St. Erentrudis. who 
was a niece, not sister, of St. Rupert, and to Trudbert, whoever 
he was, I need not tell the reader, that their history has nothing 
to do with Ireland. 

(66) 4 Masters and Colgan (A A. SS. at 3 Mart.) where he 
treats of this saint. Tlieir date is 721, t . e. 722. 

(67) See Colgan, Acts of CeU'Chrutus^ ib* p. 4^4. 
.(68) See Chap, xviii. f . 13. 

(69) Ware and Harris, Bishops at Armagh. 

(70) Tr. Th. p. 172 and 294. See also Chap. in. J. 5- 

(71) /d.j9. 294. Colgan prefixes mn^ to all their names. I 
have added a year to each of his dates. 

(72) See above §. 1. 

(7?) A A. SS.p. 303. Colgan has fix)m the 4 Masters A. Ill 
(718). Ware and Harris {Bishops at Lismore) have confounded 
Cronan of Lismore witli Cronan, son of Nethsemon, of whom 
Colgan treats at 9 Februaiy, (p. 302. seqq.) and who, he thought, 
was the bishop Cronan that paid a visit to Columbkill in Hy. 
(See Not. 182 to Chap, xi.) He expressly distinguishes him fix>m 
Cronan of Lismore and for a very just reason, viz. that their times 
were £bi different. It is therefore strange that Ware, who had the 
AA. SS. he. cit. before his eyes, and where he found mention 
made of the son of Nethsemon, could have fallen into such a mis- 
take, which cannot be accounted for except by his having read 
too cursorily what Colgan has about these Cronans. Archdall 


(at Lismare) haa mily a part of Ware's mistake ; fer M dees not 
call Cronan of Lismore son of Neihenum^ bat he says that he 
died on the 9th of February* Now this day is assigned in the 
calendars not to his death but to that of the son ,0f Nethse- 

(74) AA. SS. p. 14f9. and Ind. Chron. ib. ad A. 725. i. e. 

(75) Co]gan» when mentioning the death of Colman 0*Lia|hain» 
does not give us the day of it, or of his commemoration. Yet hsi 
mi^^ have easily found either one or the other in the Calendar 
of Cashel, which he quotea ib. p. 155. This calendar has at 23 
January Colman Hua Beogna of Lismore, that is, the older Col* 
man, of whom above §. I. Then at 25 July it has Mocholmoc 
or Colman O'Liathain a oomorbaa or successor of St^ Mochudda 
(Carthag) of lismore. Colgan very oddly imi^ned that tfaefo two 
Colmans were but one person, viz; the Cdman of 22 Jan. and 
that the 25th of July was a second festival, perhaps of transla- 
tion, &c^in honour of him. I do notknow what reason he- could 
have had &r thipldng so, except that the Cofanan at 25 July was 
called MochdmoCf which name was. often, giieato^ the elder Col- 
mauk But suvely every St. Cohnan might have been called. Mo* 
cholmoc (See Not. 12^) That in said calendar two distinct Col- 
mans were meant is evident not ooJy from the difference of the 
days maiked, but still more from the former being sumamedl^- 
Beogna^ and the latter O^Ltathain, the very Colman that died in 
726. Whether the 25th of July was his Natdisy i. e. the anni- 
versary of fais death, or a day of commemoration, I cannot de- 
cide ; but, considering the usual practice in the calend a r s, it is 
more probable that it was the NaUdis. 

(76) A A. SS. p. 377. and Ind. Chron. ib. ad A. 725 (726). 
Ckmoeming the see of Rathmui^he, which was veiy aiftient, see 
Chap. VII. §. 6. Not. 58. and Not. 256. to Chap. x. 

(77) AA. SS. Ind. Chron. ad A. 725. Ware and Hairis 
(Bishops at Connor) have retained this date, but ought have 
safely changed it into 726. 

(78) 4 Masters and Colgan, ib. 

§ • VII. Foelchuo or Faolan Mac-Dorbebe, abbot 
of Hy, who, according to one account, died in 721, 


(79) and, accordiiig to another, in 724, was suc- 
ceeded by Killen or Killin, surnamed Jada or long* 

(80) Concerning this Killen I can find nothing 
particular, except that he is said to have died in 
726. (81) The next abbot, whom we meet with 
after him, was another Killen, surnamed Droich* 
theachf who lived until about 7^0. 

To the year 727 is affixed the death of Aelchu, 
abbot of Clonard. (82) It is not improbable that 
he was also bishop of that place. At least his pre- 
decessor Dubdan O'Foclan was, being expressly 
styled bishop and abbot of Clonard, and who died 
in 717. (83) In the same year 727 died.St. Mure- 
dach, bishop of Mayo, and son of Indrect, who is 
supposed to have been one of the Indrects kings of 
Connaught in those times. (84) 

According to some writers St. Muredach survived 
St. Gerald called of Mayo ; but it is more than pro- 
bable that he died before him. The history of St. 
Grerald is extremely confused, and interspersed with 
monstrous^ fables. (86) This much is certain that 
he was an Englishman, and superior of the estab- 
lishment, which Colman, after his return from Lin- 
disfame, formed at Mayo for the English, who bad 
followed him to Ireland. (86) If Gerald was one 
of those, who left Lindisfaroe together with Colman, 
(87) he must have been very youne at that time ; 
for Colman's departure from that place was in 664, 
and Gerald lived until 732. Supposing him to have 
been in 664 only about sixteen years old, it may be 
admitted that he belonged to that party ; but as the 
persons who accompanied Cohnan are spoken of as 
men and actual monks, (88) it is much more proba- 
ble that Gerald came over to Ireland on some later 
occasion; whereas the monastery of Mayo continued 
to be resorted to by English and students for a long 
time after Colman's death. (89) Gerald is said to 
have» on his arrival in Irelimd, and before he was 
placed at Mayo,presided over some monks at JS/iVert^, 



(90) which, if this be true, was probably a cell be- 
longing to the house of Mayo. According to this 
statement, he could not have been one of ColmanV 
first English followers, who, as is well known, were 
all fixed by him in said house. At what time he bo- 
came superior at Mayo is not known ; and it pro- 
bably was not prior to the seventh century. (91) His 
death is assigned on the best authority to A. D. 7S?» 
(92) and, according to several concurrent accounts, 
to the ISth of March. (93) In some Irish docu* 
ments St. Gerald is called bishop ; but it is very 
doubtful whether he was entitled to this appellation. 

(79) 4 Maaten, as above Nci. 5$. 

(80) It is stoted in the Anoals of Ulster (JohsatoaV Extracts.); 
tihat Killiii-ftda suooeeded Faolan Mac Derbene in.72S t. e. 724. 

(81) The 4 Masters and Colgan Tr. Th.p. 4^99*^ Their date 
785 may, as usual, be supposed the same at 7^* 

(82) 4A.SS.p.4ff7. 

(8S) lb. I have added a year to the dates thus given. 

(84) AJ. SS. p. e05. The 4 Mlsisten assign Muredach's 
death to 726» t . e. 727. Archdall (at Majfo) without any authority, 
instead of Bithapy calls him abbot. 

(85) Colgan has published (at IS Matt.) aUfe of St. Gerald 
fiom a MS. of the monasleqr of the Isltod of all saints in Lou^^ 
ree, the audior of which be thought was poihl^ Augustin Ma* 
graidin. But it is clear fiom some genuine tracts written by Ma- 
graidin, he could |iot be the author of this barbarous stuff. The 
BoUandistSy in th&f observations (at said day) on Su Gerald^ Justly 
declare it to be fuU of nonsense and int<4aitble. Betides many 
fooleries it abounds in anachronisms* 

{S6) See Chap.x9ui. $.2. 

(87) That he was one of them is stated in the so called life of 
St. Gerald, and hence Ware {Antiq, cap. 26.) places him amonp 
them. But he omits the ridicolous faUe of Gerald having been 
abbot of Winchester, as if there w€k» that city, 
and of his having brought along with him} in ColiQfui's suites three 
brothers of his> and three thousand oAer worthy Eni^men. 


The latter part of this nonsense has been copied by Archdall (at 
Afoyo.) Now we know fiom Bede (see Chap, xriii. §• %) 
that Colroan was foUowed by only about thirty En^hmen to 

(88) See Bede, L. 4. c, 4. 

(89) See Bede, ib* and above Chap, icviii. $. 2 Nat. 19. 

(90) Life, cap. 7. Colgan observes (AA. SS. p. 603.) that 
there was in the. diocese of Tuam, to which that of Mayo has been, 
annexed, a chapel called KiU-au'ditheir^ that is the cell of the 
pilgrim or foreigner, and that this might have been what in the 
Life is called Eliteria. It was perhaps a cell depending on Mayo, 
as was probably also a chmt;h in same diocese called Tech'Sassony 
the house of Saxons of Englishmen. 

(91) If we could place any confidence in the Life, Gerald 
would have b^n abbot of Mayo before the death of Adamnan ; 
for it states (cap. 15.) that he was, when presiding there, visited 
by him. But, even admitting that such a visit took place, it will 
not follow that he was abbot before the 7th century; for Adamnan 
was in Ireland as late as the year 703 (see above §. $.) during 
which he might have called upon Gerald. Colgan remarks (AA. 
SS. p. 60it.) that Gerald's name does not appear among those of 
the persons, who attended the synod of 697, (see Chap, xviii. §. 
14.) although that of Eg^[>ert, likewise an Englishman, does. His 
object was to show, that Gerald was then dead; but, as. he was 
undoubtedly alive at that time and for many years after, Colgan 
ought to have concluded that Gerald was not as yet an abbot or 
much distinguished in the year 697* 

(92) The Annak of Ulster, in which he is called Gerak pon- 
tifex Saxonum Campi Heo (Magh-Heo), place his death in 781, 
t. e. 732, to whidi year it is affixed also by Tigemach in these 
words ; ^* Pontifex Muighe-heo Saxonum Garailt obiit." It is 
singular that Usher, having quoted these authorities, {Ind. Chron. 
ad A. 6970 ^^ preferred to them that of the lying Life of Ge- 
hdd, in which we are told that after his death Adamnan of Hy 
governed the church of Mayo constantly and indefaiigabhf for 
seven years, untO returning to Hy he died there himself. Hence 
Usher argued that, as Adamnan died in 704*, Gerald's death 
ought to be assigned to 697. But how could he have be* 
lieved, that Adamnan totaUy neglected the government rf Hy 
and of the whole Columbian order for seven years, and confine 


himadf to the monastery of Mayo ? Or did he not recollect that 
Adamnan spent a considerable part of that period in Northum- 
berland, and afterwards in Hy stiiving to bring oyer his monks to 
the Roman cyde, &c (above §. 8.) and accordingly could not 
have been indefatigcMy employed at Mayo ? Colgan, who 
scrupled to doubt of what the Life itates, followed Usher, adding an 
aigument, which proves nothing more than that Gerald was not 
abbot of Mayo in 697. ( See NoU prec.) As to Archdall'sbung- 
Hng (at Mayo) concemiiig Gerald having not died, but succeeded 
Colman in 697 (See Not. 16 to Chap, xviii.) and then placing 
Adamnan after him, is too slovenly to be honoured with animad* 
version. The 4 Masters (ap. A A. SS. p. 604.) have Gerald's 
death at A. 726 (727) ; but their authority is not ecjual to that of 
Tigemach or of the Ulster annals. The Bollandists, perceiving 
that it was ridiculous to make Adamnan of Hy successor of 
Gerald, suspect that he might have been confounded with another 
Adamnan. But, as the monastery of Mayo was in those times 
purely English, it is not easy to bdieve that any of its abbots was 
dien an Irishman, as an Adanman would have been. And it is 
usdess to endeavour to prop up any part of that absurd &ble« 

(93) 4 Masters, Calendars, &c. (ap, A A. SS. p. 604. 

(94) Some calendars, quoted by Colgan (ib*J give him the title 
of bishop ; and. we have just seen {Not. 92.) that he has been 
called pontifex. Yet in the Life, notwithstanding the great 
-thii^ said of him, he is styled merely tdfhot. The 4 Masters 
say no more of him than St, Gerald of Mayo, According to 
thar statements he could scarcely have been a bishop ; for they 
place his death in 727* the very year to which they assign that of 
St. Muredach, whom they expressly call bishop of Mayo„ 
Surely there were not two bishops there at the same time. 
Bede, speaking of the monastery of Mayo, as it was circum- 
stanced when he was writing his history, and accordingly down 
to 7S1, says (Z.. 4. c, 4.) that the English monks lived there un- 
6ex a canonical or regular abbot He has nothing about their 
having among them a bishop, although, in all probability, Gerald 
was their abbot at the time of his making this observation. I am 
inclined to think, that his having been called pontifex, pontiff 
of the English, gaVe rise to the supposition of his having been a 
h]ahq>. But why did not Tig^rnach or the compilers of the 


Ulster annak plainly call him episcopus f The tide, ponHfevt 
has been often used in an equivocal manner, and soraedmes in the 
same sense as president (See Spelman, Glass, and Ducange, at 
Pontifex and Pontificium.) It may be, that, as the Eng^ah were 
strangers in Ireland, the abbot of Mayo enjoyed some perticdlar 
privileges as protector of his countrymen. 

§ . VIII. A holy virgin, named Segreti% is mentioned 
as having been sister of St. Gerald, and hence some 
modern writers have concluded that she presided over 
a nunnery at Mayo. But we have riot sufficient 
authority for either of these statements. (95) That 
there was a St. Segretia or rather Segnetia in those 
times, somewhere in Ireland, I do not mean to deny ; 
and we find some other holy women, who were dis- 
tinguished in the early- part of the eighth century, 
such as St. Samthanna abbess of Clonebrone (96) 
in the now county of Longford ^ St. Sebdanna abbesa 
of Kildare, who died in 727, and the next abbess, 
after her St. Affrica, who lived until 7^9, (97) ta 
which year is assigned also the death of a St. Con- 
chenna daughter of one Kellaigh Chuallan. (98) 
As scarcely any thing further is, as far as I can dis- 
cover, known concerning them, an attempt at un- 
ravelling their history would be useless. 

Suibhne, archbishop of Armagh, having died on 
the 21st of June in 730 (99) was suioceededby Con- 
giis, who held the see for 20 years. He was a native 
of a place or district called Kinell-Anraire, (100) 
probably somewhere in Ulster. Congus ^as a maix 
of learning, (ipi) and, when archbishop, wrote a 
poem, in which he elhorted Aedh or Aldus Olian,. 
king of Ireland, whose confessor he was, , to punish 
Aedh Rony, king of Ulster, for having sacrilegiously 
attacked and pillaged some churches of the diocese 
of Armagh. (102) ' 

^ St. Foeldovar, bishop of Clogher, died in 732 on 
the 29th of June. (103) He is the first prelate of 
that ancient see whose^times are well, known next 


after St. Tigemach. (104) St. Tola, bishop of 
Clonard, died in 734 on the 80th of March, the day 
on which his anniversary .wastottitnemorated. <105) 
This saint was of the illustrious family of the 
Gralengi, (106) and son of one Dunehad. He led 
for many years the life of a hermit at a place called 
from him Disert-Tolciy and situated either in the 
southern part of the ancient Meath; or northern part 
of ancient Munster, and consequently in the now 
King's county. (107) Afterwards he was raised to 
the see of Glonard, but in what year is not recorded. 
It has been said that he was bishop also of KildarQ. 
That this is a mistake may be safely concluded from 
as much as is known of his transactions. (108) In 
these times we find a bishop in the small island of 
Rechran (Rachlinor Raghlin)off the coast of Antrim, 
Flann son of Kellach. He died in 1S5\ and his 
memory iieas revered on the 17th of July. (109) 
During thi^ period an Irish bishop, named Cumian, 
who at a v^y advanced stage of life had retired 
from Ireland to Bobbio, where he spent his last 1 7 
years in the monastic istate> and in a most exemplary 
manner died there on a 19tfa- of August, aged 95 
years and 4 months. He was buried at Bobbio 
during the reign of the Lmnbard king Luitprand, 
which lasted somewhat more than 31 years until 744. 
This king had such a veneration for Cumian, that he 
got his tomb adonmed with precious stones. It is not 
'known to what part of Ireland he belonged. (1 10) 

(95) It k said in the Lifb of St. Gerald {cap. 15.) that S^re- 
tia his sister died, together with one hundred of her nuns, of the 
great pestilence, vtV. diat of 664*; -but it is not stated in what 
place, and her d^ath is mentioined as having^ occurred while he 
was at Eliteria, and before he went to Mayo. How codd a 
sister of Gerald have been an abbess before A. G^^ or is it to be 
b^ieyed that he was superior of any establishment in Ireland at 
a time prior to^ his having set a foot in this countiy ? Colgan ob« 
serves (Nat* ad loc, p. 603.) that he could (discover nothing re- 


lative to this Segreda, unless she was the same as St. S^- 
netia of a place called Damnach^Keiney whose Naialis waa 
marked in some calendars at 18 December. Yet afterwards 
(p. 605.) partly in complaisance to Gerald's lifey and partly 
through GonjectuTBy he makes mention of St. S^iretia or Segneda, 
with her 100 viigins^ as having died at Mayo on an 18th De- 
cember. He f<Mgot that a little before he had tdd us ^lat St. 
S^gnetia bek>nged to Domnach-Keme. On those notable 
grounds Hanris has made up a nunneiy founded at Majo in the 
seventh centuiy by St. Segretia, and has been folk>wed by 

(96) See A A. SS. p. 347. 

(97) Tr. Th. p. 629. 1 have added a year to its dates, la 
the Ulster annals the death of St» Affiica or Afreca of Kildare i& 
assigned to to A. 744 (745.) 

(98) AA. SS. p. 607. 

(99) Tr. Th. p. 29i. and Ware, Buhops sft Arma^ 

(100) Ware (f^.) has understood the KineU-Antnire of Tr. UL 
as the name of a man^ finom whom Congusi was descended, or 
as Harris has it, leaving [out Kindlf from whose stock he waa 
sprung. But the words, '< De Kinell Antnire wiundnu Jvitt'* 
seem to point rather to a district than to a man ; and there were 
several tracts in Ireland, whose names b^gan with KindL It ia 
true that its original meaning was progeny or dan ; bat it came 
to be used for the territories, in which such dans lived ex. c. 
Kinell-Conail, Kinell Enda, &c. in like manner as the Irish word^ 
Clann (children, &mily, &c) whence Claneboys, Clanrickaid, &c. 
Kinell- Anmire may certainly be explained by Clan of Anmire, 
and I will not object to the supposition that Congus was^a mem* 
ber of that clan. But who said Anmire was I cannot tell, un- 
less perhaps was meant Anmiraeus formerly monarch of Ire- 

(101 ) Congus is called (Tr. Th. Uf.) a scribe, a title given in 
Ireland, a« Colgan observes (ib. and p. 631.) to men of letters, 
professors, and particuhurly to authors. See also Ware, Aniiq^ 
cap. 17. 

(102) Tr. Th. p. 294. Ware and Hams, Bishopi at Armagk 
and Writers. 


(103) 4 Masters and AA. SS. p. 742. Their date is 731» t. e. 

(104) We have seen ^Nat. 5. to Chap, xii.) that with regard 
to o]d times, no attention is due to the reigistiy of Clogher, which 
has been ioDowed by Ware. 

(105) Colgan treating of St Tola (at 30 March p. 793.) qaotes 
the 4 Masters, who assign his death to 733 (734). As to 
the day of it, which was omitted by them, he does not fib.) ex« 
pressly mark it, only observing, that his memoiy was revered on 
the 30th of March ; but elsewhere fAA. SS. p. 407.) we read, 
accordii^ to his printed text, that Tok died on the 3d of March. 
This must be a typographical error for 30 ; whereas Colgan states 
that he has taken from the calendars of all the obitual days, the 
Natalis of the several saints, whom he names in this part of the 
A A. Now all the calendars, referred to by him at p. 793, have 
Tola'a name only at the 30th of March, and it is pblin that Col- 
gan conndered it as his Natalis. This mistake of the printer 
(one of the thousands, which have greatly injured Cdlgan's works,) 
led astray Ware, (Bishops at Meath) who aceordmgly assigned 
Tola's death ^ the 3d df March. Besides this mistake Ware fell 
into another, for which Colgan is not to bUune, although he pro* 
fessed to foHow him ; for, mstead of 783, which Colgan has every 
where for the death of Tola, he, or his printer, has given us 

(106) The family of the Galengi inhabited, I suppose, some 
of die districts called Galenga or Gallen. There was a Gallen or 
Gaiian, which comprized a veiy great part of the Queen's county 
and of the counties of Carlow and Kildare. Considering the si- 
tuation o£ the place, in which, as will be just seen, St. Tola com- 
menced his career, it is not improbable that he was a native of 
that territory. 

(107) Colgan observes, that the Calendar of Cashel places 
Disert-Tola in Meath, while, according to every other authority, 
it was in upper Dalcassia, that is, the northern part of Munster. 
He justly remarks that it lay perhaps at the boundary of both pro- 
Tuices. In former times Meath and Munster met each other in 
what is now called the lying's county, ^ch has been made up 
of districu that belonged to these provinces. That Disert-Tola 
was in the now barony of Garrycasde in said county may, I thinki 


be deduced fomvti^! circHoistanaey, rdatedf by.the 4 Msslets at 
A, D. 1034, of Garten lord of Dealbhna having been killed by 
some of his subjects when entering the church of DisertrTola. 
Thia.Dealbl»a was» in all probabililyy t^ one sur-named EaJbhrf^ 
the M'Coghlan's country, or barony of Ganycastle* (Se^ Harris^ 
Antiq^ ck, ?• and Seward at Deal^na.J 

(108) In St. Tola's Acts at SO March, ii^ which Colgan col- 
lected eveiy thing that he could find concerning him, Kiljbffe is 
not even mentioned. In the pai^sage of tl|e 4« Masters zelatiTe Uf 
hin^ there quoted at full length, he is called bishop, only of 
Clooaid; The calei^ of C^flhel has « St. Tola ofDisert- Tola/* 
th^ raartyrology xif Don^gall,. " St Tola bishop and anchoret,, of 
Duert'TolaJ' But in no calendar whatsoever is he said to. have 
belonged to Ki^dare. Yetat./i.407. we find and of KUdartuet 
de KiiUdara^ adde4 to- the woods, bishop qfClonardf It is plain 
that KUl-dara has slipped in, instead of Di^ert^Tola. Henoe 
preceded th^ mistake of Ware and Harris, who (Bishops at 
M4oJth,2jA K,iidare) make him bishqp not only of Cknard, but 
likewise, of Kildare. To show still further that they were mis- 
taken, I may add that in the veiy minute catalogtie, which Col- 
gai^haf, {Tr. Th. p, 629.) of the bishops, abbots, &c erf* Kil* 
d^xerJ^vi^ b^inning down to the ISth century, no St. Tola 
is .reckoned among them. 

(109) Tr. Th. p. 509. The year there marked from the 4 
Mastiers is 734. i. e. 735. 

(IK)) Colgan has this bishop Cumian at 12 January. Hbxea- 
sei^^.for treating of him at said day was his having cQnjectured 
that he might have been Cumian of Antrim, whose name i» in 
th^ JinA calendars at said day, and whose death 4s assigned to 
i^ 6fi8* < For this conjepture he has not even the appearance of 
an argument, nor is it consistent with Cumian's having died at 
Bobbjip on a 19th of August, and during the reign of Luitprand, 
which di4 not begin until many years afler S/'S. He obsenr^es 
that avpong all the St. Cumians, bishops or otherwise, not one of 
theiqa-ivqpiew^ ui the Irish calendars at 19 August. Ilus is not 
to be uondered at, whereas the Cumian cS Bobhio died far away 
^sofd Ireland, and all that is known of him is coptain^d in *jthe 
fidkrw^ epitaph, which our old hagiologists p^i^bably never heard 
o& and of which I have giv^ the substance. 


Hk sacra bead membra Cumuaii aolvuntuTy 

Cujus caelum penetxans axuma cum Angelis gaudet. 

Istci fuit magnus dignitatey genere, fonna. 

Hunc mitdt Scotia fines ad Italicos senem ; 

Locatur et Bobio, Domini constrictus amore, 

Ubi venerandi dogma Columbani servando 

V^lilanSy leiunansy indefessus sedule orans, 

Olympiades quatuor^ uniusque circulo anni» 

Sic vixit felidter, ut felix modo credatur. 

Mitis, prudenSy pius patribus pacificus cunctis. 

Huic aetads anni fuerunt novies deni. 

Lustrum quoque unum, mensesque quatuor simul. 

Ac pater egregi^ potens intercessor existe 

Fro gloriosissimo Luitprando rege, qui tuum 

Firedoso lapide tumbam decoravit devotus. 

Sic ut manifestum almum ubi t^tur CQipu^ 

— est hie dominus Cumianus episcopus 

Qartodedmo Calend. Septemb. fecit Joannes Magister. 

Colgan would iain refer the wordsy Quartodecimo Calend. Sep- 
temb, not to the death of Cumiani but to the day on which John 
Magister woiked at the epitaph. This would be a strange mode 
of explaining the days marked on such monuments, nor would it 
have occun'ed to Colgan, did he not think it odd that Cumian'a 
name is not in the Irish calendars at 19 August. MabiHon, touch- 
ing incidentally on Cumian, (Annal. &c at A, 722.) understood 
the 14 Calend. Sept. as relathre to his death, observing at the 
tame dme that in the calendar of Bobbio his fesdval was assigned 
not to that day i. ^.19 August, but to the 9th of June. His 
adding that Cumian spent more than 20 years in that monasteiy 
is, I think, a mistake founded on his having reckoned the four 
Olyn^iads as each consisting of five years, a mode of computing, 
which he had erron^eously followed in making up the age of St 
Coiumbanus* (See Not 69 to Chap, xiii.) 

§. IX. Flahertacli, monarch of Ireland, who, as 
we have seen, (111) retired in 734 to a monastery in 
Armagh, was succeeded by Aedh or Hugh IV. sur- 
natned Ollain, son of the king Fergall. He reigned 


for nine years until he was killed in the battle of KeUs 
A4 D. 743, fighting against Domnald, who was then 
raised to the throne. This Domnald, the third 
monarch of his name, was son of Murdach a great 
grandson of Colman prince of Meath, who was a son 
of the monarch Diermit I. Having reigned 20 
years, Domnald went on a pilgrimage to Hy, where 
he died late in 763. His successor was Niell Fras- 
sach, or the cloudy^ a brother of Aedh Ollain, who 
after a reign of seven years retired to Hy, became a 
monk there, and lived until 778. The next monarch 
was Donnchad, or Donagh, a son (bom in 733) of 
Domnald HI. He ascended the throne in 770, and 
held it for 27 years. His reign is remarkable for its 
having been that, during which the Danes began to 
infest the coasts of Scotland and Ireland. (112) 

The Church history of Ireland during these 
reigns presents us with a much smaller number of 
persons distijnguished by sanctity or learning, and of 
mteresting facts, than we have met with in former 
periods. Yet notwithstanding the scanty accounts, 
that remain of those times, owing either to a neglect 
in recording transactions or to the destruction and 
loss of documents, it is certain that ecclesiastical dis- 
cipline and learning of every sort, such as was cul- 
tivated in the eighth century, continued to flourish in 
this country. Detailed accounts of many holy and 
learned men of this period cannot be given ; but 
there is no doubt of such, and far from few, persons 
having adorned it. 

A St. Manchin, abbot of Tuaim-grene (Tomgrany 
in the county of Clare) died in 735 (736). Jus) 
Aractac, who, although called only abbot of Ferns, 
was perhaps bishop there, died in 738. (114) To 
A. D. 742 is assigned the death of St. Cormac 
bishop of Trim. (115) He is said to have been of 
the royal house of the Nialls ; and his name appears 
in various calendars at the 17th of February as the 
anniversary of his death. (11 6) Three brothers of 




his are spoken of; Rumond, a very wise man and 
deeply skilled in history and antiquities, who died in 
743 ; Baitellach, abbot of Triniy whose death is marked 
at A. D. 752 ; and Ossan a priest, the year of whose 
death is not known. St. Coman, or Comman, dutfaor 
of a Monastic rule, which was extensively followed in 
Connaught, died in 743, or according to another ac- 
count in 746. (1 17) 1 find him called bishop of Ros- 
common, (118) where an episcopal see existed during 
the middle ages ; and, as that place, in all appearance, 
got its name from this St. Coman (1 19) it is highly 
probable that he was its first bishop. (120) His 
memory was revered on the 26th of December. ( 1 2 1 ) 
In these times there was a bishop, and apparently the 
first, at Fore, St. Suarle or Suarlech, who, having suc- 
ceeded the abbot Dubdaboren in 736, was afterwards 
raised to the episcopal rank and lived until the 27th 
of March, A. D. 746. (122) 

(111) Above §. 1. 

(112) O'Flaherty^Qgjigf. Part. in. cap. 93. See also Ware, 
Antiq, cap* 4. Their accounts as to those kings* agree in sub- 
stance^ except that Ware reckons the reign of Donnchad from 
the year 778> in which Niell Frassach died in Hy, while 0*Fla« 
herty makes it begin in 770, the year of said king's withdrawing to 
that island. And hence instead of 27 years, which 0*Flaherty has 
for his reign, Ware counts only 19. I must here caution the reader 
against a typographical error in the margin (ih.J of the English 
translation di Ware, in which, instead o^ 797, the year of Donn- 
chad's death, we find 787. The dates of the 4 Masters (a^. TV. 
Th. p: 448.) illative to all those kings are different from 0*Fla- 
hert/s; but we may be certain that his are the most, cor- 

(113) A A. SS.p.3S2. 

(114) Ib.p. 223. I have changed the date 737 of the 4 Mas- 
ters into 738. In the 3d Index^ ib. Arectach is called bishop 
of Ferns. This may have been merely a mistake of the com- 

(115) Colgan at 17 February, {p. 361.) where he treats of this 


iaint, calif lum .OMcpaac junjhrf 98 if thcx^ had been an cider 
Connaebiabop of Ttim kitbe Bfth oentwy. , Tlyit tl^s is a mis- 
take has been shown already (Chap* viii. §. 1%) Hie. 4 Mas- 
ten, quoted bj C^gan place CkMinac*s death in 741 (7.43). 

(116) Althou^ in said, calendars CcMixiac, fi^hop tjf Trinh » 
escpiesdy mentkioed at 17 FtbroBfy^ Colgan, in oonaecjpiesioe of 
his soppoiio^ tbot Aeie was an older Cormac also bUop there, 
has some doubb as 40 which of them thi$ djste belonged. But, 
90^ he wa^ miwtkken on that point, these doubts are unfounded. 
At said day tiie catemdars have indeed ano&er Cormac, who was 
kiot bishop of Ttkai but arcfabish<^ of Armagh. (See Chap^ viii. 
J. 12.) 

* (117) The 4 Masters {ap. A A. SS. p. 791.) ha^e A. 742 (749). 
Ware {Writers at> Coman) quotes the Annals of Boyle for A, 
746. ...... 

(118) AA.SS.p.A05. 

(119) We have seen (iV(tf. 146 to Chap, xiu) that theieis no 
sufficient reason to admit, that there was a St Coman at Ros* 
common in the sixth century, as some writers have su|^x>sed. 

(120) Colgan (i4i4. SS.p. 405.) calls. Coman not only bishop, 
but likewise founder of the church of Roscommon. 

(1^1) Ih. and^. 791. 

(122) A A. SS. p. 772 at ^ Mart, The date ifrom the 4 Mafi^ 
.tfergis745, i. *. 746. 

§; X. Alboit), alias^ Witts oir^ Wittatt, one of the 
fellow labounefs of St. Boiiifiteeiyi Germany^ and 
who in 74i was aj^iwted by him bishop of Bura- 
b^rg near Fritzlar in- Hesse, (138)* is i^aid to haw 
been a native of Irdairi. (124) like ^ only -dbj»6^ 
tion I find to this portion is, that, if hi$ oriffinal 
name wa» Witta^ he would sefefti' to havei been 
rather an Englishman. But it may be conjectured^ 
that his real name was Albmitj - whicb, to please the 
German ears, was changed iMsb the conresp^nding 
Saxon Witta, white. (I2S) -Be this as it mayi 
scarcely anything else is khoWii eencerning hinaj 
e^ept that he died on a 26th of October, and has 
been called the apostle of Thtkringia. (126) It is 


certtmi that there were at that {)eridd Irish missionr 
aries jireaching the Gospel in Germany together 
with St. Boniface. One of them was the celebrated 
Virgilius, who afterwards became bishop of Saltz- 
burg, and whose real name was most probably 
JPeargily or perhaps Fear gal. (127) To what piart 
of Ireland he belonged, or of what family he was, 
J caT^iot find any accomit, except its being said 
that he was of noble extraction. (128) Having 
^eatly distinguished himself by his piety and learn- 
ing, (129) he was raised to the priesthood, and, ap- 
parently soon after, set out for the contihent as a 
missionary. He had arrived hr France before the 
year 746,(130) where he was most graciously re- 
ceived by Pepin, son of Charles Martel, and as yet 
only mayor of the palace. (131) He is said to have 
remaned with Pepin, who was greatly attached to 
him, for two years, at Carisiacum, a princely re- 
sSdeince near Compeigne, on the Oise, an^ thence 
to have proceeded to Bavaria then go veined by the 
duke Otilo or Odilo, to whom he was strongly re- 
commended by Pepin. This was probably about 
the year 745. Vii^Kus was in Bavaria when his 
disputes began with St. Boniface, whose jurisdic- 
tion then extended over that country, as well as 
over many other parts of Germany. The first 
instance of them occurs in 74^f occasioned by a 
theological question, to which the ignorance of a, 
priest gave risei This priest, not understanding 
JjEitfn, used in administering baptism to say these 
wwds ; *• Bapttzo te in nomine Patria^ et ^Filia, 
et Spiritua Sancta** instead of Patris, Filii, et Spi' 
ritits SancH. Boniface, being informed of it, or- 
dered Virgilius and Sidonius, a companion of his 
and probably also an Irishman, (132) to rebaptize 
such persons as that priest had undertaken to bap- 
tize. They refused to obey, justly maintaining 
•that the baptisms performed by him were valid, and, 
to protect themselves against any exercise of Boni* 

N 2 


face's pawcT, gave a full account of the whole mat- . 
ter in a letter which they wrote to Pope Zachary. 

(12S) See Epislol. Bonifac. No. 131, 132, and Heuiy, Hist. 
EccL L. 42. #.22. 

(124) Trithemius fDeviris tUustribtu Ord, Ben.&c) states, 
that he had beeii a monk in Ireland, and that thence, leaving his 
sweet native coUlitiy, he passed over to Germany, where he con- 
verted numbers of pagans, and became bishop, &c Arnold Wion 
(Lign, Vits.J caUs Albuin an Irishman, and as Trithemius also 
says in one place, a monk of Hy, who went to Gennany, &c 
Hence several other authors, among whom Serarius (Ber, Mo- 
gunt. L. 3.) Usher (Preface to Ep. Hih. SyJL) Colgan {AA. SS. 
p. 610.) Ware and Hajcna (Writers at Albuin) have considered 
him as midoubtedly a native of Ireland. 

(125) Even adouttdng that the original name was Vitta, Witta, 
or Wittany it might hav« been an Irish name, although not mean- 
ing xtshite v^ the Irish language. His English companions, find- 
ing that in their tongue it was like nuhitey might have latinized it 
into Albuinus. . 

(126) See AA. SS. p. 6ia 

(127) The Irish Fear, sometimes contracted into Fer, has in 
latinizing of names been not seldom changed into Vir. For Fear 
in Irish signifies man, as Vir does in Latin. Thus an abbot of Hy, 
whose name is constantly written in Irish Fergna, is called by 
Adamnan Virgnous through, as Colgan observes {A A. SS.p. 451.) 
a Latm inflexion. In like manner VirgUiusy which I find (ib. p. 800) 
given also to an abbot of Aghaboe in the 8th century, and (ib. p. 
107) to one of Tirdaglas in the lOth, was no other than Feargilp 
or probably Feargal, Fergaly now FerraL That the Virgilius, 
who was in Germany during the time of St. fioni&ce, was the same 
as the one, who was afterwards raised to the see of Saltzbuig can- 
not, with any sufficient degree of probability, be called in ques- 
tion. His having disagreed with him on some points, in which by 
the bye Virgilius was right, and his being denounced by him to 
Pope Zachary, is no proof that he was not the holy and learned 
Virgilius, who, after tliat Pope's death, was considered worthy of 
being promoted to the episcopal order. Fleury, however, treats 
of them as two distinct Viigils ; but Mabillon (at the Life of St. 


Virgil, AA, Ben, Sec. S. part 9, and Annal, Ben* at A. 747 
and 756.) makes them the same person, and so does Basnage in 
his edition of Canisius, (Ant, Lect. Tom, S. part 2. p. 273.) I 
scarcely need add, that Baronius, Usher, Ware, and a crowd of 
Other writers were of the sanie opinion. Yet Pagi {Critica &C 
ad A, D, 1A%,) has endeavoured to show, that the Virgil, with 
whom Boni&ce had some disputes, was diff^k«nt from the great 
bishop of Saltzburg. But, as will be soon seen, his arguments are 
fiv firom conclusive. 

(128) A Life of St. Virgilius has been published by Canisius 
( Tom. 5. part 2. Basnage's ed ) and afterwards by Messingham 
(Fhrileg^ &c) and MabiUon ( Acta Ben* Sec. S. pari 2. It was 
written in the 12th century, and consists of two parts; the first 
biographical, but short, meagre, and inaccurate ; the second on 
miracles wrought at his tomb in various times. This Life b^;in» 
with these words : Beatissimtis igitur VirgUius in Hibemia instda 
de nobiU ortus prosapia" &c The account given in it of his 
transactions prior to his being placed on the see of Saltzbui^ is 
very imperfect, and that part of his history must be collected from 
other documeiiCs. 

(129) All accounts agree, that besides being veiy religious he 
was exceedingly learned. In the Life it is said that he might 
have been considered the most learned among the learned men of 
his time and climate, meaning, I suppose, the western world. By 
Bruschius he is styled vir pietate et docirina clarus. He is spoken 
of in like manner by Hundius and other German writers. 

(ISO) Pagi, Critica, &c. ad A. 746. 

(131) Some writers have said that Viigilius, on his arrival in 
France^ was received by King Pepin. But this must be under^ 
stood in a loiose sense, inasmuch as Pepin, from being mayor of 
the palace, was aften^rds raised to the throne in !752. Pagi 
floe, cit.) and Mabillon {Annal. Ben. ad A. 756.) took care to 
slyle P^n only mayor of the palace at the time of Virgilius' re- 
oq>tion at his court According to the unchronologicai manner, 
in which his arrival in France and his subsequent proceedings until 
he was consecrated bi^op of Salt^buig are related in the Life, it 
would seem as if he had not been in that country until after 760. 
Not only Ware and Harris, ( Writers at Virg^) but likewise Floury, 
(£>. 44. $. 3.) in oonsequence of following said Life, fell into a great 



tnistake on this point. Besides calling. Pjepin king nt the time of 
his first receiving ViigiUus, th^ scq[^x)Sed tl^at the saint wad not in 
the continent more than about four years prior to 766, or 767) to 
each of which years his consecration at $alt2d)ui]g has been most 
erroneously assigned. It will be Seen lo^er dotvn,. that he waa'fi. 
bishop many years earlier. But fVom what i& said in the Life, ani} 
which they copied from h^ concerning Yirgilius having gone froai 
Pepin's court to Saltzburg ki the iirae of Otilo, dukeof Bavazte^ 
these writers ought to have guarded against that mistake.; for, as 
Pagi CibJ observes, Otjjo die4 in 748. . 

(\S9) Mabillon says, (^n/io/f, &a at ^. 747) that Sidonius had 
perhaps come from Ireland wiili yiigitiii$. Thi^ is a very probable 
conjecture; for Sidoniusy lalinissed jSrom Sedna^ freqm^ntly occurs 
as the name of distinguished bishtnen m those ages. . Where did! 
Harris find, (Writers hi Virgil) that this Sidonius, the fellow -la- 
bourer of Yiigilius, was archbishop of Bavaria? It is plain that he 
was only a priest, and so he is. titled in a letter of Pqpe Zachaiy^ 
written'm 748-» 

§. XI. The Poj[)e was astonished at the proceeding 
of Boniface, and immediately wrote to him, expres- 
sing the pain he felt at his having issued an order 
for the rehaptizing of those persons^ He cautions 
him never to act in that manner again, whereas, al- 
though the priest's Latin was bad, the baptisms per- 
formed by him were valid, and unattended with any 
circumstances that could authorize the rebaptization 
of those, whom he had baptized. (183) It seems 
that Boniface was hurt at Virgilins* having written 
tb the Pope, and consequently treated him with 
harshness. It has been said, but I suspect without 
foundation, that Yirgilius went on this occasion to 
Rome. (134) It is certain that h^ was in Bavaria 
in 747 atnd the following year. For in one or other 
of these years, I believe thc^ former, Boniface de-* 
nounced him to the Pope, alleging various chaiges, 
some of which cannot be easily guessed at. (1155) 
^e firM was that he used to ' speak ill of Boniface, 
because, said Boniface, I have shown that he erred 


on Catholic doctijne. But on what point or points 
Virgilius erred, we are not informed. Another 
charge was that, conversing with the duke Otilo, 
he us^d to sow seeds of hatred between him and Bo- 
niface. To these vague accusations he adds» what 
he must have picked up from false report, that Yir- 
giiius said that he was authorized {196) by the Pope 
to obtain the diocese of a decea^d bishop, one of 
the four whom Boniface had ordained in that country. 
Biit these are tdfles, compared With the horrible 
crime, of which Virgilius wan guilty, by maintaining 
that tjiere was another wwld and other men under 
the earth, that is, under~the part of iiw earth trod- 
den by Boniface. Z^chary in his answer, written 
in 748, passing over the two first charges,, denies 
that be had' empowered Vhrgilius to obtain a diocese, 
imd says that, in case it be proved that he held the 
doctrine of there beins anatner^world and other men 
under the earth, (1^7; a synod should be convened, 
and YirgiKns expelled from the church. He adds, 
that he was then about sending a letter to the duke 
(Otilo) concerning Virgilius, for the purpose of citing 
him to appear before hiins^, ^ and, if convicted of 
error, of condemning him according to the canons. 
Then he tells Boniface, that he did not forget what 
he had written to him (on some other occasion) con* 
ceming Sidonius and the (^oresaiA Virgilius. ( i 38) 
What compkint Boniface had made against them is 
not stated. Perhaps it was that they were not as 
obedient to him its he would have wished. Zackary 
says that he had written a threatening letter to them, 
and subjoins that Boniface will be believed preferably 
to them, and that^ as he observed above (with regard 
to Vii^iliils), he will summon them to-appear before 
the Apostolic see. Whether either Virgilius or Si- 
donius were actually suminooed to attend at Romje,> 
or went thither, or which of the parties was believed 
in preference to l^e other, we are not infermed ; but 
matters must have been compromised, and a recon- 


ciliation have taken place, whereas henceforth nothing 
whatsoever can be discovered relative to those dis- 
putes. V 1^^) Virgilius was abbot of St. Peter's mo- 
nastery at Saltzburgh before the death of Duke Otilo, 
(140) which occurred in 748, and seems to have 
continued in that situation, until he was appointed 
bishop of^ said city by Pope Stephen the second and 
the king Pepin in 756. (I4l) 

(133) Thifr letter cpf Pope Zachary is at No. 134. of the Epist. 
Bonifac, and may be seen in the BibL Pair, of Lyons^ Tom. IS. 
Usher has it in JE^. Hib, Syll. No. 16. It b^ins thus; " Virgilius 
et Sidonius, religiosi virif apud Baioariorum provindam d^entes, 
suis DOS litteris visitarunt.** 

(134) Pagi holds (at A. 746) that Virgilius, f. e. the one, whom 
he distinguishes from the bishop of Saltzbuig, went to Rome in 
said year. His only argument is that in a letter, of which mare 
will be seen directly, of Zachary to Boni^ice, written in 748> a 
chaige against Virgilius is mentioned, viz. that he said *' quod 
a nobui esset absolutus — diocesim obtinere. Pagi explains abso- 
hittu as signifying dismissed ; whence he concluded that Virgilius 
had been at Rome. I thmk it more probable that absolutus 
must in that passive be understood as meaning empowered or ati- 
ikorizedf according to an acceptation introduced in the middle ages. 
Thus we find absolutio used for powers liberty, licence ; and ab* 
solutionem Jacere for granting power or faculties. It was with 
rderence to this occupation, that Zacharj; made use of the phrase 
abs(dutus ; for it seems dear from what we read in the same let- 
ter a few- lines higher up, that he had not as yet seati Vii^lius. 
Alluding to charges brought against him by ^oniface, he saya 
that he does not know whether said Virgilius was called a priest^^ 
nescimus si dicatur presbyter. How could this be, had Zachary 
been acquainted with Viigilius at Rome ? In a former letter (see 
Not. prec.) he called him a religiosus vtr, that is, a man charged 
with religious functions, such as he might have been without being 
a priest, for instance, were he only a deacon. At the time, at 
]east, when Zachary wrote the latter, Virgilius was abbot of the 
monasteiy of St. Peter at Saltzbuig; but Boni&ce had not in- 
ibrmed the Pope of his rank or situation. I must not dissemble 


that also MabiUon thdu^t {Annak Ben. ad. A. 747. ) that Virgiliufr 
t. e. he who afterwards became bishop, went to Rome and re>- 
tumed thence to Bavaria in said year 747. He likewise must 
have been led astray by the word, abioluius. 

(135) These chaiges are known only from Zachary's answer to 
Boniface No. 140. ap. Epist. Bonifacm and 17. in Usher's Sylloge. 
Mabillon supposed ( Annal. Sfc. ad A. 756.) that Bonifece was 
displeased with Virgiliusy because he had come to Bavaria with 
recommendations from Pepin, and not by order of Boniface him- 
self,- and that he was taken great notice of by the duke Otilo, to 
which he adds that perhaps Virgilius was not very submissive to 
him. All this may be true, and joined with the oppositran of 
Virgilius on the baptismal question is liilly sufficient to explain 
why Boni&ce became so angiy with him. 

(136) See Not. 134. 

(137) It is universally admitted that the opinion maintained by 
Virgilius was no other than that ^lative to the Antipodes, an opi- 
nion founded on the ^heridty of the earth, and which in our days 
even school-boys are acquainted with. It was' new to Boniface ; 
for in those times geQgriq;>hical and philosophical learning win not 
as much cultivated in other parts of the West as in Ireland. His 
mode of stating that opinion might have misled a Pope even more 
learned than Zachaiy, and induced him to think, that Viigilius 
held that there was a second species of men inhabiting another 
world distinct from the earth. That Virgilius entertained no such 
extravagant notion is dear fix>m there not having been any for- 
iher proceedings on this subject ; a circumstance which cannot be 
accounted for except on this principle, that Virgilius communi- 
cated a correct statement of his opinion to Zachary, who accord- 
ingly found it to be harmless. 

(138) ** Pro Sidonio autem et Viigilio supradicto presbjrteris, 
quod scripsit sanctitas tua, agnovimus." It is odd that here he calls 
not only Sidonius but likewise Virgil a priest, although some lines 
before he had said, that he did. not know whether that same Vir- 
gilius was called one. ( See Not. 134.) Unless there be some er. 
ror in the text, the reason of this discrepancy must be that in a 
letter of. Boniface concerning Sklonius and Vii^gilius jointly, and 
which was difierent from that in which he brought the above 
mentioned charge against Virgilius in particular, he gave them 
the title Qf priais, which he omitted in the other, when com- 


cmt tl^^ wbofe Mler oiie ami the sane peiMD, as is evident from 
the word supradicto. 

(139) One of Fa^'w$g^smmt$io9b^ Hmt^tke ViigUiu^ wbxr 
was 8ca»ed hjBotO&c^ waadifferant firom J3t» Vfa^uaof Saltz-^ 
bu^i is, iAat» 1l^ d^ B&iht's Zifip no mention is made of these dis^ 
pul^.. S^t fliun^i^ be wtist have kn^wn that in works itfthtt kind/ 
pai;ijct)]Ar}y. ^pd^asrViece madeupiin ibedark ages, sHence was usu- 
ally obem^y^ noffocdto qaaDds between hdj men. In fiiet> 
tb^ so f^#^Uv«Ei oC ^aints^ mitten in those times^ are in gene^ 
ral FW^fi^^ diK^unm. ndMT than .biogiga tracts, and 

es(f!ry tbtog w Qimtted that migtibtbrow «lie least refleedon on the 
Q(Mi4uel erf* the saint at imy: time of his- ^^ And as to that of 
St. VirgiliuSyPagt was well aware that it is ^eiy imperfect. Among 
mai^ other circumstances, it has nothing about Viigilius having, 
be^ abbot al Sdtzhuig. for many years befoK he Was made 
bisbppf It is<)ddihat Pagi, who aS^irs that both his Yizgils were 
m B^vac^bi 74& and thenoefiKtb during the disputes with Boni- 
fi^e,iMn(H:coiisiderthat the Virtus engaged in diem, was, as 
qffiefl^/fhHQ/Zficbai/s letteti of 748^ the xxmfidentia] fiiend of 
cluke P^: liEfW. Fagi hiffls^cs(»|68itha« VirgiHus, who be- 
came bi^op fsi $^b\xtgf was the one who had been recom-* 
Qicppcd^ tci Mni.b|^:P€^,and who was afterwards a great favou- 
rite;. .^og^rdit^ilO Hb hypothesis we diould admit that both the 
YiigiUi Wi9i^>:#rQalfy eiteemed by the duke and quite intimate 
^A Ww^: jyhgt neeesaty is there foir such suppositions, un- 
suppQi1;fdi by any Ibing we £iid in Pope Zadiaiy's letters, or by 
the aHtbmty of. any dd document? Pagi* seemed to think, that 
the Viigilius, n^. was accused by Boni&ce, was an obscure per- 
son of little note ; but if he had well examined the letter of 748, 
he. woMldM^Ct'ftiUndtliatcfae was considered at Otilo's court as a 
vo^ of. bigb consequence. 

(liO} M9i^ A.766. 

;(^41) MMMIlaa{:ib.J shows that this is the ^ date c^ Vir- 
gilais- appoibtmeht to that see, and- observes that he was the im- 
mediate rsn^xssor of Jobn,' who diedib said year 756. Pagi 
oiHite^.(allj|«:?^) that be was bishop <xfSa}td>uiig as early as 
about tins year^ and it is on this suppos^n that he chiefly, and 

CHAP. XIX. . . PF ifti;tAK9» . . 187 

gEoundii iiis aiMrtJoii Afrt; tbd MAop.w^t.^itfK^ml .^^ 

lias, whahaafdiyiiiqiwkh SuBiM^ibQet: Ti^phfl^.CQfMw^ 

pected of emr by Zilcbaiy in 7i8» /Mi. bpI« aJW8h»(u Bigia't 
eoly aiguiiiait Bar msldog ViigiUuB.aliHbop no mriiyM&mAiBiim 
Avay andent epitaph on huOy whtdibe jnetwilh ta-Mabilkm'f 
jftudatOfTotiu ^% Jail we ready aiDongolliflr 

Eenoe jficallrhAiiot cam cmn fiatribuiaupot." 

• • • 

jhigi undeBrtandfl the abnoflt fotty^qttff^Hkng^yjmn b$ne inea* 
tioned, aaiall idfiher.tgf ibe . qalKSCq^ 

Sak^Mig.v Movja$ihedifld.785^.PagiplaoesUieooiiuDencenait 
4i£ it Jiiab0iit74& BiitNriMlk«»¥^)iaipiiblidiednld.fl|i^ 
not only in tha ^na&v^at butlikewiae iOr iJie .ulniMi/* £1. (at;/l 
785) has drawn nosUch oondusion fromit; fiir^asabove observed, 
he awgiiB tbacoammenciemimt to A. fM. AnddidPttgiinuii^e, 
that the okt JMrevSaries, ex, c that of faHHui» and .narioitt writers, 
where stataigthat Viigfliuft was. i^)pliinted faishi^ by Stephen the 
seccmd^and^Mi thepoftuklion of JBepb, ^hen IqngoC the' whole 
Rench monardhyr were all wrong ? Stqphen'a p^mtifioate did not 
b^in until 752, the very year in whic^ Pepin was aDwned king, 
Toretumto the iqdtaph, the fact is that Piay was irtisrakwi in hk 
int^pretalion of it ; fiw the quoted lines can veiy weU, and, unless 
egoaiDy-good docoments are to b^ afl* rejeot^,- must be explained 
as rdalive not only to theyMv, daringtHiAticfa ViigOius was bicdiop 
oP SaltsBbuig, but likewise 4o the pretiou^, onea wl^e - he governed 
6t. Peter's monastery. Thus it is trii^ that he was invested wjkh 
eoderiaatical authority iii that city during neair foity years,^* there 
being every reason to thjhk that he-i^riis abbot of St^ Peter's as 
eaily as 746. As tO' the opposite extretne ^ those, n^ho have put 
eiiFthe episcopacy of YiigiQus^til' 76$ er767, it is itcaroely worth 
mentioning ; and let it suffice to dbserte diat Popsr Stephen Hi by 
wfaiHu he had been instated, was^ debd since 767. Ham# f Wri^ 
iers at Vfrgilius) fell into a monstrous blunder as to the dates 
of some of his transactions. 'Not content with following Ware's 


mistake in '^ghifi^ his oonsecratioh as bishop of Salt^in^ ta 
767) he adds, among other inaccimides, that it was during his* 
q)iscopacy that he had his controversies with Bonifoce. Poor 
Harris did not know, that Boni&ce suffered martyrdom in 755» 
and accordingly was dead before even the real date (756) of the 
episcopacy of VirgOius. Ware himself, although not chargeable 
with this huge mistake, was veiy inconsistent in, on one side, sup-^ 
posing that Viigilius had not lefl Ireland until about 763> (see Nai. 
131) and, on the other^ in saying that he and Sidonius wrote a 
letter to Pope Zachary against Boni&ce. It is true, as we have Seen, 
that they wrote to Zachary ; but this very circumstance ought to have 
taught Ware, that Virgilius was in the Continent long before 76S» 
whereas Zachaiy died in 752. There is a ridiculous story, men- 
tioned by Usher, (Ep. Hih. SyU. Not. ad No. 16) of ViigOius 
having been a bishop before he left Ireland, and of his having gone 
over to Germany at the same time with St. Kilian of Wurtd^ioj^ 
It is too absurd to merit refutation ; and it is well known that St» 
Kilian was dead since 689. (See Chap, xviii. §. 10.) 

§ • XII. It is said that Virgilius, Blthough named 
to that see, and exercising episcopal jurisdiction^ 
deferred his consecration for almost two years, until 
at length, urged by the other bishops of the province 
and the clergy and people of his diocese, he submit- 
ted to it ; and that in the mean time Dobda» or 
Dobdagreus, a bishop who had accompanied him 
from Ireland, exercised the necessary episcopal func- 
tions in his stead. (142) Some writers have sup- 
posed that Dobda was a Greek ; but this is, I believe, 
a mistake originating in the name Dobda-greus hav- 
ing been changed by a copyist into Dobda Grecus or 
Graecus. (143) According to some accounts, Dobda 
was placed as bishop at Chiem (Chiempsee in upper 
Bavaria) by the duke Otilo, and established there a 
school, which was frequented by a great number of 
students. (144) Of the further proceedings of St. 
Virgilius we shall see more hereafter ; but chrono- 
logical order does not allow a continuation of his 
history in this place. About the same time that he 



arrived in Bavaria we find another distinguished 
Jrishman in that country, St. Alto, who has been 
called a companion of bis* (1^3) He is stated to 
have been of a very illustrious family, and to have 
arrived in fiavaria about 7^3. (l46) There he 
lived for some years as a hermit in a forest about 
midway between Augsburg and Munich. The fame 
of« his sanctity reached the ears of Pepin, to whom 
that country was subject, and induced him to make 
him a grant of a part of the forest, about the year 
750^ for the purpose of erecting a church and mo-> 
nastery. This grant was very probably made through 
the interference of St. Vii^llus, for whom Pepin, 
both when mayor of the palace and when king, en- 
tertained the highest regard. Alto immediately set 
about clearing the ground, and, assisted by the people 
of the neighbourhood, succeeded in completing a 
monastery and church, which was dedicated by St» 
Boni&ce. This monasteiy was, from Alto's name, 
cdled Alto-munster^ afterwards corrupted into Alt^ 
munster. The memory of this holy man was revered 
on the 9th of February, the anniversary of his death, 
the year of which is not known. Some tracts have 
been attributed to him, but on authority not worth 
atten^ngto. (147) Among other Irish missionaries 
of, this period in Bavaria is reckoned Dechm, who 
is said to have died at Frisingen on, it seems, a first 
of December^ 0*8). 

(142) These particulars are related in the Life of St Viigilius, 
and in one of St. Rupert. In the former the biahop, that officiated 
inirtead4>f Viigilius, is called Dobda ; in the latter, Dobdagreus. 
He is repKflented as having come fix>m Ireland together with Vir- 
gilius ; and, if it be true that he got a bishopric fix>m the duke 
OtOo, this may be admitted, whereas Otilo died in 748. 

(14-S) Hundius in his Catalogue of the bishops of Sakzburg^ 
has Dobda, or as he calls him, Dobdan, a Greek. Ftom him 

• * • * • * « *. 

Usher took what he has on this point, (Ep. Hib. SylL Not. ad No* 
16.) and from- Usher others have picked it up. Dobda would 
liave been a very odd name for a native of Greece, but it was 


Coiniii0n« Ireland, beiiig the sttme; as DttMb, of wkidi mimy 
instances occur in old times particiilariy as i| part of Qompound 
appeOatiops. We have already .met with Dubda»b«mid abbot oC 
Fore, and Dubdan O'Foelain bishop of Clonard. There was & 
Dubda^lelhe archbishop of Anmigh in the Uitler end .of .dm 
dghth. oentuxy, aDubda4ethe» abbot of KiOAire, ^ -A 
person,, not accustomed to Irish names, might have eaaily 
^3xuijg(sd Bobda^greusmto Dobda^graeaufsaA hepoemoit pni^ 
bsyf was deiiyed the notion of that bishop harfaig been a Grieek. 
Thi|t there wj^re formerly: some Greek eodesiastics in bdand ia 
dear Stna tHere having been, as Udier fH.J observes, a Omk 
churdijll THm, and wtdcb was so odied as late as his times; but 
there«iiiBcient pKOoftoshow that DDbd»*was.(Hieaf tfasn« 
Dr. Ledwiffh^ ha^g'made mentioa (Antiq.p. VJ%) of Dsbdaos 
Pojiidaix'aa a Greeks adds to what Uslier touched upion, and as.if 
to outstrip tMwin leoiniing! that Viigiiiaa had learned the ddctriaJb 
ffthi Antipodes, ftc fiom Dobdan and other lettered Greeks aa^ 
Orientals: ^Then he says that Vhgilius must have read Phitareh, 
PJagi^netIiaeitius,.FtocluB,.«id tSto h acus, Yet manjfftoiiehali 
held. the doctnile,;a8iie temiBiit^ of! Antipod^ t^lhodt iMi^iu^ 
^ead JPbitarch^' .&& Nest W observes thitt lids ^** demonstvttdl 
t^ a^^bmibnt of iJie Irish tothe Gredc adioolaiid.^M«rt ab^M 
the Koman;" l^y> were Bottirch, Diogenes iMitiua; Stc, %iite 
of theCboreh ? Or hild the ^liestioa qonceraittg.^ Aat^odesatiy 
tUi^ to do iiiith tbeo^gy ? But the Doctor, whc^ he gfeto upon hil 
boUbybcBse of Greeks :andOrienta]8ykiiowBnob<>uo^ Hewasnol 
awffie.thi^ PopeZacbaiy, who was so niudi attarfuwl to>Bon»oe> 
whom the Dr. would call a Romanist, imd who- asid- he woul4 
believe him preferably to Viigilius, was himsdf a Greek. How 
eiKikl it hif^M^^^teitliehBdnotsoiiw partiaKiy fir mi Irishman, 
lbr« miilnb^r of tlhal tiaftion, which [hlefoiedllSie Gredc S|di6bls 16 
4ti#;B/^b^ vl'obeserious^ (iiere'wiis nodttference m thos^dayi 
i9»^^F^d ^UAbols dlher ^leblbgicfld dr^^nbh^ 
iM^^Xifis^ ii^en^, m {;eheral> thore iddKed in^ pldosopfy oF 
the times. •^eiMc^ifleeted%fbdb^^ 
iCtJcMsfldbe fyabd ^Vth^ studied tile works of bddi Gr^ and 
littiliAM^ eveiji^ d^paortment of knciii^Iei^ ;'and it 'A certain dot 
thfy >%0he at ttlAtpe^od 'vbiy Wri^T^^ GteSc leM&j^, nid 
iikd^bllidly mudk'ntoi^ 1^ liTestdii 


^\J , <w ^»' .'J- *• I' .... J.. .*.* ..e*! 


(144) Hui^uiBr ioc cU. If Dobda was named to that see by 
OtOoy he must hwe been there as early as 748. But Hundius^ 
^hnynolfs^ is. pedbaps ai inoonrect on this point as (fn that relative 
to Y'ttgAiuA, mham also he makes bishop of Saltzbuig in Otilo'k 
tin^ uddinl^ tbi^ he was oofoiecrated in 767» to which year he 
assigns Ekewjse the opeaiog of Dobda's sdiool and apparaiUy his 

tl45) :i» the Acts gf St. Alto, which Co|gan has^ endeavoured 
te make up at 9 February^ Brunner is quoted as stating CAwnaL 
BawrJ that Ako had acoompaaied Viigilius, << es eimdem eami^ 
tattu" This was perhaps founded merely on the <!9^mstance.of 
Ato's having beenrin Bavaria at least as early as Yirgihus* 

^146) MabiBony AnntU. Ben. ad A. 743- Colgan observes 
fAA'm iS£L/7. S(A) that Aito was rather a usual name in Ireiami^ 
as Bfqpcarf from old genealflfies. St* Brendan of Clonfert /wai 
gaaadiatkc£ oneAho^aDdacoaidingly wassunoamedbyAdamnan 

(147) D^mpBter^besideB striving to make Alto a Scotchman^ 
becanse hek/said toihsn® been born in ScotiOf as if the SooHa of 
ikjMe tbnes itsttife'iiot In^laxaly hft^ Arged the..nnneB ofoectaiii 
books as vmtiimby him, wlkichy observes CdgB% nobod]r:else lias 
a-'ixro!Ml-aboiit ^^):' 

<148) ae^ALA. SS.p. SOS. and Usher, Ep^ Hib. SyU. Not. ad 
No. 16. 

§. xjJt. To the year 747 (149) are assi^ed the 
deathfrjof the following distinguished and pioaseo 
clesiasti(»: *y Moetiinardi^, bishop of ^ £ctram i(lSS)) 
^xiadifft. Nuadat, abbot of Clones; Cuaogus, sur«^ 
haai^d' Mad^daU^ a man of emiaehti sanctity and 
j^^arhka^^ and abbot of Lietbmore, where his festiiral 
liat cdbMMpatedi together with that of the founder 
St. Puieberinsron the 1 3th of March ; (151} 
soarn^ed'iSiiitonmci^, apparentiy from his fai 
amnt sotne tiip^iQ J3t?itai&4Mr having be^ii a^ B 
Seot, son of one- Foilan, aiid abbpt of Slane ; f^rsisf 
or Earsa, aUbot of Leean^ now I^eckin in Westnieatli»> 
Loselag,. Jmrnanned* Whe ; Eochod of KiUtomi^^ 
somewhere in said district; (152) Keledulass of 



Devenish ;' and Macoge of Lismore, who was perhaps 
bishop of that see. 

In the following year 74*8, and on the third of 
July, is said to have died Killen Droichtheach, 
abbot of Hy. (153) He was succeeded by Failbe, 
the second^abbot of that name, concerning whom I 
find nothing particular, except that his death is as- 
signed to the J 0th of March A* D. 755 ; that he was 
then in the 87th year of his age ; and that he was 
succeeded by Sleben, son of Congal, of the race of 
Cooall Gulbanius. (154) ^ , 

Congus, archbishop of Armagh, having governed 
the see for 60 years, ( 1 55) was on his death in 750 
succeeded by Kele-Petrus, a native of Hi-Bressail^ 
DOW Clanbrassil in the county of Armagh, whose 
incumbency lasted until 758, when he died and had 
for successor Ferdachrich son of one Suibne. (156) 
Flahertach, who had been king of Ireland, and 
became a monk at Armagh, died there in 761* (157) 
In the same year died Tola, abbot, and perhaps bishop, 
of. Ardbraccan ; as also Folachtach, abbot .of Birr : 
Loarn, abbot of Clonard ; Kellbil, abbot of Cluam,. 
bronich ; (158) and Aiild, abbot of Mungmt ; con- 
cerning all oif whom nothing further is known. ^ 

In these times flourished St. Melle or Mella, the 
mother of two holy men, Cannech, a priest, and 
Tigernach, an abbot. (159) Having lost her husband, 
she determined on leading a religious and retired 
life. Tigernach had just erected a monastery, close 
to the lake Melge (Lough-Melve in the county of 
Leitrim), which he made over to her, proceeding 
himself to another place. Melle here collected a 
number of. pious females, whom she governed .as 
abbess for many years. There is no account of the 
precise time . of her death \ but it appears to have 
been pripr, by some years, to 787. She is mentioned 
twice in the Calendars,, viz. at the 9th and 31st of 
March, under the name of /SA Melle of Doire-Melle^ 


that is, the oak grove of Melle, by which appellatioi]^ 
that nunnery has been distinguished. 

(149) 4 Masters, and Co(gan Ind. Chrtm. ad A A. SS. Their 
date is 746, f . e. 747* 

(150) Colgan's text has Episcapm Edrumensis. 1 cannot find 
a place called EarUm, It is very probable that EctrumeHsis is an 
erratum for Endrumensii or Aendrumenm^ and that Antrim was 
the see of this bishop 

(151) Colgan g^ves a short account of St Congus at 13 March, 
y. 607. 

(152) See Archdallat KUtoma. 

(158) The 4 Masters, and Tu Th. {p. 500) have 747 (748). 
Smith {Append, to Life of St. Columba) refers to the Annals of 
Ulster as pladng this KUlen's death in 751. In Jdinstbn's Ex- 
tracts firom said annals I do not find even his name mentioned. 

(154) 4 Masters and Tr. Th. ib. Their date 754 (755)fiir 
Failbe's death does not agree with the Annals of Ulster, which, 
as they appear in Johnston, make mention of Suibhne as abbot in 
753 (754). It is also to be observed, that according to his reading 
there would be no room for the abbot Sleben, whom the 4 Masters 
and Colgan make the immediate successor of Faiibe and next 
before Suibhne. I suspect that Johnston mistook t)ie text of said 
Annals, and that he confounded Sleben with his successor Suibhne. 
Thus, instep of Suibhne, as abbot in 754, we ought to read 

(155) See above, $• 8. 

(156) 4 Masters, and Tr. Th. p. 294. I have added, as also 
Ware has done, a year to their dates. 

(157) Ib. The year there marked is 760, i. e. 761. 

(158) In the Topographical Index to AA. SS. Cluatn-^ronach 
is maiked as the same place with Clonbrone in the county 
of Longfprd. But Cluain^bronach must have been different 
fit>m it, whereas at Clonbrone there was only a nunnery. 
Cluain-bronach was probably the same as Cluainbraoin near the 
town of Louth, where the memory of a St. DichuU was held in 
veneration. (See Tr. Th. p. 115.) Archdall would have done 
better, had he assigned Kellbil to this place rather than to Clott>- 
^ne, where he has him in a list of abbesses. It may perhaps be 



w^ that ColgioEi does not eicpresBly caU him an abbot ; but, as he 
utos the word, abhctf jost before, when naming Loarn, it is difficult 
to suppose that this title was not meant as applicable also to Kellbil. 
In like manndr we find in the passage, where those persons are 
mentioned together {Ind. Chron. ad A A, SS^ as having (fied in 
760 (761), that Tola is not called other abbot or bishop; yet 
ekewbere {ib, p. 79S.) Colgan gives him the title of antktes of 

(159) Colgan has a short and imperfect acoountof St. Mella at 
31 Mardi.N He thmks that St. Cannech, her son, was the same as 
the Cannech, whose name is in the Calendars at sdid di^. 

i§. XIV. Ferdachrich; who, as we have seen, became 
archbishop of Annagh in 7^8, held that see for 
about ten years, and dying in 768, seemingly in 
the month of May, (I6O) was succeeded by Foende- 
lach, or Foemlekch, (I64.) the son of one Moenach. 
Sldben, abbot of Hy, died in 763 ; and his memory 
was revered on the Sd of Marcb. His successor 
was Suibhne the second, who governed the Colum- 
bian order until 768, or, according to some, 772, 
the year of .his death. This Suibhne's name is in 
the calendars at 2£ June* (162) He had been in 
Ireland on, as may be supposed, a visitation of the 
G)lumbiau monasteries in 767 • ( i 63) St. Aedgen, 
bishop of Fore, died in 767 (164) after which I do 
not nnd any bishop named from that place until 
about 1(X> years later* St. Himelin, a native of 
Ireland, who is said to have been a near relative of 
3t. Rumold of Mechlin, is supposed to have died 
during this period and the reign of Pepin, which 
ended in 76& (l&S) Himelin was returning from 
Rome, when being mach fatigued and very thirsty 
he stopped to rest a while at Vissenack, a village 
near.Thenae (Tillemont) in Brabant It is related 
that having met a servant maid of the curate of that 
place, who was bringing water from a neighbouring 
fountain, he asked her for a drink of it, which she 
refused to give him, because her master had eur 


joined her not to let any one put his lips to th^ 
Tessel on account of a pestilence then raging in that 
vicinage. At length, however, being earnestly re- 
quested by Himelin, who assured her that her 
master would not be displeased, she allowed him to 
take a drink. On her returning home and placing 
the vessel before the curate, he found that, instead 
of water, it contained wine. Astonished at this 
prodigy, and being informed by the servant maid 
of the person she had met with, he immediately 
ran in search 6t Himelin, who was continuing his 
journey. Having overtaken liim, and knowing him 
to be a saint, he induced him after much solicita- 
tion to, stop at his house and take some refreshment. 
When it was time to retire to sleep, Himelin re- 
fused to lie on a comfortable bed prepared for him, 
and stretched himself on some bare straw in a bam, 
where being oppressed by illness he remained for 
two days, and, having received the rites of the 
Church from his host, expired on the third. He 
was buried at Vissenack, where his remains* were^ 
and probably are to this day, held in great venera- 
tion. The anniversary of his death is marked in 
various calendars at 10 March, and without any ec- 
clesiastical title annexed to his name, (166) whence 
it would seem that he was only a layman. Yet in 
one account of this saint I find him called a priest. 
( 1 67) St. Mono, who is styled the martyr of Nas- 
sonia might be supposed to have been killed during 
the reign of Pepin. He went from Ireland (the 
then Scotia) to Arduenna, the forest of the Arden- 
nes, but at what precise time I do not find recorded. 
He lived there alone for a long time ; yet it is said 
that he was a disciple of Saints Remacle and John 
Agnus, bishops of Maestricht, the former of whom 
spent the last years of his life in the monastery of 
Stevelo in the Ardennes. He erected a church at 
Nassonia (as it is called in Latin) a place two miles 
distant from the monastery of St. Hubert, in the 

o 2 


diocese of Liege. He vfas killed by robbers on an 
] 8th of October^ and buried in his own church, to 
which after his death king Pepin assigned tithes. 
John Agnus placed there a community of clergy- 
men, who were afterwards called canons. (l68) But, 
if it be true that St. Mono was a disciple of St. 
Remacle, perhaps at Stavelo, he must have been 
killed before the reign of Pepin, which began in 
'75^. For St. Remacle died several years before the 
end of the seventh century ; and it is difficult to 
think, that a disciple of his could have reached the 
times of king Pepin. Perhaps Pepin the king has 
been confounded with his grandfather Pepin de He- 
ristal mayor of the palace, who died in 714. 

(160) Ware and Harris, Bishops at Armagh. Their saying 
that Ferdachrich died in May is, I believe, founded only on Colgan*s 
stating, (TV. Th.p. SQf.) that more would be seen concerning him 
at 18 and 31 May. This is a natter of little consequence, and it 
is more inipostant to observe that Colgan, following the 4* Masters, 
assigns his death to A* D. 771 (772). Ware took his calculation 
from the catalogue of the Psalter of Cashel, (ib. p. 292.) wliic^ 
allows only ten yeax:s for the incumbency of Feidachrich, ^e 
counting of which from 758 brings us to 768. Its authority is 
certainly the more respectable of the two ; and from it also we 
kaow that Ferdachrich was really archbishop of Armagh, although 
the Ulster annals and the 4 Masters call him merely abbot. 

(161) Ware and Harris from the catalogue of the Psalter of 
Cashel. In that of the 4t Masters and Colgan, instead of Foen- 
delach, the nexjt marked after Ferdachrich is Cudisniscus, whom 
the Psalter places third in succession afrer Foendelach. Of the 
confusion, that occurs as to the succession at Armagh for several 
years henceforth, we shall see hereafter. 

(162) 4? Masters and Colgan, Tr. Th. p. 500. I have added, 
as usual, a year to their date 762 for Sleben and 767 for Suibhne. 
The Annals of Ulster in Johnston's Extracts assign the death of 
Suibhne to 771 (772). 

(163) Ulster Annals ap. Johnston. 

(164) Ind. Chron. ad A A. SS. It has 766, i. e. 767. 

*■ % 


(165) In one of the ihort accounts of St Himelin, published 
by Colgan at 10 March, it is said that he flourished in the dmes 
of Pepin, irhen king of France. As the death 0f Himdin fol- 
lowed very soon after he was supposed to flourish, that is, after he 
was known in Brabant, it may be fiurly concluded that it oc- 
curred during the reign of Pepin. Molanus, however, states that 
he lived until that of Charlefflagne^ 

(166) In said calendars he is called simply Confessor ^ for in* 
stance in the Martyrol. Anglic, which at 10 Mart, has; '< De- 
positio S> HimMni ConfessoriSf qui in Hibemia natus,** &c. Fer* 
rariud merely says ; Erat autem natione Hibemus, S. RumoUa 
episcopo Propinquus; without any allusion to his having been in 
holy orders. 

(167) One of the little tracts, called by Colgan Lives of Si. 
Himelin^ begins with these words ; <' Beatus Himelinus confessor 
et sacerdos Deo dignus, ftc." It may be seen also in the Bollai^ 
diste at 10 March. 

(168) Molanus, Natales sanctorum Belgii at 18 October. It 
is very strange that in Ware's Annals (at the reign of king John^ 
cA.4.) Mono is spoken of, as if he flourished in the ISth century. 
Surely the king Pepin lived some centuries before that time. As 
Ware refers to Molanus, it is impossible that he could have af- 
fixed his account of St. Mono to that period ;. but it seems that 
those, who collected his posthumous papers, having found it 
among them, and not knowing where to place it, assigned it at 
random to the reign of king John. There is extant an M Life 
of St Mono ; but I have not been able to meet with it In But- 
ler's Uves of saints (at 18 October) St Mono is said to have^ 
lived in the 7th century, and to have been a Scotchman. TI^ 
former position is, I believe, right ; but the latter must be qua* 
lified according to the acceptation of the name ScotuSf which in 
those times generally signified Irishman. As to there having been 
a St Mono's church in Scotland, this is of no conseque n ce; for 
in that country there were churches also of Columba, St Kleran; 
&C. who were not Scotchmen^ as now understood. 

§. XV. St. Rumold, commonly called of MecJdin^ 
was distinguished in these times. That he was bom 
in Ireland is usually admitted, and there seems to be 


no doubt that he was a bishop before he left his coun- 
try. ( 1 69) It is a mistake to say, that he was bishop 
of Dublin ; for that city had not as yet bishops in 
those days ; but, as has been already more than once 
observed, some foreigners, not acquainted with Irish 
history, were wont in latter times to give to some of 
Qpr bishops, whose sees were not known, the title of 
bishop or archbishop of Dubinin for, in the 
cases of St. Livinus, St. Disibod, &c. (170) Ac- 
cording to certain vague accounts Rumold was the 
son of an Irish prince or king, and heir to his 
father*s principality. (I7I) Be this as it may, he 
embraced the ecclesiastical state, and after some time 
was raised to the episcopal rank. Being struck with 
a wish to visit tlie tombs of Apostles and Martyrs he 
set out for Rome, and travelling through England 
and France preached on various occasions during the 
course of his journey. At Rome he spent the 
greatest part of his time in holy places amidst the 
remains of saints, and became inflamed with an ar- 
dent thirst for martyrdom. Having been, as is said, 
admonished in a vision to return to the West, he left 
Rome with the Pope's benediction, and arriving at 
Mechlin was mo«t kindly received by Count Ado. 
This Count, who was married to a lady named Eliza 
and bad as yet no children, requested the prayers 
of St. Rum(dd that God might please to grant him 
one. • The Countess was in due time delivered of a 
son^ who was baptized under the name of Libertus, 
and afterwards became distinguished for sanctity. In 
gratitude for this favour Ado granted to Rumold, 
for the erection of a monastery, a place called Uhrms^ 
from the number of elms growing there. The saint, 
being now settled in that country, was indefatigable 
in preaching the Gospel, not only at Mechlin but 
likewise throughout the neighbouring districts, and 
with such great success that he has been justly styled 
the Apostle of the Mechlinians. While sedulously 
engaged in this good, work, two assassins, one of 


whom he had reproved as guilty of adulter]^, con- 
spired against him, (17^) and put him to death on 
the 24th of June, A. D. 775. (173) To conceal 
their crime, they threw his body into a river ; but 
it was soon discovered and honourably interred by 
Count Ado in a church oip chapel, named from St. 
Stephen, which Rumold had erected at Ulmus. In 
process of time it was removed to a church in Mech- 
lin, dedicated to his memory, long since and still 
the cathedral and metropolitan church of that city, 
where it is preserved in a splendid shrine- Akhough 
Su Rumold was killed on the 34th of June, yet, on 
account of that being St. John the Baptist's day, his 
festival lias been affixed to the first of July. Many 
miracles are said to have been wrought at his tomb; 
and it is unnecessacry to eiilarge on the great venera* 
tion in which his memory has been held. 

(169) I have not been able to meet with th^ Acts of St. Ru- 
moid written by Hugh Ward, a learned Iii^ Entndgcan of 
Louvain, and published after hk death by his OMificre Siiin 
in 1662. Could I have the peniial of thenoy i -flhoiild hope 
io findflomethk^y that would help to dcar^alway tSie'nibbiah, that 
appears in some <ux»oDt8 vf tbia slunt The lesMlns of his O^ 
ficeattbe first of Jutf, compiled by Butk^fQ^.* JProjon &c.} 
consist in great part of silly &ble8; ptcked up here and there, 
some of which may be seen in Harris' aceounit.iaf :St. RuiioM at 
Bishops of Dublin. These lessons are nmch less ooflcct tfaitfi 
those of the Office, taken fiom the breviary of St« John laterany 
which is read in litlancL The trUct, called the Iti^ ^^^.Jlu- 
moldy and pidilishdd in iJie enlarged Edition .of Baxm-{Cohgne, 
A. 1618) at 1 July^ is, asr fiur as it goes> qp^endyrrtttber ex- 
act. I sayi asJHr as £^ goes^ because k js .« mare panegyrical 
discourse, which had been pronounced >oO>St^ ^eatKVaT.of the 
^ttint by an abbot Theodoric of Ihe' vMilste^ ofJSi;.. Tnij^D or 
St TlOQ, who WAS living in the ytar 1100.v Itr.pniitsr/many ci^ 
oumstanoes relatire to. the faSstoty «f St. ^tkMM, ftUch as^ jfor 
instance, 'his having been al bishop, aidxiii^'it is* 
kevedvthat he was oiae. As to Juaiiaifffog.bMra 'Native of Ire*" 


Iand> Theodoric is very explicit ; for, although he calls the saint's 
oountiy Scotioy he tdls us that it was the island Scotia, separated 
by the sea from Britain, the island in which there are no serpents; 
and, to make the matter still plainer, he adds the well known 
words of Solinos descriptiye of Ireland. The Martyrology 
of Mechlin brings St Rumold from that part of Scotiih 
which is now called Irdand^ subjoining that he had been arch- 
bishop of DuUin ; and hence as well as from other documents 
MolanuB justly argued against some persons, who taking advan- 
tage of the name Scalia strove to make him a native of the now 
Scotland^ that he was an Irishman and a Scot cS the original 
jSco^mu The words of said, martyrology have been copied into 
the Office of the Lateran breviary, with this only difference that, 
instead of arMishopf it has bishop. But we shall soon see, that 
Rumold was neither one nor the other of DubUn. The opinion 
of his having been a native of Ireland was so universally admit- 
ted, tliat the learned Pqpe, Benedict xiv. in a letter written to 
the Cathdic bishops of Ireland, (August 15, 1741) redcons him 
among the great Irish saints, such as Columbanus, Kilian, Vii^lius, 
&c» who eitha: propagated the Catholic &ith in for^gn countries, 
or illustrated it by their blood. (See Burke's Hib. Dom. p. 21.) 
It is worth observing^ that this letter was written many years af- 
ter the Bdkindist Sollerios (at S^ RunuMs Acts/ threw out some 
conjectures to show, as that Pope was certainly aware of, that 
St Rumold was an An^o-saxon who had enbniced the monastic 
state at Mayo, and that having heard of the progress of St Wil- 
libiord, ^c in Bdgium, he went to that country, and thence, to 
be qualified for the omisBion, to Rome, where he was consecrated 
bishq> ; that he then returned to Belgium, &c. This hypothesis 
may uippetar rather ingenious ; but how is it to be reconciled with 
the constant tradition of tlie diurch of Mechlin and the testi- 
mony of every older writer that has treated of this saint ? It is 
mentioned, but not adopted, in the GaUia Christiana, Tom. 5. 
odEcclesia MeckUniensis. 

(170) Ware has judiciously omitted those pretended bishops of 
Dublin, prior to the eleventh century; but Harris has finsted 
them into his adcytions. I must here dbserve that some modem 
writers are not ' sufficiently cautious in : distinguidiing Ware's ori- 
ginal work fiom Harris' interpolatrans. Thus I find in « note at 
St. RumfAd in Butler^s Live$ of Saints (1 July) Ware s Bishops 


n£enei to ibr aki account of this flaint Nov Ware has not given 
any account whatsoever of him; and, instead of Wave's name, 
that of Harris should have appeared in said note. We have just 
seen, that the martyrology of Mechlin places St. Rumold at 
Dublin. To this first mistake has been added another, viz. that 
he succeeded there one Gualafer, (meaning perhaps Oalla^^ier) by 
whom he is said to have been baptized. Molanus has this stoiy, 
and fifom him Buike (Office^ &c) and Harris (Bishops at Dublin) 
have borrowed it In the Lateran Office there is no mention of 
this bkhop Gualafer, &c Nor is there any thing in this Office 
of what Burke has concerning JSl Rumold having been conse* 
crated in the cathedral of Dublin by Cuthbert archbishop of Can- 
terbury ! What cathedral ooidd there have been at that period 
in Dublin? or who has ever heard of an archbishop of Canterbury 
coming over to consecrate bishops in Ireland ? 

(171 } Molanus says that old documents of the church of Mech* 
lin make him son of a king David, meaning, I suppose, Dathy, 
.an hridi name, which by persons writing in Latin has been some* 
titties dianged into David. Burke (t&.) tells us, that this David 
was king dT Dublin, and that his queen was Cecilia, a daughter 
of a king of Cashel. This is all very fine; but Theodoric and 
the Lateran breviary, omitting the names of St. Rumold*s parents^ 
merely slate diat he was of the royal house of Ireland and by 
r%ht of succession heir to a throne. 

(172) Theodoric states, that their motive was to get the mo* 
ney, which th^ thought the saint possessed of, and adds that 
they had been attendants of his. IVobably they su^qposed that he 
must have had some, money about him towards forwarding the 
object of his missions. 

(173) This is the yiear assigned for. the martyrdom of St Ru« 
mold by Molanus, Usher, Pagi, &c. 

§. XVI. During this period we meet with a bishop 
at Mayo, St. Aidan, who died in 769, (174) and 
after whom we do not find another there for some 
centuries. Whether a Ronan, called of Lismore, 
who is said to have died in 763, was bishop or not, 
there does not appear any sufficient authority for 
determining. (175) If he was bishop of Lismore, 


he isthe last who appears there, as soeh, for more than 
900 years, although it cannot be doubted that a 
regular succession was kept up in that distinguished 
see. To A. D* 775 is assigned the death of Ful- 
charta or Fulartach, trishop of Gionard, (176) who 
in some Irish calendars is stated 4;o have been the 
same as St. Fulartach, son of Bree of an illustrioas 
family of Ulster, and who. hiid lived as a hermit at a 
place, called from him DiierUFuldrtach^ in Hi- 
falgia, now Ophaly in the county of Kildare; This 
is indeed very probable, although some have made a 
distinction between them, aUowing, however, that 
both of them belonged to the eighth century. (177) 
According to said cfdendars the memory of St. Fit- 
lartach, one and the same, wias revered on the 29th 
of March. Senchai, bishop of Emly, died in 778 \ 
(178) and in the following year St. Algiiied, bishop of 
Ardbfaccan, whose name is marked in some eafen* 
dars at 8 March. (179) Ferdomnacb, whom I find 
redkoned among the- bishops of Tuam^ is said to have 
died in 781. (180) To 789 is affixed the death of 
two bishops of K^dare, one after another, Lomtul 
and' Snedbran^ (1^0 ^^ these times there was a 
bishop at Cluain-dolcain (Clondalkin) near DuUih, 
St. Ferfugill, concerning whom- nothing iurther is 
known except that he di^ in 785, and wat his fes* 
tival was kept on the lOth of Marclu (182) To the 
same year is assigned the d^ath of three eminent 
abbots, Murgal of Clonmacnois, Virgilius of Aghabo^ 
and Fethach of Louth, Slane, .and Duleek. (188) 


(174) AA. SS. p. 606. The date of the 4 Masters is 768 


(175) Ware and Hairis have Ronan, .(Buhopi,dl Lismore) bol 
without letting vA know where di^r^found hita, vf giving os any 
proof of h]& having been a bishofi. 

(176) Ware (Bishops of Clomard at MeaA) has omitted this 
Fulartach of the eighth century ; but the 4 Masters and Cqlgan, 
(AA. SS^, p. 7870 ^ho are followed by Harns, make eaqpreia 


mention of liim, placing hiis deltth in 774 (775). He was, I be- 
lieve, led astray by the list of Finnian's successors at Clonard, 
given in A A. SS. p. 406* where the bishc^ Fulartadi is placed 
next afier Senach, who died in 588, and cRstitted where he ooght 
to be, viz. at A. 775. This is plainly one of the imMimenble 
mistakes that appear in Colgan's printed text. Ware, being not 
aware of it, has Fulartach immediately after Seaach^ leaving him 
out elsewhere. Harris took eare to avoid this mistake, and, in- 
stead of mentioning Fulartach next after Senadk^ 'brought him 
down id his real times, viz. the eighth century. 

(177) The 4 Masters, dp. AA- SS. at 29 Marchy p. 787> 
where a short account is given of Fulattach son (^ Brec, assign 
his death (for their words cannot be referred to any thing else) 
to A. 755 (756) while they place that «f the bishop of Clonard 
in 775. I am inclined to think, that on this point their autho- 
rity is inferior to that of the oldtadendars. 

(178) Ware^ Bishops at £m^. 

(179) A A. SS.,p, 568. The 4 Masters h«ve his death at 778, 
u e. 779. 

(180) War6 in his general treatise on the bishops of Irefamd 
has Ferdomnach at JVam, but not so in his' oldar tract ^n the 
archbish(^ of Caahel and Tuam. Where he met with him I 
cannot tell. Colgan seems to have known nothing about him, as 
sqppears from Tr. Th. p, 308. where, endeavouring to make out 
as many ancient bishops of Tuam as he could, he makes no 
mention of Ferdomnach. 

(181) 4 Masters, ap. Tr. Th.p.629. I have char^ their 
date 782 into 78S. At the same year they have the deadi «^ Mu- 
redach abbot- of Kildare^ whence we see that there were abbots at 
Kildare different fiom its bishops. 

(182) A A. SS. p. 577. The date of the 4^ Masters is 784 
(785). Before this saint's time there was a monastery at Clon- 

(183) lb. p. 80a and Ind. Chran. 




History qf St. FergaJ^ or VirgiUus^ resumed and 
: Jinished — Clemens and Albinus, Irishmen^ arrive in 
France — AUnnus sent as Ambassador ^om the 
Emperor Charlemagne to ihe Pope, a different 
person from Akuin — Monastery qf Verden es- 
tablished in Sojconyfor the Scots or Irish — Patto^ 
an Irishman, second bishop qf Verden — Irish 
extend their missions to Iceland — St. SedtUitis said 
to be bishop of Dublin, and to have died in A. D. 
786 — Colga^ Coelchu or Coku^ the mse^ presides 
over tfie school qf Cluain-^mac-Nois — corres- 
ponds with Alctun — St. Moelruan bishop qf TaU 
lagh — Succession qf Archbishops qf Armagh^ 
and qf other Irish bishops — First invasion qf 
Ireland by the Danes — St. Fifidan — visits France, 
Italy and Switzerland — his great • sanctity — is 
adopted as their patron by the monks qfRhignauF^ 
Succession of Donnchad and other Irish monarchs 
— Irish Clergy obtain exemption Jrom attending 
the kings on military expeditions — Fothad lec- 
turer (f Armagh — Aengus the Hagiologist^-'his 
Festilogium — he is called Ceile-De — Became ab- 
bot qf Ctonenagh-^'-and was raised to the episco- 
pal rank — Various works qf his — Succession qf 
archbishops in Armagh — and abbots in Hy — 
Death qf St. Blathmaicy martyred in Hy by the 
Danes ---Deaths of various holy and distinguislied 
persons in Ireland — Dungaly an Irishman — his 
two Epistles to Chartemagne-^xvrites against 
ClaudiuSi a Spaniard^ bishop qf Turin, who had 
removed the images and crosses from all the 
churches in his Diocese — Claudius bishop qf Turin 
supposed by some learned men to be an Irishman 
— Gildas — Deaths qf bishops of various sees in 
Irelandr^MetropoKtical rights qf the see &f Ar- 
magh extended all over Ireknd — Deaths of several 
learned and holy men. 



St. Virgilius, bishop of Saltzburg, (1) soon after 
liis being in possession of the see, consecrated a 
basilic in that city in honour of St. Stephen, in 
which he placed an abbot and monks taken from the 
monastery and church of St. Peter, which was still 
considered as the cathedral. (2) Some time after 
he repaired , this monastery^ of which he had been 
abbot, and enlai^ed the cell of St. Maximilian, which 
had been built by St. Rupert the first bishop of 
Saltzburg. He established another cell at Ottinga, 
which was endowed by Count Gunther, at whose 
expense it had been erected. But his chief work in 
this respect was a great basilic, which he got con* 
stmcted and dedicated in the name of St. Rupert, 
which, having removed that saint's remains to it, he 
constituted the cathedral. This holy bishop did not 
confine himself to accommodating his flock with 
places of worship, but likewise, as became a true 
pastor, was assiduous in preaching, instructing, and 
propagating the Gospel. Karastus, a son of Boruth, 
the Sclavonian duke of Carinthia, and Chetimar a 
nephew of Boruth were in those times detained as 
hostages in Bavaria, where, at his request, they were 
baptized and educated as Christians. On the death 
of Boruth, Karastus became duke of that country^ 
and, having died in tlie third year of his rule, was 
succeeded by Chetimar, who was very religious and 
had with him as instructor M ajoranus a priest, who 
had been ordained by St. Virgilius. Chetimar had 
a great respect for the monastery (St. Peter^s) of 
Saltzburg, owing, in all appearance, to his having 
studied there in his earlier days, under the direction 
of its learned and holy abbot, and used to make some 
presents to it every year as tokens of a sort of 
homage. Some time after he was raised to the duke* 
dom of Carinthia he requested Virgilius, then bishop, 
to visit his territories and confirm his subjects in the 


Faith. It being then out of his power to comply 
with the duke's wish, he sent to tnat country Mo'> 
destus, a bish0p, together with some priests, a deacon, 
and other inferior clerks, authorizing him to conse- 
crate churches, perform ordinations, &c. Modestus 
spent the remainder of his life in Carinthia, and 
after his death St. Virgilius was again requested by 
Chetimar to proceed thither. But in conseqtience 
of intestine troubles, by which the diitchy was agi- 
tated, he was prevented fiH)m visiting it, and sent^ in 
his stead, Latinus a priest, who was soon after, owing 
to civil broils, obliged to leave it. The saint, how- 
ever, kept a fixed eye on Carinthia, and during the 
•administration both of Chetimar and of his succes- 
sor Watune supplied it with priests and other cler- 
gymen. Thus the Carinthian church was established, 
and St. Virgilius has been justly called the Apostle 
of* that province. 

Towards tlie end of his life the good bishop under- 
took a general visitation of his vast diocese, forth^ 
purpose of eradicating whatever remnants there 
might be of idolatry, and of strengthening his flock 
in the belief and observance of the Christian religion. 
He was every where welcomed and received with the 
greatest attention by crowds of all descriptions, and 
during his progress consecrated churches, ordained 
clergymen, &c. In this visitation was comprized 
Carinthia, through which he proceeded as far as the 
frontiers of the Huns, where the Drave joins the 
Danube. Perceiving that his dissolution was near at 
hand, St. Virgilius returned to Saltzburg, where^ 
having celebrated the sacred mysteries, and being 
teized with a gentle illness, he breathed his last on 
t^e 27th of November, A. D. 785. (3) Some tracts 
have been attributed to him ; (4) but whether he 
was an author or not, he has been niost highly cele^ 
brated for learning. Nor was he less esteemed for 
his piety and fulfilment of his pastoral duties ; (5) 

CHAP. XX. V OF lEBtAMD. 207 

«nd it is stoted that mmy mix;acl€» hare taken pliu)e 
at his tomb in S2dtd>urg. (6) 

(1) See Chap. XIX. §.U. 

(2) Mabillon, AnnaL Ben* ad A. 756. He says that Viigilius 
consecrated the basilic of St. Stephen in the first year of his or- 
dination. This would have occurred after the 15th of June, the 
day of his ordination or consecratton/ in 756, or, if it be true 
that he deferred his OHisecration for some time, (see Chap. xix. 
§. 1 2.) in a later year, 

(3) Mabillon, /i6. ad A. 785.) and Pagi {Crtiica, &c ad A. 
785.) have proved from certain Annals of Ratisbon and other do- 
cuments, that this was the real year of the saint's death. There- 
fore fleuiy was mistaken {Hist, Ecd. L. 44>. §. 3.) in assigning il 
to 780, which date he took fix>m the Li/e of St. Virgil, according 
lo one edition ; far another has A. 784>. But both these dates 
are wrong. 

(4) Ware {Writers at Virgilius) makes mention of a Discount 
«n the AnHpod^y but does not tell us where it exists. He adds 
that Virgilius is the reputed author of a Glossary quoted by Md- 
duor Goldast* 

(5) Al<:H4n, in his encomium oh St. Virgilius {Poem. No. 231.) 
has aBioQg4>ther lines ; 

*^ Egregius praesul mentis et moribus almus, 

. Frotulit in lucem quem mater Hibemia primum, 

Instituit, docuit, nutrivit ■ 

Sed Peregrina petens ---———— ^ 
Vir piiis et prudens, nulli pietate secundus^"^ 

(6) The second part of his Life contains an account of a greafc- 
number of these miracles. 

§ . ir. About the year 772, as far as I am able 
to judge, two very celebrated Irishmen, Clemens 
and Albinus, as he is usually called, arrived in 
France. For it appears from good authority, that 
they were in that country not only prior to the ar- 
rival of Alcuin, but likewise a short time after 


Charles, known by the name of Charlemagne^ be- 
came sole sovereign of the whok French monarchy, 
as he did in the latter end of 771 by the death of 
his brother Carloman. The whole matter is stated 
in a very clear manner by a writer of the ninth cen- 
tury, who relating the transactions of Charlemagne 
(7) has the following narrative at the very begin- 
ning of his work. " When the illustrious Charles 
^^ began to reign alone in the western parts of the 
" world, and literature was every where almost for- 
*' gotten, it happened that two Scots of Ireland came 
** over with some British merchants to the shores 
<< of France, men incomparably skilled in human 
" learning and in the holy scriptures. As they pro- 
" duced no merchandise for sale, they used to cry 
** out to the crowds flocking to purchase ; If any 
" one is desirous of wisdom^ let him come to us and 
" receive it; Jbrwe have it to sell. Their reason 
** for saying that they had it for sale was that, per- 
'^ ceiving the people inclined to deal in saleable ar- 
*' tides and not to take any thing gratuitously, they 
'* might rouse them to the acquisition of wisdom, as 
•* well as of objects for which they should give value ; 
** or, as the sequel showed, that by speaking in that 
** manner they might excite their wonder and asto- 
** nishment. They repeated this declaration so of- 
^* ten that an account of them was conveyed either 
** by their admirers, or by those who thought them 
" insane, to the king Charles, who, being a lover 
" and very desirous of wisdom, had them conducted 
*< with all expedition before him, and asked them if 
'* they truly possessed wisdom, as had been reported 
" to him. They answered, that they did, and were 
*^ ready in the name of the Lord to communicate it 
" to such as would seek for it worthily. On his in- 
" quiring of them what compensation they would 
** expect for it, they replied that they required no- 
*' thing more than convenient ^situations, ingenious 
'' minds, and, as being in a foreign country, to be 













supplied with food and raiment. Charles, having 
heard their proposals, and replete with joy, kept 
them both with himself for a short time. After 
some interval, when obliged to proceed on a mili- 
tary expedition, (8) he ordered one of them whose 
name was Clemens^ to remain in France, entrust- 
ing to his care a great number of boys not only of 
the highest noblesse, but likewise of the middling 
and low ranks of society, all of whom were, by 
his orders, provided with victuals and suitable ha- 
bitations. The other, byname Albinus^ (9) he 
directed to Italy, and assigned to him the monas- 
tery of St. Augustin near Pavia, that such per- 
sons, as chose to do so, might there resort to him 
for instruction. On hearing how graciously the 
most religious king Charles used to treat wise men, 
Albinus (10) an Englishman took shipping and 
went over to him,** &c. (11) 

(7) This writer was a monk of St. Gall in Switzerland, mid 
hence^he is commonly called Monachus Sangcdlensis, His two ', 
books, De gestis Caroli M. are in Canisius* Antiq. LecL Tom, 2. 
Part 3. Basnage*s ed. They were addressed to Charles Xhefot^ 
and consequently written between 884 and 888. Melcbior Gol- 
dastus. Usher, and many others, have supposed that he was the 
celebrated Notker Balbulus. This, however, is not quite certain. 
Mabillon, a great juc^ in mattbrs of this kind, calls him {ex. c« ' 
AnnaL J5. Tom, 2. p. 67.) the anonymous monk of St. Gall, and 
Muratoii \Annali di Italia) designates him merely by the title of 
Monaco di S, GaUo, the monk of St. Gall, for instance at A. 
781. But this question does not affect the antiquity or authority 
of this work. 

(8) From what will be seen lower down it appears most pro- 
bable that this was one of his expeditions against the Saxons, ei- 
ther that of 775, or the one of 776. 

(9) The words, nomine Albinus, (by name Albinus) are in the 
printed text of the monk of St. Gall, as edited by Canisius, but 
are omitted in Duchesne's edition among the Rerum Francicarum 
Scripiores* Colgan in his long dissertation on Clemens (at 20 

vols, nu p 


March) wliich comprizes also an account of his companion, says 
that they are wanting in various MSS. He contends that the real 
name of said oompamon was not Albinus but John ; and so he is 
called by Vincentius Bellovacensis and some others, whose au- 
thority is not worth attending to^ as appears from their joining 
with Clemens also Aicuin and even Rabanus Maurus. And there 
is good reason to think, that they mistook John Scotus Erigena, 
who lived many years later, for die companion of Clemens, whom 
they accordingly called John. Or might it be that the com- 
panion of Clemens had both names ? Buchanan (Rer* Scot. L* 
5. Rex 65.) calls him Johannes Albiniu, and would fain make ^ 
him a Scotchman on account of the surname Albinus. He might 
as well have pronounced Aicuin a Scotchmian, as he also assumed 
the name Allnntu. If, as indeed I think highly probable, Cle- 
men's companion was called Albinus^ this might have been either 
his original name, or, if a surname, given to him on account of 
his &ir hair or compknon. Perhaps his Irish name was Finnbarry 
Finany or Finian, which, by retaining its agnification, was la- 
tinized into Albinus* As to the name John, prefixed by Bu- 
chanan to Albinus, I suspect that he took it firom Hectcn: Boe- 
thius, or some one of those writers, who followed Vincentius Bel- 
lovacensis. Not content with representing Albinus as a British 
Scot, he thrusts, in also Clemens as such, notwithstanding the 
positive assertion of the monk of St. Gall, the oldest and best au* 
thority, that he and his companion were Soots of Irdand. On 
these and other pretensions in iavour of the British Scots J. P« 
Murray has justly remarked, (De Britannia atque Hibemia sec. 
a VI. ad X. Ivtterarum domicUiOf in N. Commentar. Soc, R; Got' 
ting. Tom. 2.) that Buchanan went quite too far ; ^* Sed nimia 
Scotiae suae aperte tribuit eximius vates, cum istam litterarum ele- 
gantiam, cumque Albinum ilH tribuerit.** 

To return to the words, nomine Albinus, it is veiy .probable 
that they were not in the original text of the monk; for several 
writers, when copying his narrative, have them not, while they 
doSely follow the remainder of his text. (See their passages op. 
Colgan on Clemens, &c) Muratori observes, (Anndi, &c. at A. 
781. and Antiq. Ital. medii aevi, Tom. iii. Dissert. 4S.) that tiie 
name of Clemen's companion is not precisely known, whence it 
is clear that he did not consider said words as written by the monk. 



But, allowing them to be an interpolation! it does not follow that 
they are wrong ; for the person, who inserted them, might have 
known from other sources that Albinus was the name of the com- 
panion of Clemens. He did not confound him with Alcuin, who 
also was named Albinus, and who appears immediately after in the 
text as clearly distinct from the other Alhinus. 

(10) He was the celebrated Alcuin, who took the more classi- 
cal Af^flation ofFlaccus Albinus, not, as some have caHed him, 
Albinus Flaccus. (See Mabillon, Annals Spc, Tom* 2. p. 1^6.) 
In what the author adds about the manner of Alcuin's having be- 
come acquainted with the king Charles, and his having been a 
disciple of Bede, there are some mistakes, which it is not my bu- 
siness to correct. 

(11) Brucker {Hist. PhiL Tom. 3. p. 586.) took it into his head 
to reject as fabulous a great part of this narrative, lliere are cer- 
tainly some fables in the additions made to it by Vincentius Bel- 
lovacensis. Hector Boethius, Arnold Wion, &c. and by those who 
talk of the University of Paris as founded by Clemens. But taking 
it as given by the monk of St. Gall, I can perceive nothing fabu- 
lous or inconsistent, nor does Brucker give us any proof of his as- 
s^on. Perhaps he thought there was something ridiculous in 
the cry of those two learned men that they had wisdom to sell, as 
if the stiff and guarded style of our da3r8, were observed at all 
times and by all nations. They alluded to the traffick that was 
going on between the merchants and the assembled people, and, 
not having any usual article of commerce, announced that what 
they had to dispose of was wisdom. We find very many expres- 
sions of a similar kind in the Scriptures, particularly in Proverbs, 
which exhibit if^sdom as the most valuable of commodities, and 
in which people are invited to partake of it, Clemens and his 
companion were well acquainted with such phrases, and seem to 
have had an eye to them in their manner of addressing the crowd. 
Yet Brucker does not deny that these persons came to France, 
and states {ib.p 6^9.) that Clemens was of great help to Alcuin, 
and that he was diligent and skilful in establishing the schools of 
France and Italy. Tiraboschi goes much farther than Brucker ; 
for he endeavours to prove, ( Storia della Leiteratura Italiana, 
Twn, S. Zr. 3. cap. 1.) that the whole business is a fable, and that 
there were no such persons in existence. He had laid down a pa« 

P 2 



\ • ■ ■ 

sition that no teadiers were sent by Charles to instruct the Ita- 
lians, who, he says, were not then in need of foreigners for that 
purpose. But, whether they were or not, might not the king 
have given literary situations to foreigners in Lombardy as well as 
in France, where nobody denies that he did ? Many a foreigner 
have I known teaching in Italy at a period of its enjoying high li- 
teraiy splendour; and I myself have had the honour of holding a 
Professor^s chair in that very city of Pavia, where Tiraboschi 
would not allow that a Scotchman, as he calls him, (for he seems 
not to have known that the Irish were called Scots) taught ip the 
eighth century. He opposes Gatti, who in his history of the Uni- 
versity of Pavia adhered to the monk's narrative, abuses Denina 
for having said that Charles, placed two Irishmen over schools in 
Italy and France, and ex[Nresses his surprize that this was admitted 
by Muratori. But, if such a man as Muratori allowed it, Tira- 
boschi, who was vastly his inferior on points connected with the 
history of the middle ages, need not have been ashamed to ac- 
knowledge il ; and it is but toatrue that literature was in a very 
low state at that period in Italy, and for a hundred years prior to 
it, as is avowed and lamented in the letters of Pope Agatho and 
the sjrnod of Rome written in 680 to the emperor Constantine. 
(See Fleury, Hist, EccL L. 40. J. 1.) The literary glory of Italy, 
both ancient and modem, is founded on so solid a basis, that a 
native of that beautiful country and land of genius may, without 
any disparagement to it, confess that it has had, like many other 
parts of the world, its days of darkness, r,wing to the irruptions of 
barbarians, by whom both they and Italy have been desolated. 
And it is a childish vanity to strive to uphold a nation's character 
of any sort at the expense of historical truth. Muratori was not 
guilty of it; for he allows and proves, (^w/iy. ItaL Sfc, Tom. iiu 
Disserf, 43.) that in Italy learning had greatly declined in the time 
we are nor treating of. It might be expected, that Tiraboschi 
wouTd have adduced some proof of his assertion ; but he gives us 
none except his saying that it would have been a strange thing to 
offer to sell learning to persons who came to buy merchandize. 
This I have already explained. He adds, that the whole matter 
depends oh the authority of the monk, to whom, however he 
gratuitously pays the compliment of not having invented it. Who 
then was tlie inventor ? Tiraboschi ought to have perceived, that 


this Bupposition strikes against himself; for in this case the histoiy 
of the two Irishmen must have been spoken of before it was related 
by the monk. Is it to be imagined, that he would have announced, 
vnthin about 70 years after the death of Charlemagne, as facts, 
circumstances, which there were persons still alive to show the 
falshood of, if not true ? Or, that he would have related them, if 
doubtful, to a sovereign the great grandson of Charlemagne ? Or 
that he would have ventured to be so particular as to state that the 
teacher sent to Pavia got the grant of the monastery of St. Au- 
gustin? He must have known, that every monk of that celebrated 
establishment, which has existed for ages, could have contra- 
dicted him unless the matter were univPTsally acknowledged. Ti« 
raboschi objects, that the monk of St. Gall is the only writer o^ 
those times, who has lefl an account of those proceedings. Be it 
sd ; but did^he suppose that writers were as numerous in that pe* 
riod, or as minute in recording facts, as they are at present? 
Many fiicts are received as historical upon authority much lesS 
contempMBiy and explicit than that of the monk of St. GaU. Be- 
sides, as will be seen, he is not the only writer of those days, who 
has fiamished us with some account, at least, of Clemens. Some 
other desultory doubts wiU be considered lower do^m. 

§• 3. From this account it is plain that these' two 
Irishmen were in France before Alcuin (the English 
Albinus) waited on King Charles in that country, 
and consequently prior to 781. (IS) But as their 
arrival is stated to have occurred when Charles be- 
gan to reign alone» we may justly conclude that it 
was earlier by eight or nine years. An Albinus, a 
a favourite ^f Charles, is mentioned as one of the 
ambassadors, whom he sent to Pope Adrian in 773, 
and who was undoubtedly different from Alcuin, 
with whom Charles was not yet acquainted. (13) It 
is probable that he was the Irish Albinus, who as 
well as Clemens appear, from the manner in which 
the king treated them, to have become great favou*^ 
rites of his. And following this supposition, it may ' 
also be conjectured, that he continued as an inmate 
in the palace .until he was sent on that embaitey.(l4) 


But, whether tlie companion of Clemens was the 
ambassador or not, he could not have been placed at 
Pavia until either the latter end of 774, or after smd 
year, it being that in which Charles got possession 
of that city. (15) Concerning his subsequent trans- 
actions nothing further, that can be depended upon, 
is known, except that he taught at Pavia, (16) but 
how long we have no account of. It has been said, 
that he died there ; and some writings have beeA 
attributed to him, which, howevef, cannot at present 
be distinctly pointed out. (17) 

It is stated that, when Charles returned from his 
expeditions, he ordered the boys, whom he had left 
under the care of Clemens, to appear before him, 
and had them examined in their classical studies* 
Finding that those of the inferior orders bad made 
wonderful progress, while the nobles had made none 
at all, he solemnly declared that he would have no 
consideration for the difference of ranks, and that 
nobility alone should not be a road to preferment, 
whereas he was determined to grant favours and 
places solely according to learning and merit without 
distinction of persons. (18) Where Clemens kept 
bis school, is not ascertained, although some writers 
have said that it was at Paris, and others would 
fain make us believe that he was the founder or first 
teacher of its university (19) The history of Cle- 
mens has been greatly confused by the name of 
Claudius being prefixed by certain late authors (20) 
to his real name, and by his having been strangely 
confounded with Clemens, a bishop of Auxerre, 
who was dead many years before he arrived in 
France. (21 ) He was alive and still teaching in the 
year 802, (22) and perhaps survived Charlemagne, 
as indeed must have been the case, if, as appears 
very probable, he was the Clemens who drew up a 
life of that sovereign. (23) There are extant under 
his name some grammatical collections, bqt whether 
they have been printed or not I am not able to tell» 


(24) Several other tracts have been attributed to 
him, but most, if not all, of them, without founda- 
tion. (25) 

(12) This was, as Mabilloa shows, {Anncd, 8^c. ad A. 781.^ 
the year, in which Alcuin first stopped in France, Charles had 
met him in Italy, and took such a liking for him, that he induced 
him to promise that he would call upon him on his return from, 
that country. Alcuin did so, and soon after his arrival in France 
got from the king a grant of two abbies. Some years later be pro^ 
ceeded to England, where he remained until 792, or the begin- 
ning of 793, when he returned to France and there spent the re- 
mainder of his life. It is therefore a mistake to suppose, as seve- 
ral writers have done, that Alcuin was not settled in France be- 
fore 792. It was, I believe, in consequence of this mistake that 
Usher {Ind. Chron.) assigned the arrival there of Clemens and 
Albinus to A, D. 791, thinking that it was not long prior to that 
of Alcuin. 

(13) See Mabill<m, (Annal. &c, ad. 773. Anastasiua Biblio<^ 
thecarius, from whom we have an account of this embassy, says of 
Albinus that he was delkiosus ipsiHS regis, that is, a favourite 
and one whom the king was veiy fond of. 

(14) The monk of St. Gall sa3rs, as we have seen, tliat Charles 
kept the two learned Irishmen with himself for a short time. Sup- 
posing that their arrival in fVance was in 772, and perhaps late in 
that year, they were probably living with him until some time in 

(15) Muratori, making mention (AnnaK, &c. at A. 7S1) of the 
ai^val of Clemen's companion at Pavia, does not marie the year 
of it, merely observing that it was after 744. It was very pro- 
bably almost immediately after said year, as Charles in liis zeal 
for promoting literature may be supposed to have lost no time in 
supplying his new subjects of Lombardy with a good schod. Add 
that AJbinus is stated to have been sent to Pavia just at the time 
that Charles was setting out on a military expedition. Now among 
his various expeditions we find one in 775, and another in 776, 
both against the Saxons. It may be objected to ithat I liave paid 
concerning Clemens and Albinus having arrived in France as early 
as iEibout 772, that their arrival must have been later^ whereas, the 


monk of St* Gall seems to place Albinus* departure for Pavia just 
afler the short time that he and Clemens had spent with the king 
in his residence, and accordingly, as Albinus did not go to Pavia 
until about 775, ought to be assigned to about 774. But we are 
not bound to understand the monk's words, as if he meant to say that 
they remained in the palace until the very time that Albinus was 
ordered to proceed to Pavia. He states indeed that it was sub- 
sequent to that of their living with the king, but does not tell us 
that it was immediately so ; and there is nodiing to prevent our 
supposing, that they had left the palace, and were teaching some« 
where in France, two or three years prior to the departure of Al- 
binus for Pavia. 

(16) Muratori (ib,) merely says, that under this able master 
learning began to revive at Pavia. The story of his having been 
the founder of the celebrated university of that city is not worth 
the trouble of inquiring into. Muratori was wrong in making him 
and Clemens Benedictine monks. They certainly were not so 
before they arrived in France, for there were no Benedictines then 
in Ireland; nor does it appear, that they were monks at aU. 
Albinus might have become a Benedictine after he got tlie grant 
of the monastery^ of St. Augustin, so called, instead of its former 
title, St Peter, from its containing the remains of the great bishop 
of Hippo. But whether he did or not we are not able to ascertain. 

(17) Ware ( Writers at Albinus) ascribes to him some epistles as 
extant. I wish \ie had told us where they are to be found. He 
was also inclined to make him the author of certain Rhetorical 
precepts, which Buchanan says he saw under the name of his John 
Albinus, (See Not. 9.) If Buchanan and Ware meant the 
treatise or dialogue on Rhetoric published among the works of 
Alcuin, it is clear that they were mistaken ; for said treatise was 
undoubtedly written by the English Albinus, that is^ Alcuin him- 
self. As to an .Epistle said by Hoveden (Annal. ad A. 792) 
and other English authors to have been written by an Albinus 
against the second Council of Nice concerning image worship, the 
Irish Albinus had nothing to do with it ; and it is plain that Hove- 
den, &C. meant Alcuin ; for they state that it was written in Eng- 
land, and that Albinus, its author, brought it thence to the king 
Charles. By the bye I may remark, that no such epistle was writ- 
ten by Alcuin ; (see Mabillon, Ajmal Ben ad A. 792.) but it is 


y . 

probable/ that Hoveden, &c. mistook the Caroline books on the 
question of images, in the composition of which Alcuin was per- 
haps concerned, (MabiUon, ib. ad A, 794.) for an Epistle, which 
they supposed to have been drawn up by him iji England. 

(18) See in the monk's De Gestis, &c. just afler the above nar- 

(19) Colgan has (at 20 March) collected on these points a heap 
of rubbish, which is^ now exploded by every man of learning. 
The monk of St. Gall has nothing about the place, in which 
Clemens taught. But Vincentius Bellovacensis and others havc^ 
added that it was Paris, as if that city had been the usual residence 
of the king Charles, whereas it is well known that it was not. And 
as to the foundation of the university, it is laughable to observe, 
with what ardour it has been disputed whether the so called 
founder were Clemens or Alcuin. That the latter was not is a 
clear case ; for it has been proved not only by Du Chesne, the 
editor of his works, but likewise by Mabillon, {ad A. 802) that 
he never taught at Paris. Whether Clemens had a school there 
or not, is of little consequence ; but this much is well known, that 
there was no such thing as a university there in those times, nor 
even the embryo of one until about the end of the eleventh cen- 
tury. (See the Encyclopedie at Universite.) 

(20) Ware observes, ( Writers at Clemens) that, as well as he 
could discover. Bale (not Bede according to a shameful error in 
the English translation, which Harris has avoided) was the first 
who prefixed Claudius to the name of Clemens. A Claudius, of 
whom we shall see elsewhere, flourished during the reign of Lewis 
le Debonnaire, and has been reckoned by Vincentius Bellovacensis 
and some followers of his as one of four pretended founders of the 
university of Paris. These writers have not Clemens among said 
founders, although some of them on other occasions say that he 
taught at Paris. Other authors $£ this notable stamp, looking for 
those founders, mention Clemens without naming Claudius. To 
patdi up the business, it occurred to somebody, that Clemens 
and Claudius might be considered as one and the sa^oe person ; 
and thus, sometime in the 16th centuiy, the learnt Irishman 
appeared under the double name of Claudius Clemens. Upon 
these blunders Tiraboschi built up an argument, which he thought 
of great weight. He urges that certain writers call the Irish 


teacher Claudius Clemens ; now, as he shows, Claudius was a 
different person ; ergo there was no such man as Clemens. This 
is really bad logic ; as if the mistakes and confused conjectures of 
such late authors could overturn the assertions of one of the ninth 
century. If the monk of St. Grail had prefixed the name Clau' 
dius to Clemensy such a mode ori-easoning would be allowable ; 
but whereas he has not done so, why fling out against his authority 
die nonsense of persons that Kved hundreds of years later? Then, 
adds Tirabosdii, these writers, when treating of Clemens, con- 
tradict each other. Well, and where is the harm of it ? Surely 
there can be nothing more illogical than to conclude from the 
contradictions of modem writers, that persons, whom they treat 
tit inaccurately, never existed. Were such a critical rule ad- 
mitted, what history would be safe, even that of the distinguished 
men of Greece and Rome ? Had Tiraboschi been able to prove, 
which indeed he has not attempted, that the monk contradicted 
himself or any other writer of his times, thare would be a &ir 
field for disputation ; or if those, who maintain that Clemens and 
his companion were Irishmen and taught in France and Italy, 
founded their positions merely on such late and confused authority 
as that of Vincentius Bellovacensis, &c his objections would be 
worth lic^ning to. But as this is not the main authority resorted 
to on the question, such exceptions are quite nugatory and out of 
place ; nor will any sort of quibbling avail against the monk's; 
narrative untO, what can never be done, it shall be proved that 
he was not author of it. Yet we may observe that it would be 
very extraordinaiy, that, besides Vincentius, a multitude of 
writers, among whom Wyon, G^uin, Claude Roberti, should 
have said so much about Clemens and his comrade, if they had 
not been in France during the reign of Charlemagne. 

(21) Colgan (at 20 March) has endeavoured to suj^xnt the 
fable of our Clemens having become bishop of Auxerre ; but 
Ware and Harris, (loc, cit, ) have cautioned the reader against 
it, and indeed justly ; for, not to quote other authors, M abillon 
{Anned. &c. Tanu 2. p. 63.) makes it dear, that Clemens of 
Auxerre died about 738. 

(22) In an ancient catalogue of the abbots of Fulda, 'quoted 
by Brower {Notes to the poems ofRabanus) we read that Ratgar, 
who was one of them, on the occasion oC sending Rabanus and 


Hatto to Tourg there to study under Alouioi directed otheri> 
among whom Modestus and Candidus, to Clemena the Scot fi^r 
the purpose of heing instructed in Grammar, that is, in classic 
hiancbes of learning then comprized und^ that n«ne. Ratgar 
became abbot of Fulda in 802> and just after his accession sent 
those students to France. (See MabiUon, Annol. Sfc, ad A^ 802.) 
To a loose question of Tiraboschi, Who mas Clemens f we may 
now answer, that, although we do not know who were his &ther 
and mother, he waa the learned Irish Scot mentioned by the 
monk of St. Gall, and whose reputation was so great that young 
men were seht from Germany to his school. 

{9S) Wol%ang Laeaua in his Commentaries on the Roman 
commonwealth quotes this Life by Clemens.- See Usher, F^- 
&ce to Ep* Hib, SgU, and Ware at Clemens. 

(24} Usher (j^.) pbaerves, that, they are quoted by Melchior 

(25). Possevin and others, who are followed by Colgan, have, 
in consequence of confounding Clemens with Claudius, maide him 
the auihor of yarious weiks, whidi have been usually ascribed to 
the latto*. It is odd that Colgan refers even to Ware for several- 
of them as if written by Clemens, although Ware had distin- 
gnished him from Claudius. It may be, however, that, owing to 
said confoaion, Claudius has been/supposed the author of some 
tracts, writtoi perhaps by Clemens. 

§ • IV. After the same king Charles bfid founded 
the new bishoprics of Minden and Verden in the 
old Saxony, A* D. 786, as is usually supposed^ (26) 
a monastery was established for the Scots, that is, 
at least chiefly, the Irish, at a place near Verden, 
called AmarbariCf aver whom was placed Patto a 
countryman of theirs. (27) Patto is stated to have 
become bishop of Verden after the death of its first 
bishop St. Suibert, and was succeeded at Amarbaric 
by Tanco, also a Scot and, in all probability, an 
Irish one, who likewise was raised to that see as its 
third bishop. (28) After him are mentioned Cor- 
tilla or Nortyla, and three others as abbots of Amar- 
baric, . undep the last of whom, Harruch of the same 


nation, that monastery is said to have been de- 
stroyed. (29) 

Prior to these times, and most probably- much 
earlier, the Irish had extended their missions even 
to Iceland, which they called TViwfe, or Tyfe, and 
which, it seems, they had a knowledge of as far back 
as the fifth century. (30) Whether it was inhabited 
at that early period it is difficult to determine; (81) 
but it is certain, that it contained inhabitants long 
before the time assigned by some writers for its first 
population. (S2) At whatsoever time Irish mission- 
aries first visited that island, there can be no doubt 
of some of them having been • there in the eighth 
century, (S3) and it - may be justly laid down, tbal 
this mission was kept up until the arrival of the Nor- 
wegians, who by expelling the Irish clergy put a 
stop to it. (34) If religious men from Ireland had 
got in those days as far as Iceland, we are not to 
wonder at .finding others of them settled in the Ork- 
neys and the Shetland isles'. (35) I cannot disco- 
ver any particular account of such of them as were 
the chiefs of these northern missions, or who might 
have been distinguished for peculiar sanctity or learn- 
ing ; but nothing can more strongly prove the zeal 
of the Irish clergy of those times, for the conversion 
of infidels, than their proceeding so iar northward for 
the purpose of disseminating the saving truths of the 

(26) Fleuiy, L. 44. §. 20. The Bollandisto (at St. PeHo 30 
Mart.) quote a chronicle of Verden, which assigns the foundation 
of Uiat see to 786. Its first bishop was Suibert or Suitbert, who 
is said to have been an Englishman, and must not be confounded 
with St. Willebrord's companion the bishop Suitbert, who died 
in 713. 

(27) Colgan> treating of Patto (at SO March) maintains that 
he was an Irish Scot. This is veiy probable* althou^ in the 
accounts given of him, chiefly by Albert Crantz> (Hut EccL 
Saxoniae) he is called simply Scatus natum€. But as the Lri^ 


were more geDerally known in those times by the name &o^t than 
their oolonistf of Britain, the probability is in favour of Colgan's 
(pinion. N. Britain was not then, nor for a very long time later, 
called SeoHa ; and accordingly, when we find a Scot or Soots 
qx^n of by old writers^ it is to be presumed that they meant 
natives of Ireland, unless something be added to indicate that 
such persons were British Soots. Bede was veiy particular in 
this respects for wherever he touches upon the afl^rs of these 
Scots, he designates them as the ScoU^ xoho inhabit Britain. 
(See ex. c. Hist. Sec X. 1. c. 34 and L. 6. c 23.) The English 
families settled in Ireland fi^m the reign of Henry II. were dur- 
ing many generations called En^ish; but who, on finding a 
peison of that peiiod called an Englishman^ would not conceive 
that he was a native of England, unless it were added that he 
was. an .Englishman of Ireland. Colgan adduces an aigumient, 
which, if uncontradicted^ would leave no doubt as to Pktto faav^ 
ing been an Iridmian. Having found that he was said to have 
been abbot of Amarbaric in his tnvn countiy befi^re he went to 
Germany, he observes thi^ tha;e was no such place eithe* in Ire- 
land or Scot^d, and that, instead of Amarbaric, we ought to 
lead Armagh. On this the BoUandisto (at St. SuibeHf 30 April) 
remark, that Amarbaric seems to have been rather near Verden, 
and. that a monastery was founded there fiir the Soots, of which 
Patto was M)0tf before he succeeded, as is said, Siiibert in the 
see of Verden. . According to tliis supposition it is a mistake to 
]^aoe Amarbaric in the country, whence Peitto caroeh Mabillon 
is still more explicit on this point. He says, (Annal S^c. at A. 
796) that the monastery of Amarbaric, not far fi^m Verden, was 
founded by Suibert, who placed Patto over it, and that, after a 
succession of five or six abbots, it ceased to exist. Mabillon 
gives to the monks of that establishment the general name of 
Scots, by which the Irish were th^n universally understood. But 
this does not prevent our siqiposing, that some British Scots might 
have belonged to it, as well as to the many other monasteries 
founded in those times throughout Grermany by or for the Sooto« 
Irish, who c$>nsida^ the British Scots as their kinsmen, and 
were well disposed tp receive them into their institutions. Who- 
ever is tolerably acquainted with the state of the British Scots 
of thatperiod> the narrow limits within which they were confined. 


their wars against the Pictt» the want t>f vd^ioijui mrtaUiahioeBtB 
on 8 large scale, must immediately perceive, that these swarms 
of learned and pious men, called Sc&U; who flocked to the Con- 
tinent in those times and during a long^ subsequent period^ could 
not, generally speakii^, have come fiom the small part of N. 
Britain then possessed by the Irish colodsts, and that, at least, 
the great majority of them were die old Scots or Irish. When 
Walaiiid Strabo, who lived early m the' ninth eentory, ^teerves, 
( VU. S. GaUi L. 2. c. 46.) tJttit tjhe custom of vkiting foie^ 
countries was became a sort of second nature to the Scots, he 
plainly means the natives of Ireland $ for he Introduces <me of 
them, who had been left side in St. GaE's monastery, and who 
was still alive in his time, as im(4orii^ the saint, who appeared 
to him in a dream, to relieve him as being a countryman of his. 
And» wherever else in said work Walafiid makes mention of Scots, 
he alludes to no others than the Irish, as, for instance, Z.. 1. c« 
20. where St. Gallus, whom he every where represents as a Ba- 
tive of Ireland, is spoken of as c^ gente Scciorum* (See also hia 
Fteiace.) At the period we are now treating of, the Northum- 
brian kingdom comprized a very great part, and the best, of mo- 
dem Scotland ; and accordingly, as the inhabitants were not then 
Scots, it cannot be pretended that many of the eminent men, 
caUed ScotSy who resorted to the Continent, might have been sup- 
plied from that countiy after having been educated in the schools 
of Maihros, &c in said kingdom. The Picts were still distinct 
fhrni the Scots ; and, besides their having had no learned men; 
among them, except foreigners, chiefly Irish, (see Pinkerton, 
Pref. to Vit. Antiq. SS, S^c.) no one will imagme, that their coun- 
try might have furnished some of those numberiess persons, whose 
fame, under the name of Scots, resounded all over Westent 
Europe. Will it be said that the Scots of Argyle and some 
neighbouring districts were alone numerous and enlightened 
enough to send out such orowds of learned and holy men? 
But what schools had they? Except Hy, which, as often ob- 
served, was an Irish school, th^ had none, I mean a respectable 
one ; nor is there a trace of any such school in the territory of 
the British Scots until much later times. There were indeed some 
small monasteries or cells; but no mentk>n occurs of any learned 
establishment. (See Chalmers, Caledonia^ VoL 1. tAap. on the 


Introduction of Chriditmity,) Those Scots were welcome to 
the school of Hy, which, we may be sm^, was frequented by 
-several of than ; but is it to be supposed, that all the so called 
Scots, who visited Engiand, Ranee, Germany, &c, had been 
educated at Hy, or that the Irish Scots, belonging to that house, 
and who, by the bye, were the far' greater number, all staid at 
home, while n<me but the British ones went to foreign parts? 
If Hy were the only establishment, whence the travelling Scots 
<if either nation derived their learning, it should have been ten 
times as large as it was, oonsidaing the multitudes of them that 
emigrated. The truth, however, is that a very considerable por- 
tion of these missionaries, &c. had studied in Ireland, which 
abounded in great schools, such as Armagh, Bangor, which sent 
oat Columbanus, Gallus, and their companions ; Lismore, whence 
St. Cataldus; Clonard, Clonmacnois, Ross, (co. Cork,) Emly, 
Kfldare, Clonenagh, Sec. &c. Neither St. Fursey and his com- 
panions, nor St. Livinus and others, whom it would be tedious 
to enumerate, had been members of the monastery of Hy. Next 
it is to be recollected that the great missionaries, who had really 
belonged to it, were Irishmen, such as Aidan, Finan, and Colman 
of Lindisfiume. In those times the British Scots were too much 
engaged in striving to extend their frontiers, and too poor to apply 
much to learning ; and it was not. until after they got possessioa 
of the Picdsh kingdom in 843, that they set about establishing 
reUgious houses and 'schools on a somewhat extended scale. The 
Scottish establishment at Dunkeld was not b^un until 849 ; 
that of Brechin was very late in the 10th century ; and the schools 
of Dumblane and Abemethy, although perhaps eariier, were not 
formed untQ a late part of the period comprized between 843 
imd 1097. (See Chalmers, t^. chap, on the EcdesiasHcal history 
of said period.) 

I have been induced to enlarge on this subject, in consequence 
of having observed, that several continental wriu^, some of whom 
were otherwise very learned men, seem to <Lave supposed, that 
audi Scots as distinguished themselves ^'* a foreign countries during 
the seventh, and down to the dew nth or twelfth century, were 
generally from Nordi Britain, unkss some ^circumstance or indi- 
cation may liappen to occur, which points out Ireland as the land 
of their birth. Such distinguishing marks do indeed constantly 


occur; and hence we find that other writers frequently remind 
the reader, that such and such Scots were from the old Scotia, 
that is, Irish Scots. Molanus, Philip Ferrarius, Sinnond, Fleuiy, 
and raan j more, particularly German authors, were very careful 
on this point, while the writers, above alluded to, leave the name 
Scoty or Scots, as they found it in old documents, without cau^ 
tioning the reader that' the persons so denominated were really 
Lrish. And hence it has come to pass that some late authors of 
a minor class, writing in the modem languages of Europe, and 
copying from the Latin works of said writers, are wont to trans^ 
late Scotiy not adverting to its old signification, Scotchmen, Ecos^ 
soisy Scozzesi, &c. so as convey to the uninformed an idea that 
they were uniformly natives of N. Britain. But had the true 
state of the British Scots in the seventh, eighth, and thence to, 
at least, the eleventh century, been generally known, the name 
Sc(^if applied to persons during that long period, would be pre- 
sumied to mean Irishmen, in case there do not appear some spe- 
cial reasons, founded on the context, &c. to show that they were 
British Scots. If the Bollandists had been well acquainted with 
the histoiy of these Scots, they need not have been as scrupu- 
lous, as we sometimes find them, in their doubts of whether this 
or that Soot of, ex. c, the eighth centuiy, were fix>m Ireland or 
the modem Scotland. What I have hitherto stated on these 
points will help to elucidate the histoiy of several eminent Irish- 
men; whom we shall meet with in our progress. 

(28) The Bollandists (at St. Suihert, 30 April) suspect that 
Patto'was not bishi^ of Verden, and that the immediate succes- 
sor of Suibert was Tanco. 

(29) See Mabillon, Annal. Ben. ad A. 796.) There is no. 
distinct account of the precise times of those abbots or of such 
of them as became bishops of Verden. What Colgan has about 
them at St. Patto (SO Mart.) is, as to the chronological part, 
very incorrect ; a£|d it will be sufficient to observe, that all of them 
flourished after A. Dn'^SG. 

(30) See Chap. viii. $^ S. Not. 91. This is not the place to en- 
ter into the celebrated queBtitn^ <^onceming the Thule so often men- 
tioned by Grecian and Roman wd«ers ; but it is certain that Iceland • 
was the island which the Irish called Thi/le or Inis Thyle, i. e. the 
island of Thyte. Not only our old historians are unanimous on 


this point, (see Colgan AA.SS. p. 242.) but the geographer 
DicuHl is particularly explicit with r^ard to it, as, for instance, 
in what he says concerning the length of tlie summer days in 
Thyle, his denying that it was surrounded with ice, and his ob- 
serving that the frozen sea was one day's sail more to the North, 

(31) Playfair {Geography, Vol. in. p. 144) says, that Icdand 
was inhabited as early as the 5th centuiy; but from what is 
stated (see above Chap, viii. ib.) of St. Ailbe's intention to pro* 
ceed thither for the purpose oi leading a life unknown to the 
world, it may perhaps be conjectured that it was then destitute of 
inhabitants. This, however, is at most conjectural ; for St. Ailbe 
might, notwithstanding its containing some inhabitants, have 
found places enough in the island, where he could have remained 
quite sequestered from them. 

(32) The Icelandic historian, Amgrim Jonas, pretends that it 
was not inhabited until A. D. 874, when it was occupied by the 
Norwc^;ians. Independently of historical documents, which prove 
the contraiy, it is difficult to suppose that, while so many small 
islands of the Northern ocean were peopled long before that time, 
Iceland should have remained uninhabited, particularly as its di- 
mate was formerly much more temperate than it has become in ^e 
eourse of ages, and its soil was then much better and more fruit* 
ful than at present, besides the advantage <^ a passage to it not 
bdng impeded by ice. It was the Thule of the Romans, 
as there is good reason to believe, and was certainly inhabited at a 
far eaiiier period. But, setting aside this controversy, Amgrim 
himself suf^lies us with a proof, that it was peopled prior to the 
arrival of the Norwegians ; for he acknowledges the well known 
foct, that the Norw^ans found there sacred utensils, which had 
been left by Irish Christians, whom, he says, the ancient Ice- 
landers called Papa or Papas, Ftoy, who were those old Ice* 
landers, that were able to give some account of the Irish Papas ? 
He must have meant the Norwegian settlers of 874. But, if they 
were the first inhabitants of the island, what could they have 
known of said Papas.^ Had he told us that they discovered the 
name Papa at Papas^ by means -of some inscriptk)ns found there, 
or had he made mention of the Irish books left by the Papas in 
Iceland, he would have been more consistent with himself. His 
raying that they were probably fishermen is a poor evasion ; for, if 



flo, why should they have left those sacred utensils in an unin- 
liabited country ? Unless he supposed that said Papas perished 
there ; but ihexk he tells us that the Norwegians found no traces 
of any habitation whatsoever. How could this have been, if the 
Papas had, on landing there, remained for some time in the 
island, as they surdy must have intended to do ? Otherwise why 
bring on shore artides necessary for the celebration of divine 
service ? Passii^ by these inconsistencies of Arngrim, another Ice- 
landic writer, Ara Multiseius has ( Sched* de IdandiOf dap, 2.) a 
dear account of the wliole matter. Having observed that, when 
Ingolfr, the Norw^;ian, arrived in Iceland, it was in great part co- 
vered with fiMrests, he adds, ** that there were then Christians 
** there, whom the Norw^ians call Papas, and tliat they after* 
<' wards quitted the country, because they did not like to live with 
^ heathens, and left behind them Irish books, bells, and stafls. 
^ Thence it was easy to perceive that they were Irislunen." On 
this statement we may observe, that the Irish, who were settled 
there at the time of the Norwegians taking possession of the 
island, did not, in all probability, leave it voluntarily, but were ex- 
pelled by those same pagan Norw^ana ; for otltert^lse they would 
have taken along with them their books, &c. Nearly in the 
same maimer are these circumstances stated in the booki called 
Land-namo'-hoc (ap, Johnaton, AnU CeUa-Scand. />. 14.) in which 
we read; " Before lodand was inhabited by tlie Norwe^ans, 
'< there were men there whom the Norw^ians call Papas^ 
<f and who professed the Christian reh'gion, and are tlMHight to 
<< have come by sea from the West; for there were left by them 
<^ Irii^ books, bells and iarooked staflfe, and several other things 
<f were found which seemed to indksate that they were West-men. 
*i These arddes were found in Papeya towatds the East and in 
«- PfajiyH." See also Von Troil, (On ledand^ LeU^r IV.) As to 
the crooked stafis, th^ were of that kud, which the ancient 
Irish had n particular veneratk>n ftM*, viz* lliose, whidi had be- 
kmged to hdy bishops, abbots, &c. and which used to be adorned 
with gdfil^ precious stones, drc. Sudi yp9& the fiwtous staff of St- 
Patridc, that of St. Mnra, and many others, which were consi- 
dered as mos* valuable relics, so tjiat it was usual, even until a 
'hue period, to swear by iiiem^ 

According to ike afbove accounts, those irishmen, who ^ad 



lived in Iceland, were called Papa or PapaSy by the Norwegians. 
This might seem to have been a name invented by tbe old Nor- 
w^ans for them, because they were in communion with the 
Pope. But it is more probable, that it was diat, whidi'was used by 
t themselvee> signifying clergymen. Instances occur in our history 
of not only bishops but abbots being called Papa* (See NoU 
214. to Chap. X.) In a note to Ara fp. 13.) those Papas are 
dated to have been ecclesiastics. The districts or places in Ice^ 
land, bearmg the names Papeya and Papyli^ afford a strong 
proof of this supposition ; for it is sufficiently clear, that they were 
so called from having been inhabited by the Irish Papas before 
the arrival of the Norwegians. It is thus that, as Barry, ( History 
of the Orkneys, p. 115.) following Pinkerton, thinks with great 
appearance of truth, the persons called Papae, whom the Scan- 
dinavians found in the Orkney Islands on tlieir arrival in the ninth 
century, were the Irish clergyhien settled there, who, as they 
f^)oke a different language, and were of an appearance and man- 
ners diffonent from those of the other inhabitimts of sdd islands 
m^ht have been considered by the Seandinavians as a distinct 
nation. Besides other indications, he observes that many places 
in these islands were called Papay or Paplay, which, considering 
their retired and pleasant situation, and the venerable ruins which 
some of them contain, seem to have been residences of clergy- 
man. There are two whole islands known by that name, Papay 
Stronsay and Papay Westray, which are remarkable for ruins, 
and bear strong marks of having been clerical or '.nonastic pro- 

(88) Dicuill, who has been mentioned already, says in his 
book, {De mensura provinciarum orbis terrae) that thirty 
yean, prior to the time of writing it, he had got an account of 
Thyle (Iceland) from some clergymen, who had returned from it 
f£ter having speiit thero from the first of February to the first of 
August. (See Usher, p. 868.) Dicuill flourished in the late part of 
the eighth and beginning of the ninth century. (Ware, Writers, 
at I>icuUl.) Usher places him {p. 199,) among the writers 
of the seventh ; biit as he was living at the time of the North- 
mannic, or as they are commonly called, Danish piracies, on ac- 
count of which, he says, (see Ware, Antiq. cap. 24.) several small 
idands ahmt our island of Ireland have not at present as much as 

Q 2 



an anchoret in theniy he must be assigned to the period, after 
vvliich said piracies b^an off.4he Irish coasts, and which was 
somewhat later than 790. The date of DicuiU's work is now well 
known ; for Mr. Walckenaer has published it tc^ether with Re- 
cherches GSographiques et Pkisiques on it, Paris, 1814. Ac- 
cording to his copy, Dicuill dates his Woric in 825. AooHdingly 
the thirtieth previous year, in which he had conversed with the 
clergymen returned from Iceland^ will bring us bade to about 
795. Nor is there any the least hint or any other reason to make 
us think, that they were the first missionaries, who had gone from 
Ireland to that country. It seems that the clergymen, who used 
to be sent on that mission, were occasionally relieved by others from 
Ireland after ji certain period of service. 

<34) See Not. 32. 

(35) As to the Orkneys see ib. We have observed already, 
(Chap. XI. §, 14u} that Irish missionaries are said toliave been in 
those islands as early as the times of Columbkill. Dicuil states, 
that in the Hethlandic, that is, the Shetland isles, there were liv- 
ing Irish iiermits since about 100 years prior to the time of his 
writing. (See Ush^, p. 729.) 

§. V. St. Seduliusy abbot, and, according to some, 
bishop at Ath-cliath, now called Dublin, is said to 
have died in 78Gu (36) If he was really a bishop, 
he is, the only one that Dublin can lay claim to before 
the eleventh century ; (37) and it is clear, that it 
was not a regular episcopal see until said century. 
This, however, does not prevent our admitting, that 
Sedulius was raised to the episcopal rank, in the same 
manner as many abbots, distinguished for their merit, 
used to be in Ireland without attaching permanent 
sees to their places of residence, and as his neighbour 
and contemporary, Ferfugill, wasatClondalkin. (38) 
Nothing further is known concerning this St. Sedu- 
liuH, than that he was the son of one Luat, and de- 
plirted this life on the 12th of February. A very 
learhed and holy man, Colga, alias Coelchu,^ Colcu, 
(in Latin Colcus) surnamed the Wise^ presided ia 
these times over the great school of Cionmacnois. 


(39) He was of the family of £h^ Hua-Dunechda, 
and had, it seems, studied at that school. Through 
his great application, particularly to the Epistles of 
St. Paul, whom he venerated as his patron, he acquired 
such a degree of ecclesiastical knowledge that he 
was looked upon as the most learned man in Ireland, 
and was styled the Scribe or doctor of all the Scots. 
His piety was equally great, and accordingly he was 
raised to the priesthood. At what time he began to 
teach at Clonmacnois, we are not informed ; but he 
remained there until his death in 792, on, it seems, 
the 20th February, the day at which his name is 
marked in the calendars. He left some tracts, one 
of which, of a devotional kind, has been preserved. 

(40) This distinguished man was undoubtedly the 
lecturer and blessed master Colcu, with whom Alcuin 
carried on a correspondence, and who had an ex- 
traordinary respect for him, as appears from one of 
his letters to Colcu, which is still extant. (41) 
After giving him some news relating to the state 
df the continent, he styles him most holy father^ 
and calls himself his son. (42) He then men- 
tions one Joseph as an humble servant of Colcu, 
who, as well as all his other friends then living in 
France, was serving God in a sts^te of prosperity. 
('tS) Next he tells him that an unfortunate quarrel 
had broke out between king Charles and the Mercian 
king Offa, and that it was said that he himself was to 
be sent to England for the purpose of negociating a 
peace between them, as in fact' he was in 790, not 
long after his writing this letter. (44) He requests 
Colcu's prayers, that God may protect him, whether 
he should go or notj and laments that he had not 
received any letter from him for a considerable time. 
Alcuin adds an account of some presents, which he 
had forwarded to him, such as oil, then a scarce arti- 
cle, to be distributed among the bishops ; a certain 
sum of money, partly from the king Charles, and 
partly from himself, for the brethren (of Clonmacnois); 
another sum, not so large, from them also, and from 


another person, for the Southerii brethren of Bald' 
hu77inega ; (45) and some small sums for certain 
anchorets ; requesting that all those persons may pray 
for himself and for king Charles. 

(36) The date of the 4 Masters {op., A A. SS.p. 315.) is 785, 
/. e. 786. 

(37) The 4 Masters call Sedulius only abbot; but the Martyr. 
Tamloct. and Marian Gorman give him the title of bishop. Ware 
{Bishops of Dublin) omits him, whereas, according to the old 
documents of that church, Donat, who lived in the 11th century, 
was its first bishop. Yet Harris has admitted him, as well as 
others for whom there is much less foundation- Burke ( Office of 
St. Rumoldtis J goes still furtlier, telling us, what it would be hard to 
guess where he found, that Pope Stephen III. on St. Rumoldus" 
resigning into his hands the see of Dublin, made it over to Se- 
dulius. This is a patched up story, not worth refutation ; for how 
can it be proved, that St. Rumold ever held said see? (See Chap^ 
XIX. §.15. 

(38) See ib. §. 16. It is not improbable, that Sedulius' pro- 
motion was in consequence of the death of Ferfugill in 785, as it 
was requisite that there should be a bishop somewhere in thaC 
neighbourhood to exercise the necessary episcopal functions. Per- 
haps both of them were only chorepiscopi, 

(39) Colgan has the Acts of St. Colga at 20 Feb.;?. 378. seqg. 

(40) Colgan had a copy of it under the title of Saiap chrabhaighf 
Scopa. devotionisy or Sweeping brtish of devotion. He represents 
it as a collection of most fervent prayers, breathing extraordinary 
piety. Ware ( Writers) has overlooked Colga, but Harris has not. 

(41) This letter wa$ published by Usher from two very ancient 
MSS.of the Cottonian library, in the Ep. Hib. SyU. No. IS., and 
thence republished by Colgan among the Acts of St. Colga or 
Colcu. It is headed, *< Albini magistri ad Colcutn lectorem in 
Scotia 'y then comes the address, '* Benedicto Magistro et pio patri 
Coku, Alcuine humilis Levita salutem." Harris ( Writers, p. 51.) fell 
into a monstrous mistake in attributing this letter to the Irishman, 
called Albin, the companion of Clemens, of whom we have treated 
above. He might have learned not only from the address of it, 
but likewise from Usher and Colgan, to whom he strangely refers 
the reader; that it was written by Alcuin. 


(42) It is not to be concluded fifom these and other similar ex- 
pressions in the letter^ that Alcuin liad studied under Colcu. For 
it does not appear, that he had ever been in Ireland, But, as the 
reputation of both of them was very great, they iiad heard of each 
other, and entered into a conretpondeQce« A person might call 
another Mastery or Doctor^ and himself his sout witliout having 
been under his dioection. . MabiUon'concludes (JnnaL Ben. ad A. 
790) firoto the higlily respectful manner, in vflAdi Colcu is ad- 
dressed and spoken of by Alcuin, that lie must have been a very 
distinguished man* He then conjectures, tliat he was perhaps a 
teacher in Hy^ Had lie Io<^ed into Colgan s A A. SS. ^ work> 
which he seems to have been little acquainted with, he would have 
easily found, that Colcu belonged to Clonmacnois. On this point 
Mabillon imitated some older Benedictine writei's, who, when at a 
]oss with regard to the places, whence some celebrated Irishmen 
had come, usually recur to Hy, as if that were the greatest of all 
the Irish scliools. Now, from at least the tliijes of Adamnan^ it 
was far finom being so, and, although it did npt cease to flourish, 
$eem6 to have been much inferior to some in Ireland, particu- 
larly, those of Armagby Clonmacnois, Lismore, Bangor, and 

(43) This Joseph, who is mentioned in Alcuin's works, (see 
Letter 670 ^^ been a scholar of Colcu, as appears from a letter 
written to him by Alcuin, which Usher found in the MSS. whence 
he took that to Colcu. (See Ep% Hib. Recent ad* No, 18.) In it AI* 
cum says to him ; << Your master Colcu is well." Alcuin had got 
this information fix)m Ireland, and most probably through a letter 
from Coku himselfl His adding ^our to die word master, plainly 
^ws that he meant more than giving the title o^ master, in gene- 
ral, to Colcuy and that Joseph had studied imder him. Hence it 
may be justly inferred,, that Joseph was an Irishman. Colgan 
enumerates {A A. SS»p, S81«) several persons of said name dis- 
tingui^bed at that period^in Ireland. It was probably through tliat 
Joseph, or some of the other friends of Colcu spdcen of by Alcuin, 
who also appear to have beem personally AO(}uainted with hiin, and 
consequeiitly are to be presumed natives of Ireland, tliat an epis- 
tolary inteccoinae took place between those two great men. 

,(44) See Mabillon, AnnaL Sfc. ad. A^ 790. Accordingly the 
letter wa& written about two yeara prior to tlic deadi of Colcu:! 


wliich cx^curred in 792. For the date, 791, marked by Cotgan 
from the 4 Masters, must, following the usual rule, be oonsideied 
the same as 792. 

(45) In Colgan's edition, among other errata, this name is 
spelled BaUhuminegay and, in a note, Baldhunnega, both f^iicb 
have been copied by^Harris (JVrilerSy p. 51.). Colgan conjec- 
tured that it ought to read Bailechuinnigy so as to mean a town or 
I^ace of St. Cannech, perhaps Kilkenny or AgMi>oe. But, be- 
sides the great diffa%nce between BaUhuinega and Bailechuinnig, 
or rather BaUecannich^ as Colgan in framing this new name should 
have spelled it, Alcuin's calling the brethren of that place s(ndh€rH 
ought naturally to be understood as referring to a part of Irdand 
more to the south of Clonmacnois than is either Aghaboe or Kil- 
kenny. I can scarcely doubt that Baldhunin^a, the town or place 
Dhuninegay was the same as Lismore, the old Irish name of which 
was Dunsginne, (see Not. 195. to Chap, xiv.) otDunsginna. A 
copyist, unacquainted with the Irish language, might have easily 
made a mistake in writing this name. Lismore was greatly re- 
sorted to by English students; (see Chap* xiv. $. 14- Nat. 197.) 
and it is probable, that Alcuin's reason for sending mon^ to that 
establishment was to show his gratitude for the attention, with 
which his countrymen were treated there. 

§• VI. St. Moelruan, abbot and bishop at Tallaght, 
or Tallagh, about five miles from Dublin, who died 
on the 7th of July A. D. 788, (46) is also to be 
reckoned among the learned men of those times, and 
was one, and probably the first, of the authors of the 
celebrated martyrology called Tamlactense^ or of 
Tallaght. (47) Concerning his transactions I can 
find nothing further except that he governed hi& 
monastery according to the primitive rules of monas- 
tic discipline, and had for several years among hi& 
monks tne great hagiologist Aengus. 

Suibhne the second, abbot of Hy, who died either 
in 768 or 772, (48) was succeeded by Bressal, son 
of one Segen, whose administration lasted until 797> 
the year of his death. (49) During it died at Hy, 
in 787, Artgalji son of Catbald, who had been king of 


Connaught. Resigning his crown in 779 he became 
a monk, and in the following year retired to Hy, 
where he piously spent the remainder of his 
life. (50) 

In these times there seem to have been various 
contests for the see of Armagh. Foendelach, who 
is said to have become archbishop in 768, (51) is 
stated to have held it only three years, although we 
are told that he lived until 795. (5^) Next after 
him is mentioned Dubdalethe, whose incumbency 
lasted fifteen years, (53) and accordingly, reckoning 
from 771, the year of his accession, ended in 786* 
Next after him are mentioned Arectac, who ruled 
only one year, (54) and Cudiniscus who held the see 
four years and consequently until 791. (56) He was 
succeeded by Conmach, to whom are assigned four- 
teen years. (56) As to the succession in other Irish 
sees there is a deplorable vacuum in the history of 
this period, with scarcely any exception, saving that 
of Emly. Cuan, who v^as bishop there, and in all 
probability the immediate successor of Senchai, died 
in 784 or 786 ^ (57) and next after him we find in 
that see Sectabrat, who lived until 819. (58) Instead 
of a succession of bishops in some of our distinguished 
sees we are furnished with that of abbots in said 
places, for instance at Ferns and Kildare, (59) 
although it is difficult to think that the line of bishops 
was interrupted. (60) 

(46) 4 Masters, op. J A. SS.p» 583. I have added a year to 
their date SS7* They call him bishop^ as does also Colgan, (ib, 
p. 741.) although elsewhere he gives him only the title o£ abbot. 

(47) The title of this work, which Colgan represents as excel- 
lent, and the most copious he ever met with of that kind written 
in any country, is Marti/r(dogium^engusii JUii Hua-obhlenu et 
Modruani. Aengus, of whom hereafter, lived for some years in 
the monastery of Tallaght under Moehruan. As tliey both be- 
k)nged to that place, Cdgan has, with good reason, called it 
Tamlactense. (See A A. SS. p. 5. and 581.) It might have been 


.oompofied jointly by both of them, or what oeems nyxe probabiei 
had been fint undertaken by Moelnifin, and continuedby Aengns, 
who, from his name being placed 6x91, seem to have written the 
greater part of it. He adds that a Martyrotogium TiHidacteme is 
mentioned by an old Schduistoa Che Festiiogium of Marian Gor- 
man, and that there is eveiy appearance of ita having been the 
same as that entitled, AaigH$, &c; Concerning it more wilt be 
seen lower down* 

(48) See Chap. xw. §, 14. Noi. ][62. 

(49) See Tr. Th,p. 500. Smith in bis catalogue of i^e abbou 
of Hy {Append, to JU^ ^St. Col.) inserts^ befeween Siiihluie and 
Bressal, a St. Muredadi as abbot, because helbqnd him called by 
the 4 Maaters prior of Hy. He ought to have knoum that the 
priors of Hy were different from the abbots* The office of prior> kept up to this very day in laige monasteries, is inferior to 
that of abbot. It is tike thatof a vice-peeaidait Muredachdied 
in 778. 

(50) 4 Masters ap, Tr. Th. ik. I have added a year to their 

(5\) See Chap. xix. §. 14, and ib. Noi. 160. 161. 

(52) The Paslter of Cadiel (ap. Tr. Th.p.^&fL) aUows three 
years for the incumbency of Foenddach. But the 4 Masters (iS, 
p^ 294.) who, instead of him, make Cudinisoaa the immediate 
successor of Ferdachrich, assign his death to A. 794 ^795) afler 
observing that he had a contest concerning the see, fiiet vrith 
Dubdalethe and afterwards with Gormgal. 

(53) Ware {Bishops at Armagh) from the catalogue of the 
Psalter of Cashel. 

(5if) See said catalogue ap. Tr. Th. p. 292. Ware has Affiat 
or Arectac But in the now mentioned catalogue there is no 
AfBat. The Ulster annals' and the 4 Masters call him bishop of 
Armagh, and state that he died on the same night with Arectac 
Hua-Foelain abbot of Armagh, in 793 (794.) According to this 
account, Arectac was not bishop, unless we should suppose that, 
having held the see for some time, he was pushed out by Affiat, 
and reduced to the situation of abbot. As to his dying in 794, 
it docs not agree with the Psalter, which allows him only one year's 
in'cumbency, and consequently terminetmg in 787> except we are 
to admit a similar supposition, m. that he was deprived of the see 


some yefD» before his deadu It is, however,, useless to endeavour 
to reconcile these jarring accounts, and I shall leave the whole 
matter as it is given in said Psalter. 

(55) It is remarkable that, notwithstanding the disagreement 
with regard to the order of succession, the Ulster annals and the 
4t Masters assign the death of Cudiniscus to A. D. 790, ue. 791, 
the veiy year to which the above catalogue leads us for the close of 
his incumbency. Harris in his additions to Ware (at Cudiniscus) 
has a strange jumble of dates. Although he says with Ware, that 
the Annals of Ulster place his death in 791, he assigns his acces- 
sion to 794<, and his demise to 798* Where he found these dates, 
nobody, I believe, would be able to tell. 

{56) Catalogue from the Psalter of Cashel. 

(57) Ware, Bi^ops at Eml^. Fop Senchai see Chap, xu« 

(58) Ware, ib. 

(59) For the series of abbots there and elsewhere see Archdall. 
It will not be expected that I should transcribe them. It some- 
times happens, as often remarked, that the' same persons are 
sometimes called abbots and soQQ^times bishops ; but it is not to 
be thence presumed that every one, who is called abbot, ex* c. of 
Ferns, were also Ushops there. We have seen {Nat* 1 80 to Chap* 
XIX.) an abbot ci Kildare clearly distinguished from two bishops of 
said place, who died in the same year with him. Our annalists 
were usually attentive to give the title bishop to such abbots^ as 
were really both abbots and bishops. 

(60) I suspect, however, that such an interruption mig^t have 
occurred in less distinguished sees or places, owing to the singula]^ 
practice in Ireland of raising persons to the cfviscopac^ here and 
there without confining such promotions to dd established seesi 
or places where there had been bishops in fonner days. The ap* 
pomtment of a bishop in a new spot might have prevented the re- 
gular continuation of others in a oontigaous place> which had 
bishops before. For inatanoe^ there were some bishops .at Code 
in the seventh and e%hth eenturies. Yet after Settnc, who died 
in 773> we do not meet with another there until about the middle 
of the tenth. The succession might have been intemipted in con- 
sequence of the qxsoopal dignity being oon&nred on some aUbots 
^n the neighbourhood. 


% vn. The year 795 is stated by some writers to 
have been that, in which the Scandinavian free- 
booters, vulgarly called Danes, first infested the 
coasts of Ireland, and particularly the small island 
of Rechrann or Raghlin, which they laid waste. (6I) 
To that year I first assigned the death of an abbot 
of Rechrann, St. Feradach, son of Segen, (62) 
which might have been occasioned by the proceed- 
ings of those marauders. Inis-patrick, now Holm- 
patrick, was plundered and devastated by them in 
798. (63) In one of those early piratical expedi- 
tions, and probably the first of them, a sister of St. 
Findan was carried off by a party of those North- 
men, who had landed somewnere on the coast of 
Leinster. For Findan was a native of that pro- 
vince, (64) and it was there that his father, who was 
a military man in the service of a Leinster prince, 
resided. (65) On being sent by his father to the 
Danes for the purpose of redeeming his sister, he 
was near being detained as a prisoner ; but, as some 
of the party remonstrated on the unfairness of thus 
treating a person who had come on such an errand, 
he was allowed to return home. Some time after, 
through the treachery of certain enemies of his, he 
was inveigled to go on an excursion near the sea, 
whence, it appears, his habitation was not far distant, 
and there fell into the hands of some of those Nor- 
man pirates, and, after various vicissitudes, was taken 
to the Orkneys. Having stopped near one of its 
uninhabited islands, several of the pirates landed 
there and allowed Findan to accompany them. 
Here he seized an opportunity of slipping away from 
his Noman companions, and concealed himself un- 
der a rock, untu the vessel sailed from that place. 
Thinking that there was an inhabited country not 
far distant, and having examined every outlet for 
three days, living on herbs and water, he deter- 
mined on entrusting himself to Providence, and 
promised that, if God should preserve him, he 


would renounce all worldly pursuits, and spend the 
remainder of iiis life in holy pilgrimage, lie then 
eommitted himself to the waves, and swam until he 
reached land, on reconnoitring which he saw houses 
and fires at no great distance from the shore. 
This country was probably some part of Caithness 
in North Britain. (66) After two days he met 
some persons, who conducted him to the bishop 
of a neighbouring town, by whom he was very 
kindly received. This bishop had [studied in Ire- 
land, understood the Irish language, and kept Fin- 
dan with bim for two years. Findan, however, 
wishing to proceed on his intended pilgrimage, left 
that place with the bishop's permission, and taking 
with him some companions passed over to France, 
visited St. Martin's of Tours, and, travelling on 
foot, at le|igth arrived at Rome. Having remained 
there for some time, he went to Switzerland, and 
stopping there spent four years in a clerical state 
with a nobleman, (67) on the exniration of which 
his superior in the monastery of Rhinaugia or Rhin- 

faw, (68) got him made a monk in the 51st year of 
is a^. The time assigned for Findan's monastic 
profession is A. D. 800, a date, which does not 
agree with that marked by some authors for the first 
I^uiish attacks on the coasts of Ireland, but which, 
however, we have not sufficient authority to set 
aside. (69) After five years of monastic observance 
in the community, he became a recluse in a cell 
adjoining the church and monastery, where he re- 
mained for 22 years, practising the most extraordi- 
nary austerities, particularly as to fasting. These were, 
in all probability, the last years of his life, and ac« 
cordinglv his death ought to be assigned to A. D. 
8i27 (70) Some remarkable circumstances are re* 
lated as having occurred to this saint on the fes- 
tival of St. Patrick, (7i) St. Brigid, St. Columba 
(Columbkill), and St. Aidan (of Lindisfarne) \ and 


ocstatn irith sentences^ wMoh he heard in risions 
on diese occasions; are repeated ^in his Life. Hie 
saticliity of Hndan was reputed to be so very 
great, that the monks of Rhingaw, although the 
monastery was not firanded by him^ adopted him as 
their patron (7S) ; and his memory is revered there 
on the 15th of NDvember* ("73) 

(61) Ware, {Aniiq. cap. ^) refemng to the Annals of Ulster, 
Usher has {Jnd. Chron») these Daniah depredEeOions at A. 795, 
bnt does say tliat thejr were the first The 4 JMlaatars (t^. Tr. 
Th. p. 510.) aasigD a devastatiim af Bedmnn to i4.790 (791.) 
This date would, in the su{fiDBitiaa that the Daiiea attacked other 
partsof the Irish ooarts in the saaie year, agree wkh ^e history 
of St. fladaB, ofwhich a little lover dlm]!^ better than diat of tlw 
Ukter annaU. O'Baherty ibUonrs Ware, (see Ogygia^ Part 3. 
08^.93^ at king DonnckadJ^ Usherivas m&taken in adding to the 
demBtatiDn of Rechrann in 795 that of Ite greaftest past of Ire- 
IbimI; a statement, which he took from a vague passage of Carodoo 
of Lancarvan. (See Pr. fk 958^ U is clear froas what Ware has 
ccAseted on this^iartiof our history., that the Danes did not pene* 
trate into the interior of Jiiehttd until several years later. 

<6£) fbnr Masters and TV. Th. p. 510. 

(63) lie Ubter an9(als(iz;7. Johnston, App, &c.) have; A. 797 
(798) hm^rick masted by the GMs. 

(64) Inliis Life he is caQed a Scot, and « dt^aen ^ the pro- 
viaeeof Leinster, *^ Findttn gmere Scottusy cms promndaeLa- 
gskems" Tim life may be seen in Melehior GolJtot^ Rerum 
Aismanniaman Scrip/tores^ Torn."!* p. S18. seqg. or, adoordng to 
another edition^ 2>m. 1. p. 2CS.seqf. AlHiou^in^ierfect, it 
eontaiiaacrery ^iiod aeeount ^^s saint% transactions, and is 
written itt a dear, sensible, and ratkmal manner. The acc^hor 
li^^ not long afterFindan, for he mentions a p«>son alifl alrve in 
tho monacdery of Fore {in Fwarierm^onasteris)^^ wfiom the 
saint liad rdated a vision that he had, (See cap. 8.) This per- 
son must htfire seen Findan in Sivitzerland, bnt afterwards re- 
tonittd to Ireland. And it appears that the author was also an 
Irishman, akheiigh, at the time of his writing, a i^sA in Saitaer- 
land. Besides his seeming to hint, that he had been in the mo- 


nasleiy of Fore^ he qiiattt seireiil Irish paangiB. But I find no 
mson ioff midng hin, as Ware does, ( H^riten at 9th century) a 
cxnnponion of Fnufauk 

(66) Oolgan, who was much inchned to make cor saints sons 
of kings, calls {AA. SS. p. S5S.) Findan, or as he speUs the 
name, FhUath an Irish prince* Ware (ib.) sa^s tiiat he was the 
son of a Leinster prince. This is a sMnge assertion for an au- 
thor, who refen the reader to the Life puhlished by Gddast. In it 
we find quite the reverse ; for not only is Findan odled a cUieen of 
Leinster, hut his fotlier is lepnaented as a mtiitary man, •mtleSf 
under a prince of that province, who was at varisnoe with ano- 
ther Leinster prince. Which alt them was hfis master, or whether 
he belonged to North or South Leinster, we are not bifoimed. 

(66) There are some smaH iriaads in the soothem Orkneys, or 
m the filth of Pentland, wAiich may also be comprixed under the 
general name of Orcades (Orkneys), from One of which a good 
swimmer might aoeke his way to the mainland of Scotland. Or 
the hi»d, whidi Findan anived at, nright have been one of the 
hager islands. Yet Aom other circumstances it &eems more pro- 
bable, that the tract attuded to vras in Caitlmess. 

(67) In the lifo It is bM, that he remained four years with a 
nobleman in derkatm. Does this mean that Findan acted as 
(Aaplam to a nobleman ? If so, he was already a priest. But I 
tMnk that the passage ought to be understood of his leadingade- 
rical Kfo, prepafBtory to h<rfy orders, or to the monastk prcyfession, 
whae vesldaiig with that ndbleman. 

(6&) Rhingaiv, alius Rheinau, is an abbey near the town of said 
name in the district of Thoi^w in Switzeriand Ware ( Writers, 
at 9^ tetitary) was wvoi^ in making Findan llie founder of it. 
He KMsoiily one of its fkst moidts. The founder was, according 
isKioldaBt, the Gbunt Wdfehard of Kybm^, ti4io was, in idl ap- 
psaraiice, that nobleman, under whom Findan spent four years, 
md, peihaps, the same as the person called its senior or superior. 
MabiHon, {Annal 8fe. ad A. 800.) a^hnitting that WoHchard was 
the founder, isttates that tte first abbots were Wichramn, Wolwin, 
and Antwart, under one or other of whom, he says, was placed 

(69) Ihis fiflicnity has been noticed by J. P. Murray, De Bri- 
tan. atque HUem. i^c. Nw, Conm. R. S. Godting. Tom. 2. and 


De CoUmik Scandkisf ib, Tom. S. The number of years, that 
intervaied betureen Findan's bemg carried off by the Danes and 
his becoming a monk in 800> leads us to an eariier date than 795. 
Not to reckon the time that passed firom his seizure to his 
escape from the OrimeySy he spent two years with th^ g»od 
bishop before he set out for France For his journey through that 
oountiy and Italy to RcMooe, his delay in said city, and his journey 
thence to Switzerland, another year, at the least, must be aUowed. 
Add the four years, which he passed with the worthy nobleman 
previous to his monastic profession, and it will be found, that, 
supposing the date 800 to be correct, Findan was captured before 
795, and that the Danes b^an to infest the Irish coasts eaiiier 
than is stated in the annals of Ulster. Now there are veiy good 
reasons iat believing, that said date is correct. The writer of the 
Life was almost contemporaiy with Findan ; (see Not. 64.) he 
lived in the monastery of Rhingaw, and had access to its docu« 
ments, among which there was undoubt^y a precise account of 
the holy man's transactions, time of profession, &€. and accord- 
ingly ought to be considered as a vay credible witness on these 
points. The only evasion, that may be guessed at gainst the 
truth of the date 800, is, that a transcriber might have mistaken 
it for some other. But of this some proof should be adduced ; and 
I do not find that any one has undertaken to do so. Said date is 
followed by Mabillon ( Annal. ad 800«) ; and it is somewhat odd 
that Ware, who had Fintan's Life before his eyes, did not hesitate 
to lay down the year 795 as that of the commenc^nent of the 
Danish aggressions on our coasts ; and that Usha*, who also had 
said Life, has afibced {Ind. Chron.) Findan's captivity to that year. 
I am strongly of opinion that Ireland was annoyed by the Scandi- 
navians some years earlier, alhough the annals of Innis&llen as- 
sign tlieir first appearance on our coasts to said year 795 ; and we 
have seen {N(a, 61.) that the 4 Mast^B being them to Rechnum 
in 791. If that, or even 792 was the year in which Findan was 
taken, no difficulty will remain as to what we read of his &rther 
proceedings, and his having become a monk as early as A* JD* 

800. y 

(70) See Mabillon, Annal. at A. 827. 

(71) What wilFDr. Ledwich say, on hearing that the festival of 
St* Patrick was kept at Rhingaw in the beginning of the ninth 


centuiy. Will he still maintain, that he had not been heard of 
uotil the middle of it? 

(72) The author of the Life calli him our patron. 

(73) AA. SS. p. S55. 

§. VIII. Donnchad, king of all Ireland, hav- 
ing reigned 27 years, (74«) and left an example 
of great piety and repentance, (75) died in 797, (76) 
and was succeeded by Aidus, alias Aedan, alias 
Hugh, surnained Ordnidhe^ a son of the king Niell 
Frassach. This Aidus was the fifth monarch of that 
name. (77) During his reign, which lasted S52 
years, the ravages by the Scandinavians became more 
frequent and dreadful. In 798 they attacked the 
coasts of Ulster, (78) and in 802 set fire to the 
monastery of Hy, (79) on which occasion many of 
the monks were consumed in the flames. They 
again entered Hy in &06 ; and such was the extent 
of their fury that the number of its members was re- 
duced to 64. (80) In 807 they effected a landing 
in Ireland, and penetrating as far as Roscommon 
destroyed it, and laid waste the surrounding country. 
(81) But in 812 they were defeated with great 
slaughter by the Irish, and forced to fly and return 
to their own country. (82) About 815, or, as some 
say, 818, the famous Norwegian Turgesius, of whom 
more will be seen hereafter, made his first invasion of 
Ireland. (83) The king Aidus Ordnidhe, having 
become a great penitent, (8i«) lived until 819, (85) 
and bad for successor Conquovar, a son of king 
Donnchad, who is said to have reigned fourteen 
years. (86) The next king was Niell Calne, son of 
Aidus Ordnidhe, who after a reign of thirteen years 
was drowned in the river Calluin, (87) when 55 years 
of age, in 846. (88) He was succeeded by Mel- 
seachlain, whose name has been latinized into Mala* 
chiaSj a nephew of kin^ Conquovar by bis brother 
Malronius. His reign Tasted sixteen years and some 
months ; and his death is assigned to A. D. S63. 
VOL. ui. R 


(89) After him. rejgned AidiMi, or Aedain VI* 
surnamed Firmliath^ and son of king Niell Calne. 
He held the throne for sixteen years^ until his deitth 
in the monastery of Druin-iniscluinn (Drumshallon) 
A. 879* (90) His successor was Flan Sinna, son of 
the king Melseachlain, who reigned for about S^ 
years, and accordingly until 916. (91) 

(74) See Chap. xix. §. 9* 

(75) Four Masterg, and Tr. Th. p. 448. 

(76) Ware {Antiq. cap. 4.) and O'Flaherty (Ogygia, Part m. 
cap, 95.) Ware says that, according to some accounts, he was 
killed in battle fighting against Aidus or Aedan, his successor, a 
circumstance ilotn^entioned either by the 4 Masters or O'Flaherty. 
Ware adds as certain, that two sons of Donnchad were after 
wards killed contending for the monarchy against the said Aidus. 

(77) Colgan (Tr. Th. p. 448.) calls him Aidus the sixth, in 
consequence of his having added a unit to the number of eveiy 
king of that name, beginning with Aidus, son of Anmireus, in the 
sixdi century, whom he calls ^idus the second, while by others 
He is called the first. 

(78) Ware, Antiq. cap. 24* He says that in 798 they infested 
Ulster ; but this must be understood as relative to the ooast, and 
to partial landings ; for fix)m what follows it appears, that there 
was no general landing, and that they did not advance far into 
Ireland until 807. 

(79) Annals of Ulster, ap. Johnston at A. 801 (802), and 4 
Masters (in TV. Tk.p. 500.) who mention an earlier confiagradon 
of Hy in 797.(798). 

(80) Annals of Ulster, ib. ad A. 805 (806). Smith {App. to 
Life of St. C.) says, that in this havock 68 monks were killed 
hy those foreigners (Gals). 

(81) Ware Antiq. cap. 24. and Annals of Ulster, ib. 

(82) Eginhard, who is quoted by Usher (p. 731.), has at jf. 
812; " Classis Ndrdmannorum Hiberniam Scotorum insulam 
aggrei^sa, commissoque cum Scotis praelio, parte non modica 
Ndrdmannorum interfecta, turgiter fugiepdo domum reversa est.*' 
The same date and account are given by the* chroniclers Rh^ 
gino and Hermannus Contractus. See Ware> ib. who adds^that. 


floconbig te tbe Jbuh histmieB, tfaeDsncs weneabout those tvpsm 
defeated in two eagagements. One of thibm was, m all a[^>6iir- 
ance^ fought in 811, at wluch the Ubter Aiuialg>. calling it. 810, 
mark, a slaughter of tlie Gils in Ukter. 

(89) Ware ib. (^Flaherty {Ogygidi Part. in. cap. 98.) says, 
that Tuigemus anived m 815, and that thenceforth the so called 
Danes began to be settled in Irslanit Usher {IntL Chr<m4) as- 
signs his arrival to 818 ; for thus his. words must beunderstoodi 
whereas dsewhere {p. 860) reckoning the 30 years of the tyranny 
of Tuigesius he makes A. 8dt8 the last of them. But the date 815, 
or about it, suppose the b^inning of 816,. is probably more cor- 
rect ; and Usher seems to have had lio other reason for marking 
818, than his having read in Giraldus Cambrensis that Tuigesius 
devastated Ireland for about 30 years, wluch Usher explained as 
exactly 30 years. Then finding that, in all probability, the last 
jear of that persecution was 848, he reckoned, back merely to 
J818. Yet the about 30 years of Giraldus may be well supposed 
to have been really 32 or 33 ; and Ware and 0*Fiaherty had, we 
inajr be sure, some good reasons for the date 815. For, although 
Ware mentions 818 as givan^ by some (meaning, I think, Usher), 
yet he first lays down 81 5, or about it. 

(84) See Tr. Th. p. 448. 

(85) Ware Antiq. cap. 4. and OFlaherty, lod» cit. Ware, adds, 
that) according to some, he lived until 820. 

(86) O'Flaherty, ib. Ware allows him only 12 years, and 
pSaoea his death in 8S2, while O'Flaherty assigns it to 833. 

(87) This river, which flows near Annagh, is now called CaUen. 
The 4 Masters (ap. Tr, Th. p. 448.) say that, firom having been 
4rewned in it Niell was surpamed Galne^ 

(88) 0*Flaherty, s^. Ware agrees with him as to this king's 
deadi in 846. 

(89) Ware fAnt. cap. 4.) has A 862. He observes, that Mel- 
aeaciyain was buried at Clonmacnois. 

(90) Ware, having placed the aceessMn of Aldus VI. in 862, 
says that he reigned almost 17 years, and thus comes to the same 
pdiat with O'Flaherty in assigning his death to A, 879. He was 
ptiiataken as to the situation of Druim-iniscluinn, where the 4 
Masters (^ap. Tr. Th. p. 448.) teB us that this king died. It wan 
not in Tirconnel, as he says, but in ConalUmurUieimbne, and in the 

R 2 


now oounty of Louth, about three miles fiom Drogheda* (See TV. 
Th.p. 174. and Archdall at DrumshaUon.J Owing to the name 
Conall appearing in the denomination oi those two terntoiieSf 
they have sometimes been confounded together. 

(91) O'Flaherty (ib.) gives thisJdng S? years ; Ware (^. 
4.) has 36 years, six months, and five days, adding that he died at 
Talten(&mou8 for its sports) aged 68. Yet he affixes his death, as 
well as O'Flaheity, to A. D. 916. 

§. IX. During the reign of Aidus Ordnidhe» and 
in the year 800, the Irish clergy obtained a privilege 
of the greatest importance. The practice, so fatal 
to ecclesiastical discipline, of compelling bishops and 
abbots to attend kings in their military expeditions 
had crept into Ireland. Aidus having, on occasion 
of a quarrel with the people of Leinster, laid waste 
that province, was determined to proceed still 
further against them, and for that purpose raised in 
that year a great army from all the other parts of 
Ireland, and of all descriptions, not excepting even 
the clergy. Among others he was accompanied by 
Conmach, archbishop of Armagh, and Fothadius a 
most learned and holy lecturer and writer of said 
city, celebrated for his knowledge of the Canons, on 
which account he was called Fothadius de Canonibtis. 
The army being arrived at the frontiers of Leinster 
and Meath, the clergy began to complain of their 
being forced to perform military duty, and applied 
to the king for an exemption from it. He answered, 
that he would agree to whatever should be decided 
on this point by Fothadius, who accordingly drew up 
^ statement, in which he maintained that the clei^ 
ought not to be charged with a service so unbecoming 
.their profession, and which produced the wished for 
effect. (92) 

Fothadius. is said to have presented a copy of this 
tract to the hagiologist Aengus, from whom he had 
received on this occasion, a copy of one of his works. 


viz. the Festilogium^ which he had just completed. 
This celebrated man, who, as we have seen, had 
spent some years with St. Moelruan of Tallaght, (93) 
was of an illustrious family descended from the 
ancient princes of Dalaradia in Ulster. His father 
was Aengavan, the son of Hoblen ; and accordingly 
Aengus has been usually distinguished from others 
of that name by the addition of the surname son of 
Hua-Hohlen. He embraced the monastic state in 
the monastery of Clonenagh (Queen's county) under 
the holy abbot Moelatgen, (94) and made great pro- 
gress in piety and learning. He was wont to q>end 
a great part of his time in a lonesome spot not far 
distant from Clonenagh, and which from him has 
been called Disert Aengus^ where he occupied him- 
self in reading the psalms and in constant prayer. 
His reputation for sanctity becoming very great, he 
wished to withdraw from the scene of it and to hide 
himself in some place, where he was not known. 
Having heard of the strict and exemplary manner, 
in which St. Moelruan governed his monastery^ he 
determined on placing himself under his direction, 
and set out for Tallaght. 

(92) See the 4 Masters, at A. 799 (800) ap. AA. SS. p. 583, 
and Harris, Writers at Fothadius, 

(9S) Above §. 6. Colgan has the Acts of St. Aengus at xi. 

(94) According to the 4 Masters, (ap* A A. SS. p. 582.) Moel- 
atgen died in 767 (768) and his memory was revered on the 21st 
of October. 

§ . X. When arrived there he concealed his name 
and whatever clerical rank he had been raised to, 
and requested to be received as a novice. (90) It is 
said that he was employed for seten years in the most 
laborious avocations, such as reaping, threshing^ &c. 
His humility and the austerity of his life were so 
remarkable, that he was called Cele-De or CeHe^Dcj 


that is, a servant or companion of God. (96) At 
length hia rank and acquirements were discovered 
by Moelruan in consequence of his having assisted 
one of the school boys of the monastery in preparing 
his task, at which he had been either dull or negli^ 

Sent, and who was afraid of being punished by 
loelruan. The boy hid himself in the bam, where 
Aengus was working, who, taking compassion on 
him, helped him so well that he was enabled to go 
through his task to the great satisfaction of his 
master, (97) who, surprized at this change, pressed 
the boy to tell him how it had come to pass, and^ 
although Aengus had cautioned him to be silent, 
compelled him to relate the whole circumstance* 
Moelruan, who had hitherto considered Aengus aes 
an illiterate rustic, flew to the barn and embracing 
him complained of his having so long concealed his 
character, and expressed his deep regret for the 
humble and abject manner, in which he had been 
hitherto treated. Aengus, throwing himself at his 
feet, begged pardon for what he had done. Hence- 
forth he was held by him in the greatest considera- 
tion ; and it is probable that he remained at Tallaght 
until Moelruan's death in 788. He became after- 
wards abbot, apparently, of Clonenagh or of Disert- 
Aengus, or probably of both places, (98) after he had 
returned thither from Tallaght. Aengus was raised 
also to the episcopal rank, without leaving the mo- 
nastery or monasteries, which he governed. (99) He 
died on a Friday, the eleventh of March, but in 
what year is not recorded, (100) and was buried at 

Several works are attributed to this saint. He is 
named as one of the authors of the very copious 
Martyrology of Tallaght, (101) which, it seems^ 
he began to labour at jointly with St. Moelruan after 
he was recognized by him. Whether he finished 
his part of it during Moelruan's life time it is difficult 
to ascertain j but the present text of this martyrology 


shows, that it has been augmented by some later 
writer or writers. Besides its containing the festivals 
of Aengus himself and of Moelrnan, it has those of 
other holy persons down to the close of the ninth 
century. (102) From that large work, as far as it 
went in his time, Aengus is stated to have extracted 
his Festilogium, a small calendar written in Irish 
v^rse, in which he mentions at each day only some 
j^ncipal saints, and which he used for his private 
devotion with regard to them. (103) He composed 
another work on the saints of Ireland, divided into 
five small books ; I . containing the names of 34 5 
bishops, 299 priests ami abbots, and 78 deacons ; 2. 
entitled of Homonymom saints, or saints of the same 
names, by some of which, ex. c. Colman, an ex- 
traordinary number was called; (10^) 3. the Book 
of sons and daughters, giving an account of holy 
persons born of the same parents, &c. 4 ; the 
maternal genealogy of about 210 Irish sai^its ; 5. a 
collection of litanies, in which are invoked groups of 
saints, among whom are included several foreigners 
that died in Ireland. (105) This work is sometimes 
called Saltuirna-rann, that is the Metrical or Mul- 
tipartite Psalter. (106) There is another Saltuir- 
na-rann, a poetical work, written also by Aengus, 
comprizing the history of the Old Testament, which 
he put into the form of prayers and praises to 
God. (107) 

(95) Harris ( Writers at Aengus) says that he was received as a 
lay brother. Colgan indeed, from whom he took his account of 
Aengus, seems to have thought so ; for he represents him as a 
tonversns^ the term by which a lay brother is usually distinguished 
from a clerical one. But, if this was Colgan^s 'meaning, he was 
oertaiidy mistaken ; for the distinction between clerical and lay 
monks or brethren, as it is now understood, was net known in 
Ireland at that period, nor, it seems, any where until the eleventh 
-centufy. (See Reury, DUcours sepHeme snr THist. Ecci. and In^t, 
nu Droit EccL Fart, 1. ch, ^5.) In older times some monks, it is 



trae, were raised more or leas to the clerical rank, and the Rumber 
of such promotions appears to have increased with the course of 
ages ; but there was not as yet any radical distinction of dasses in 
the religious institutions, so as that one of them was perpetually de- 
banJLn any ecde»u»dcal pron>otion, and des^^ toU in 
the fields and elsewhere as subordinate to the other, and, in &ct» 
as servants of the clerical Or higher dass. 

(96) Toland pretends, fNazarenuSy Letter II. sect. S») that the 
surname CeUe^De given to Aengus indicated an office or par- 
ticular sort of profession, and that he was one of that sort 
of clergymen, who have been afterwards called Culdees. But 
Aengus was a monk, whereas the Culdees, as will be seen else- 
where, were the secular canons of cathedrals or collegiate 
churches, such as we call prebendaries. It is a palpable mistake 
to suppose, that they were a monastic order. The title Ceile-De, 
as applied to Aengus, had nothing to do with them, and it ]» 
more than probable, that in his time there was not as yet any such 
institution as that of those so much talked of Culdees. Aengus's 
surname was peculiar to himself, imless it should be supposed that 
all, that is said of his having been a monk, &c. is false. Many 
Irish names began with CeUe, Cele, or, with the corresponding 
word GUla, followed by that of our Saviour or some saint. Thu& 
we find Cele-Christ, Cele- Peter, Gilla- Patrick, &c, i. e. servant of 
Christ, &c 

(97) It is thus, I think, that the anecdote related in Aengus' 
Ads ought to be understood. The boy's improvement is indeed 
stated as miraculous, and as a supernatural consequence of his 
having slept for a while on the bosom of Aengus. But it can be 
well accounted for without recurring to a miracle. 

(98) Another Aengus, who was almost contemporary with this 
saint, and who has led an elegant poem in praise of him, from which 
Colgan derived a great part of his Ads, hints that he was abbot 
at Clonenagh, and also at Disert- Aengus. Colgan observes, that 
his hints are stronger as to the latter place. But the matter can 
be easily settled. As they were near each other, both l3ring in 
the barony of Maryborough, Aengus im'ght have been abbot of 
the two establishments ; and that of Disert-Aengus, which com- 
menced with himself, may be considered as a cell to the old and 
great monastery of Clonenagh. Archdal] (at Clonenagh ODd Disert* 


mosf Disert^Aengus) has inverted the order of the transactions of 
Aengus. After making him found an abbey at Disert- Aengus he 
sends him to Tallaght, where, he says, he died. Now it is clear 
from his jicts^ that he was no more than a simple monk, when he 
removed to Tallaght ; and as to the place of his death, it was not 
Tallaght ; for, aA we find in said ActSy he was buried at Clone- 
nagh. The Aengus, panegyrist of the saint, seems to have been, 
as Colgan justly conjectures, the abbot Aengus, sumamed the 
Wisey of Clonfert-molua, who died in 858 (859). (See HA. 8S. 
p. 582. 

(99) In various Irish calendars he is expressly styled bishop^ 
Considering the Irish practice of promoting eminent abbots, to the 
episcopacy, we need not look for any other see for him than one 
of the above mentioned monasteries. 

(100) There being good reason to tlimk that Aengus survived 
the year 806, Colgan conjectures that the year of his death was 
dther 819, 824, or 830; whereas in each of them the ifth of 
March fell on a Friday. 

( 101 ) See above NoU 47. 

(102) Dr. Ledwich {Antig. &c p. 865) strives to show, that this 
martyrology was first written in the 9th centuiy, because it has the 
names of Moelruan, Aengus and other kiter saints. It is true that, 
considered in its present state, it was not completed until even the 
end of that century ; but does it follow that Aengus and Moelruan 
had no share in drawing it up ? He adds, that in its second pre- 
fiuse it dtes^the martyrology of St. Jerome. Here the Doctor is 
wrong ; for this martyrology is quoted not in any preface to the 
martjHTology of Tallaght, alitis that of Aengus and Moelruan, but 
in the second preface to the FestUogium of Aengus. (See A A. SS. 
p. 581,) He then tells us that the martyrology called of St. Je- 
rome was not known until about the ninth century ; but might 
not eUfout the nitrth century be implied to take in part of the eighth, 
prior to Aengus having been engaged in any of these works ? The 
Doctor says that Launoy has proved, that this martyrology was 
&bricated about the ninth century. Now in the passage, which 
he refers to, Launoy has not even attempted to prove it ; and all 
that he says, is that the martyrology called of St, Jerome cannot 
be proved to have been written by that saint on any authority 
prior to the reign of Charlemagne. But the Doctor cares nothing 


about inacxniracies or misquotatioiiSy provided he could make the 
reader believe^ that martyrologies are not to be dqiended upon. 
Yet Launoy was, in the little he has saidy mistaken ; for the mar* 
tj^ology ascribed to- St. Jerome, or rather to Eusebius and St. 
Jerome, as quoted by Aengus, is mentioned more than once by 
Bede, who lived many years before Charlemagne. Thus he dies 
CL. 2. in Marcum, cap. 26.^/ MatiyroLogtum Eusebii et i/i^ro- 
nj^mi vocabtdis ins^mtttm ; and (Retract, in Act. Ap. cap. 14 
states, ^Ibat Eusebius is said to have been the author, and Jerome 
the translator. (See more in BoUandus' General Preface^ cap. 4*. 
%. \^9ii\ Janwiry). That Eusebius .con^uled a sort of martyrology 
is certain; (f'6- cap* 1. j. S.) and the learned Bollandists Hens- 
chenius and Papebrochius ( Prolog, ad Martyr oL Bed. at Mtirck, 
Tom. 2.) were inclined to think, that it was not only translated, 
but likewise augmented by St. Ja!ome. Be this as it may, it is 
well known that what is now called the Martyrology of St. Jerome 
was not written by him ; but it is supposed to have been or^inally 
compiled not long after his time, and is considered by many very 
learned men to be the oldest extant. D'Acheiy has published it, 
f SpicUeg* Tom. ^.) and in his Monitum states from Heniy Va- 
lois, that it was used by Gregory the great, and existed many 
years earlier* Since those times some names have been added to 
it, suda as that of Gregory himself, which D'Acheiy has marked 
in Italics. Among them is that of St. Patrick, and perhaps the 
Doctor had heard so, on which account he wished to decry its 
antiquity- Mudi more might be said on this subject, weiethis 
the place for doing so. Meanwhile the reader may consult also 
Tillemont. Hist. Eccl. Tom. xii. at St. Jerome^ art. 144. 

(103) Besides the constant tradition of this tract having been 
written by Aengus, and his having presented a copy of it to 
Fothadius in 800, as asserted by the Scholiast on it {A A. SS. p. 
581.) it is to be observed, that in the first preface king Dunncfaad 
is spoken of as not long dead at the time the au^uf was writing or 
had finished it. Dunnchad died in 797. 

(104) AA. SS. ib. «id Preface. 

(105) Colgan (t^. p. 539) gives a specimen of these htanies, m 
which Aengus invokes Roman, Italian, Gallk, Brit»h, English, 
and even Egyptian saints, whose remains he represented as in 
Ireland, specifying the veiy places. 


(106) Under this title Colgan says (t6« 'p. 682.) that it appeaii^ 
in some old Irish MSS. and that he got a part with the iop 
Bcription, yrom Saltuir^nU'rann composed by Aengus Cele^De* 
He observes that the latest saint mentioned in it is St. Tigeniachy 
son of St. Mella, and founder of Doire-melle, (see Chap. xix. §. 
13.) who died abbot of Kill-achad, in the now county of Cavan, 
on the 4th of November, A. D. 805 (806). (See A A. SS. p. 796. 
and Archdall at KiUachad.) This is a strong proof of the asser- 
tion that Aengus was the author of this work. 

(107) Colgan, A A. SS. p. 582. Harris C Writers at Aengus) 
says that some ascribe to Aengus a PsaUer-na-'ranfi^ a miscellany 
on Irish a&irs. Aengus ivrote no such work, and his only Pscd^ 
ier^ or Saltuir'na'rann were those above mentioned. Harris got 
his information either from Toland, or from some one who took it 
from him. In his Nazarenus (Letter ii. sect, S.) Toland says that 
Aengus wrote a chronicle^ entitled PsaUer-na-^ann. This is a lie 
invented by that impious writer, who did not wish to let it be 
known, that Aengus was chiefly employed in treating of saints, 
and that he used to invoke them. And {ib» Chap. ii. §. 8.) he tells 
a still more monstrous lie, viz. that the Irish used not to pray to 
saints. Now there is nothing more dear in our ecclesiastical his* 
tory than that the ancient Irish were in the habit of invoking them. 
Dungal, a most learned Irishman of these times, defends this 
practice against Claudius, as will be seen lower down. Brc^gan, 
who in the seventh century wrote a life of St. Brigid in Irish verse, 
(see Not. 18. to Chap, viii*) often invokes her in the course of it 
concluding with these words ; '' There are two holy viigins in 
heaven, who may undertake my protection, Mary and St. Brigid, 
on "whose patronage let each of us depend.'* See also, to omit 
many other proofs, Adamnan, Vit. S. Col. L. 2. c. 45. Theprac* 
tice was so general in Ireland, and so well known to learned men, 
who have dipped into our history, that Usher in his Discourse on 
the Religion of the ancient Irish, found it expedient not to touch 
on the invocation of saints. 

( 108) Ware, Bishops at Armagh. He took this date from the 
4 Masters, [ap. Tr. Th. p. 294.) who have A. 806, -L e. 807. 
making no mention of thejburte&n years, during which Conmach 
held the see according to the catalogue of the Psalter c£ Cashel. 
(Above §* 6.) Ware's reason for omitting these yeais must have 


been his inability to reconcile the date 807 for his death with that 
of 791 for the death of Cudiniscus, whereas between them there 
were sixteen yean. And indeed I do not know how th^ can be 

§• XI. Conmach, archbishop of Armagh, died 
suddenly in, it is said, the year 807» (108) and 
was succeeded by Forbach, son of one Gorman, and 
a scribe and lecturer of Armagh. He was a native 
of Kinel-Torjj'ach, or HuaKellach in the territory 
of the Bregenses, an eastern part of Meath, and held 
the see only one year. (109) His successor was Nuad, 
(110) called of Loch-tuima^ (a lake in some part 
of Breffny) either from his having been bom near it, 
or from his having led the life of an anchoret in its 
neighbourhood. (Ill) He afterwards presided over 
a monastery until he was raised in 808 to the see of 
Armagh, which he governed for somewhat more 
than three years, until his death on the 19th of 
February, A. D. 812. (112) Not long before, viz. 
in 811, he made a visitation of some part of Con- 
naught, and on that occasion relieved some churches 
there from an annual offering, which used to be 
made to that of Armagh. (113) Next after him we 
find Flangus, son of Longsech, to whom thirteen 
years are assigned, and who died in 8@6. (1 14) Bressal 
abbot of Hy, who died in 797> X^^S) was succeeded 
by Conmach, a. man of great learning, whose death 
is assigned to the following year (116) The next 
abbot was Kellach, son of Congal, who lived until 
811. (117) He was, in all probability, the founder 
of the church and monastery of Kells in the year 
807» (118) after the dreadful havock caused in Hy 
by the Danes in 806. (119) His successor Diermit 
carried off the shrine and remains of St. Columba to 
the mainland of North Britain in 817} lest it should 
fall into the hands of thos6 pirates. (ISO) The time 
of Diermit's death is not recorded ; but he was still 
abbot of Hy, when St. Blaithmaic was killed there 


by the Danes in the year 824. This saint was a na- 
tive of Ireland and heir to a principality; (Idl) 
but in opposition to his father and others, among 
whom are mentioned a bishop and some abbots, 
he withdrew from the world, and became a 
monk and afterwards an abbot. Blaithmaic had an 
ardent desire to visit some foreign parts ; but was 

{>revented by his friends and companions from 
eaving Ireland. At length he passed over to Hy, 
where he was not long when a party of Danes ap» 
proached the island. As he was anxious to receive 
the crown of martyrdom, he determined to remain 
there, whatever might come to pass, and by his 
example induced some others to stay along with 
him, advising those, who did not wish to encounter 
the impending danger, to make their escape. While 
celebrating mass, attended by his intrepid compa- 
nions, the Danes rushed into the church, and, hav- 
ing slaughtered the bystanders, came up to him and 
asked for the precious metals, within which were 
contained the holy remains of St. Columba. These, 
having been brought back from North Britain, had 
been concealed under ground ; but Blaithmaic did 
not know in what particular spot. Accordingly he 
answered, that he did not know where they were, 
adding that, if he did, he would not point them 
out to 'the Danes. They then put him to death on 
the 19th of January, A. D« 824. (1S2) 

(109) On this point the 4 Masters agree with the Cashel cata- 
logue. Colgan says, (Tr/ Tk. p, 294) that his memory was re- 
vered on the 16th of July, that is, the anniversary of his death. 
(See A A. SS. p. S7S.) 

(110) Ware and Harris (Bishops at Armagh) call Nuad s(m of 
Segen. This is a mistake founded on a cursory reading of the 
Acts of Nuad of Armagh ap. AA. SS. 19 Febr. Colgan hi^pens 
to mention among other Nuads, one who was son of Segen, and 
who was killed by the Danes iti 844, and observes, what Wareiias 


atinoig^y ov«:iopk6d,. that he must not be oonfounded with die 
afdibish^p^ who died manj years eariier* 

(111) Nuad^s ActSf cap. 2. CcAgin observes that the lough or 
lake Uamoj r. e. the lake of the cave, is in Western Brtefiby or 
O'Roinke's country, the now cbunty of Leitrim, and that it some*- 
times flows back into the cave, whence it issues- 

(112) Acts^ cap, 5. The catalogue fiom the Psalter of Cashd 
allows tlscee years for the incumbency of Nuad ; but these must be 
understood with the addition of som^ months^ reckoning from, as 
Colgan (ib.) observes, the death of Torbach on the 16th of July, 
A. 807 (808) to 19Februaiy A, 811 (812). 

(lis) The dategivoi by the 4 Masters for Nuad'd journey to 
Gonnaught is 810, that is, 811. Yet Ware and Harris have, 
without any motive, reCained 810. The English translator of Ware 
has spoiled hi&text by misf^cing the date, 810, and makkig him 
appear as stating that Nuad's incumbency b^an in- said year. 

(114) The 13 years for flangus, alias Mac-Longsech, are 
nunked in the Cashel catalogue j ( Jr. Th. p. 292) and liie 4 Mlis- 
ten.(ib.p> 294<) place his death in 825 (826), which agrees well 
enough with the catalogue, if we suppose that some delay occurred 
between the death of Nuad and the accession of Flangos. But 
Aey i^peak (ib,) of Artrigius, as bishop of Armagh in 822 (&2l&). 
This has puzzled Ware aild Harris ; for how could Flangus hav^ 
governed for IS years, if Artrigius was the bishop m 823? And 
ftntt the manner m uliich these prelates are placed by the 4 Mar- 
ten,, it would seem as if, accor^g to diem, Artrigius were bisln^ 
before Elangus, althot^h they assign his death to 8SS^» 0*FIiEiherty 
(MS. not. ad Tr. Th. p. 294.)' says ttiat Artrigius was perhaps 
coadjutor bishop in 82S to Flangus, who, he maintains, lived until 

(11 5) Above §. 6. Colgan says (T/. Tk.p. 500.) that he was 
eonnnemorated either on 18 May or 30 September. 

(116) Tr. Th. ib. It has A. 797, t. e. 798. Conmach's name 
\t &t th€^ Martyrol. Tamlact. at 10 May. 

(my JB. Its date is 810 (811). KeDach's memory was re- 

vened'on' l9le Ist of AprS. 

, {MS^ See Nat. IW. to Chap. xi. (119) Above, $. 8. 
(120)^ Tt. Th. p. 500. The 4 MagUa^ date-b 6t6 (8lt.) 
(121) The Acts of St. Blaithmaic, written in verse by his con* 


tanponuy Walafrid Strabo, may be seen in Golgan's A A. S& at 
19 JantMry. Walafrid says, '< Strabus ego, misit quem tena 
Alemannica natu— -Scribere disposui de vita et fine beat!—- 
Bkuthmaic, genuit quem dives Hiberaia mundo,'* &c And al- 
luding to his birth, he writes ; '< Regali de sttrpe satus, summuni- 
que deoorem— Nobilitatis habensy florebat regius heres — ^Iste Dei 
sanctus, vitam duoendo pudicam/' In the Irish annals and ca- 
lendars his iathar is called Flann ; but it is not stated what princi- 
pality he had. Colgan conjectures thathe wasoneof the Southern 
Niellsy princes of Meath, because the names Flann and Blaitkmak 
were rather conmion in that &mily. Walafirid gives the epithet 
rkh to Ireland, and so it must have been at that time, as appears 
from the various attadcs made upon it by the Scandinavians. This 
has been noticed by Simon, Eaay an Irish coins, p. 2. where he 
observes that mcmey was the object sought for by the Ostmen and 
Nordmen, and that they used to enter into piratical partnerships 
for the purpose (^acquiring it. 

(122) Hie Irish annals agree iif assigning his marfyrdom to 82$ 
(824). Colgan observes that his name is maiked in some Irish 
calendars at 24 July, probably as the day of a translation of his^re- 
mains. Mabfllon was mistaken (AnnaL &c* at A* 79S) in affixing 
his death to idkmt said year, and m calling him abbot of Hy. He 
did not consult Cdgan's AA. SS. 

§• XII. To. these times are assigned the deaths of 
some holy and distinguished persons in Ireland, es, c. 
St. Finnia, idbbess of Kildare in SOI ; St. Blatmac 
Hua, Muirgeavair, abbot of Durrogh, in 808 ; Taa<* 
thaly a scribe or lecturer of Clonmacnois, in 811 ; 
Joseph, a scribe of Roscommon, 808; St. Ar« 
bertact abbot of Kildare m 817; 8Ad Mui^edoe, 
likewise abbot thepe, in 821. (125) Muredoe vms 
sueceeded by ^dulius,, who waa, in tdl probabi- 
Iity» tbe author of the Commentaries on the Epiatleis 
of St. Paul, which are universally allowed to bave 
been written by an Irishman of that name. (Ii34) 
Seme other works, under the name of Sedtdias^ we£e 
probably written also by him. (125) He is ctfUed 
the soa of Feradach^ and mast not be eotifeunded 
with Sedulius, abbot and bishop of Roscommon, who 


died in 814, (126) whereas the son of Feradach, 
abbot of Kildare, lived until 829. (127) 

Contemporary with this Sedulius was Dungal, one 
of the most learned men of his times, an excellent 
theologian, poet, and scholar. That he was a Scot, 
is now admitted by all critics, and that he was an 
Irish one will appear from what follows. (128) We 
find him in France ^. D. 8ll, in which year he 
wrote his Epistle to Charlemagne on the two solar 
eclipses of 810. He seems to have been then living 
in tne monastery of St. Denis, as a recluse. (129) 
But he did not long remain a recluse ; for he is re- 
presented as an eminent teacher, instructing persons 
of different ages and capacities. ( 1 SO) There is a 
very neat poemi in praise of Charlemagne, while still 
alive, the author of which calls himself an Irish exile, 
and is supposed to have been Dungal. (131) Af- 
terwards he went to Italy, where he was. appointed 
teacher at Favia of students from Milan, Brescia, 
Lodi, Bergamo, Novara, Vercelli, Tortona, Acquis 
Genoa, Asti, and Como by Lotharius the first, in, 
it seems, 82S, the year in which this prince, having 
been already associated in the government of the 
empire with his father Lewis, was in Italy enacting 
laws, and crowned emperor at Rome. (132) 

(123) Ind. Chron. ad. Tr. Th. I have added a year to each 
of Colgan's dates. 

(124) Of these Commentaries, which are in the Bibliotheca 
Patruniy {LyonSy A. 1677* Tom. 6.) I have had occasion to 
treat already^ Chap, 1. §. 8. Tliat the author was the Sedufius of 
Kildare seems unq^esdonaUe, particularly ashe was living in 818, 
at which year, as marked by Hepidanus the monk of St. Gall, a 
Sedulius ScoUus (or Irishman) was greatly distinguished. (See i6 
Nat. 68.) 

(125) One of these works is the CoUectaneum Sedulii in Md^ 
ihaewn ex diverm Patribus excerptum; two Grammatical books, 
attributed to Sedulius by Trithemius, one in majus volumen I^ris^- 
cianif and another in secundam ediHonem Donati; besides a tract 


entitled SeduUi Commentartolus in artem Eutj/chii. (See Usher, 
p. 780.) Ware ( Writers at Sedulius the younger) attributes these 
tracts rather to Sedulius, who was a bishop in Britain of Scottish 
descent {de genere Scottorum) and attended at a synod of Rome 
in the year 721. For this supposition he had no authority what- 
soever, eitc^t such as that of the liars Bale and Dempster ; ^d 
nothing further is known of that bishop, than what I have now 
mentioned. He might as well have ascribed them to any one of 
six or seven other Seduliuses, who lived in Ireland in the eighth 
and ninth centuries. (See A A, SS. p. 315.) But as we find a 
Sedulius, whose reputation for learning was great in 818, why not 
suppose that he was the authw of them rather than one, of whose 
learning we have no account. 

(126) See AA. SS. ib. Tlie 4 Masters* date is 813. (814). 

(127) lb. and Tr. Th.p. 629. I have clianged the date 828 
into 829. 

(128) Mabillon ( AnnaL Ben, ad A. 827.) says that Dungal was 
perhaps a Scoltus, that is, an Irishman, as his meaning is ex- 
plained by the Benedictine authors of the Hlstoire Litteraire, 
{Tom. 4. atDtcn^a/) who observes that in those times Ireland sent 
many great men to France. The very name Dungaly which was 
very common in Ireland, would alone be sufficient to show, that 
he was a native of it. 

(129) Muratori thought, (Jntiq. ltd. Tom. in. Diss. 43.) that 
Dungal was in Italy when he wrote \t* He founds his aigument 
on Dungals words << in ista terra, in qua nunc, Deo donante, 
Franci dominantur,*' as if they were applicable to Lombardy, 
which then belonged to Charlemagne. But they answer equally 
well for France, and from other circumstances, such as Charle- 
magne having applied to the abbot of St. Denis to get Dungal to 
write that tract, it is sufficient^ dear that he was still in France. 
It has been published by D'Achory, Spicdeg. Tom. 10. 

(ISO) Martene has published {CoUect Ampliss. Sfc.) Tom. vi. 
col. 811. seqq.) v^ous poems written at that period, among 
which is one in praise of Dungal, vulgarly called his Epitaph, 
although written while he was alive and vigorous. In it we read ; 
«< Scriptiu^ piomit casto de pectore sacras— Edocet infirmos et 
validos pariter-^Lacie rigans pueros, et dat capientibus escam — 



Hinc lac ut capiaHt,. mde dbum pariter, &c. Then comes a prayer 
fbr Dungal'8 long life and eternal happiness. * 

(191) The author says'; <' HosCarok) regi versus HUernicus 
emvil/* &c. Thin poem is- the fi#9t in the collection Just men* 
tioned, and is attributed to Dungal by the audiors of ihe His- 
toire LiHerairti who praise 41* as one^f the bestT'of those tiinesy 
a)id thkik that he composed also some of tlie smaller pieces in 
that collection. . . .. 

(iS2) Muratori has published {Rer. Ital. Script Tom. i. Pari. 
2. p. 152.) a Capitular of Lothariuff, entkled, de Docfrinay part 
of which is as follows ;. *' Primum in Papia conveniaiit ad Dun- 
gaHum de M ediolanb de Brixia, de Laiide, de Bergamo, de No- 
varia, de Vercellis, de Derthona, de Aquis, de Grenua, de Haste, 
de Duma. Muratori (ih. and Antiq, Ital. Tom. iii. Dissert. 4S.) 
assigns this capitular to i4. D. 823, in which year it is known 
that Lotharius issued some edicts at Cortelona, a place about ten 
miles from Paria, Yet elsewhere {Amtali d* Italia at A. 829.) he 
s^ms to doubt whether that was the ^precise year of said capitu- 
lar. But I find no snfiicient reason for calling ih question his 
former opinion ; and from the time, in which Dungal wrote 
against Claudius, it may be fairly conduded that Dungal was at 
Pavia in 823. He then observes, that Dungal^ who was settled 
at Pavia, was in all appearance the same as the writer Dangal» 
who is mentioned by Bellarmine, Dupin, Cave, iuid others, and 
who had been in the monastery of St. Denis, ' Yet he doubts of 
of his haying been the Dungal, whom Mabillon suspected to be 
a recluse, and thinks there m^ht have beeii two DungaUs, one a 
recluse, and the other a teacher and writer. This difficulty is easily 
settled ; for, although Dungal might ^ave been a recluse when he 
wrote on the eclipses, it does not follow that he continued as 
such during the remainder of his Hfe; nor is there any necessity 
whatsoever for the hypothesis of the 'two 'Dungals. If Mabillon 
had known that Dungal removed to Italy, he would have been 
more exact In his account of him ; but this was first Unnounced to 
the literary world by Muratori. 

§. xiif. Dungal was for some y^ars in Italy when 
he set about writing his work against Ciaudius, a 
Spaniard and disciple of Felix of Urgel, and whom 


Lewis the pious had made bishop of Turin. Clau- 
dius, who had enjoyed a great reputation, destroyed 
or removed, soon after his accession to that see all 
the images and crosses, which he found in the 
churches of his diocese. Being blamed by his 
friend the abbot Theodimir for this precipitate pro- 
ceeding, he wrote a treatise under the title of Apo- 
logy against Thcodimh\ in which he inveighed 
against any veneration whatsoever of images or the 
cross, and against the invocation of saints and the 
celebration of their festivals. (1*:J3) Dungal had 
for a considerable time often complained of the 
proceedings and principles of Claudius ; but finding 
the people of the country where he then lived, that 
is the North of Italy, divided, some for, some 
against Claudius, he tliought it adviseable to publish 
a work in refutation of his doctrines, which he en- 
titled Responsa contra pei^-ei^sas Claudii TurO' 
^lensis episcopi sententias. ( 1 34) It is usually sup- 
posed that he wrote it in 827, a date which I do not 
find any sufficient reason for controverting. (1S5) 
In it he states that it had been agreed upon in a 
conference held in the imperial palace, that nobody 
should be such a fool as to pay divine honour to 
angels, saints, or their images ; but that, however, 
images should nAt be broken, defaced, or destroyed ;. 
and that the rules laid down by Gregory the great 
in his letter to Serenus should be observed. He then 
shows from many ancient authorities, particularly 
the poems of St. Paulinus of Nola, that images 
were always used in the Church. He maintains 
that Claudius, by denying that saints ought to be 
honoured, has renewed the errors of Eunomius and 
Vigilantius. Then coming to the veneration of the 
cross, he says that Christians, imitating the Apostle, 
place their glory in it ; that our Saviour did not 
intend that his passion should be concealed from the 
faithful as ignominious, but that the remembrance 
6f it should be constantly cherished j and proves, 

s 2 


from many authorities, that at all times of the 
Church the cross has been honoured. As to the 
invocation of saints, on which he observes that, " if 
" the Apostles and Martyrs, while in this world, 
** could pray for others, how much more so cJin 
" tliey do it after their crowns, victories, and 
" triumphs" ? he opposes to Claudius several pas- 
sages of the fathers according to. his usual method, 
which is, instead of much reasoning, to allege the 
tradition and constant practice of the Church. He 
concludes with saying that holy pictures, the cross, 
and the reliques of saints, ought to be revered with 
the honour suitable to them, without sacrificing to 
them or offering them the worship, which is^ due to 
God alone ; and asserts that Claudius, by rejecting 
the cross, declares himself an enemy of the passion 
and the incarnation. Accordingly, he adds, the 
Jews praise him and call him the wisest of the 
Christians, and he passes great encomiums on them 
as also on the Saracens. How, says Dungal, can a 
bishop, who abhors the cross of Jesus Christ, per- 
form the ecclesiastical functions, baptize, bless the 
holy chrism, impose hands, give certain benedictions, 
or celebrate mass ? For, as St. Augustin observes, 
none of these functions can be duly exercised 
without making the sign of the cross. He then 
makes some remarks on Claudius not allowing the 
commemoration of saints in the litanies and other 
offices of the Church, nor the celebration of their 
festivals ; his prohibiting the lighting of tapers by 
day in the churches, and the turning of one's eyes 
towards the ground in prayer ; his being guilty of 
several other impieties, which he would shudder to 
mention, although he was informed of them by 
persons worthy of credit ; ( 1 36) and his refusing to 
attend at a council of bishops. 

(133) See Reuiy, Hist. Eccl Z. 47. §. 20. 

(134) This work is in the Bihlioth, Pair, of Lyons, A, 1677. 



Tom. XIV, That it waps written iit lialj is evident from the Preface 
ex. c. his saying that from the very time he had come to the 
country, in which he was writing, l\^ had opposed Claudius ; 
Jamdudum ex quo in kanc terrani advenerinty occaeio mthi co- 
" piosa hac de re reclamandi occurrk" That country could not 
be France, where Dimgal had been several years before Claudius 
attacked the images, &c. Then his observing that the people of 
the country (regio) in which he was, were divided on those pednts, 
shows that he was then living not far from Turin^ and assuredly 
not at Paris, or in its neighbourhood, where the people at large 
did not trouble themselves about Claudius' opinions. Mabillon 
not being acquainted with DungaFs removal to Italy, was therefore 
mistaken in supposing that he composed this woA in Paris ; and 
Muratori was right (locc. citt.) in stating it as his opinion, that it 
was written in Italy, and apparently at Pavia. It is added tliat 
Tiraboschi {Storia Litteraria, &c. Tom. in. L. 3. cap. 1.) conjec- 
tured, that Dungal wrote it before he went to Italy. One would 
imagine that he wished to appear as understanding these subjecU 
better than Muratori ! 

(135) See Mabaion, ^wwaZ. &c. ad ^. 827. and Fleury, Hist. 
&c. L. 47. J. 21. It was certainly written, prior to 830 ; for 
Dungal, speaking in round numbers, mentions the year 820 as 
already elapsed. 

(136) It is probable that Dungal alluded to the Arian doc- 
trines, which, as was afterwards discovered, were held by Clau- 
dius. See Fleury, L. 4?8. §. 7. 

§. XIV. This treatise is very well written, and 
shows that Dungal was deeply versed in theological 
studies and in polite literature, including a great 
knowledge of the Christian poets. (137) He had a 
valuable and large collection of books, as appears 
from the catalogue of those, which he bequeathed to 
the monastery of Bobio. (1 38) It is probable th|it he 
spent the last part of his life in that monastery ; (139) 
but at what time he died I cannot discover. ( 1 40) 
Dungal is usually called a deacon, although he does 
not assume that title in any of his works. As to the 
part of Ireland, of which he was a native, no ac- 



count remains ; but it is somewhat probable that he 
belonged to the community of Bangor, and that he 
left Ireland in consequence of that place being ter- 
ribly infested by the Danes. (141) 

Claudius, the bishop of Turin, against wliom 
Dungal wrote, is supposed by several very learned 
men to have been the same as the author of some 
commentaries on various parts of the holy Scriptures, 
whom others represent as an Irishman and quite dis- 
tinct from the bishop, who was a Spaniard. ( 1 42) 
, As the former opinion seems to me far better 
founded than the latter, which, I believe, originated 
chiefly in a Clkudius having been confounded with 
the Irishman Clemens; (143) and as Claudius of 
Turin had applied particularly to the study and ex- 
planation of the Scriptures, (144) I cannot but con- 
clude that there was at that time only one learned 
Claudius in France, and that he was the author of 
those commentaries, and the person who was after- 
wards raised to the see of Turin. (145) 

In those times there lived in Ireland a learned 
man, named Gildas, who is said to have been born 
in Wales, and the son of an Irish Scot. It is added 
that he studied in Ireland, (146) and some Writers 
state that he was a monk of Bangor in Down. (147) 
He has left a work entitled De ComputOy which he 
addressed to the celebrated Raban of Fulda, before 
he became abbot of this monastery, and consequently 
prior to A. D. 822. (14S) Other tracts have been 
attributed to him, but some of them certainly, and 
all of them probably, without foundation. (149) 

(137) Muratori in his note on Dungal, (Rer.Ital. SiC) above 
referred to, says ; " Caeterum liber ille Dungali hominem erudi- 
tum sacrisque etiam litteris omatum prodit, at simul in gramtnati- 
cali foro ac Prisciani deliciis enutritum, ut legenti constabit." 

(138) This catalogue has been published by Muratori, {Antiq. 
ItaL Tom, iii. Dissert. 43.) and to it is prefixed a note stating 
that they are the books, qtios Dungalus praecipuus Scottorum ob^ 


OF IRELAND. ^; ' 264. 

iulU htatissimo Columbano. They are ttow^ .at least, in great 
part, in the Ambrostan library of Mtian, whiUwif tibqr were re- 
moved by Cardinal Frederic* Borromed. AiAoc^ them were 
three Antiphonaried> one of which wa&perhi^the Antifplumariwrn 
Benehorensey or of Bangor in Ireland^ conc^mhig idiich see Chap. 
II. §. 8. and also Dungafswork against Claudius. ' ' 

(139) Miiratori (ib») mentions a MS. of th^ Ambro^ian library, 
in which are these. lines ; 

** Sancla Columba tibi Scotto tuus mco^s Bungal 
Traditit hunc librum, quo fratrum corda beentur : 
Qui legis ei^o, Deus prctiam sit muneris, ora." 

Dungal here calls Columbantis Columba, which was in fact his 
real name, (See Not. I. to Chap* xiii.) and a Scot, that is an 
Irishman ;. for every one knows that St. Columbanus of Bobio was 
a native of Ireland. From his styling himself an incola of this 
saint, Muratori thought that he had lived for some time in his mo- 
' nastery, which, according to a usual manner of speaking, he de^ 
signated by the name of the founder. It is indeed very probable, 
that Dungal retired to it in the latter part of his life, and ended 
his days there, which seems to be confirmed by his having left so 
many books to it. Yet incola may be understood of his having 
been only an occasional resident. Could it mean countrtftnan or 
compatriot ? His adding Scotto to tlie saint's name seems to point 
out something of that kind. 

( 1 40) I find his death marked at A. 83 1 in Herault's Abrege 
ChronoL at the reign of Lewis the pious. This means, at most, 
that he was still alive in that year, and rests on no foundation ex^- 
cept a conjecture of Mabillon, that the recluse, to whom * Ebbo, 
archbishop of Rheims repaired on the restoration of Lewis in 
said year, was perhaps Dungal. But Dungal had left France 
many years, prior to that date, 

(141) If it could be proved, that the A^ntiphonarium Beu" 
ckorense was, as Muratori supposed, (See Not. 31 to Chap, n.) 
presented to the monastery of Bobio by Dungal, it might be in- 
ferred that he had been a member of the house of Bangor, 
which, together with its neighbourhood, was at the time of 
his leaving Ireland greatly infested by the Danes. Dungal ap- 
pears to have been an involuntary absentee from his country; 


for he calls hansdf an Irish exile. To condude our account of 
him, I shall add a few words concerning some mistakes of Tira- 
bosdii (loc, cit. Not. 134*). He strives to distinguish two Dun- 
gals, one who remained in France and who wrote on the eclipse, 
and was author of the poems (see NoL 130) ; the other, who was 
stationed at Pavia, wrote against Claudius, and lefl books to 
Bobio. The former, he says, was an Irishman, the Hibemicus 
lexsul ; the other a Scotchman, because Dungal, that gave the 
books, is called a Scottus, Then Tiraboschi alleges this learned 
argument, viz. that the same man could not be called a Hi- 
bernian exile and Scot, << because Ireland and Scotland could 
not be called one kingdom, and because Great Britain .was then 
divided into many small kingdoms, and accordingly the inha< 
bitants of Ireland and Scotland could not be called promiscuously 
Irish and Scotch." The ignorance of the history of our islands 
displayed in this passage is astonishing. What had the division 
of Great Britain into many small kingdoms to do with Ireland, 
which never did or could form a part of it? And Tiraboschi, a 
man who lived in our own days, did not know, what he might have 
met with in hundreds of writers, that Ireland was known by two 
names, Hibernia and Scotia, just as France was by Gallia and 
Francia, and that the modern Scotland did not get the name of 
Scotia until a period long subsequent to the times of Dungal. 
The natives of Ireland were constantly called Scotti, and scarcely 
ever Hiberni, at least in the times we are now treating of. We 
find, however, an Irish Scot, now and then named with the ad- 
dition* of de Hibernia or Hibemicus y as ex. c. Dungal himself. 
From the veiy lines Tiraboschi read in Muratori (se^ Not. 139) 
he might have discovered that Irishmen were called ScotH ; for 
St. Columbanus appears there as a Sgottus. 

(14*2) Usher has published (£p. Hib, SyU. Num. 19 and 20,) 
two fragments from Claudius' preface, written about A.D.SIS, 
to his commentary on St. Matthew, and addressed to tlie abbot 
Justus ; and from his preface to his commentary on the Epistle to 
the Galatians in the form of a letter to the abbot Drueterann. 
There is nothing in either of them to show that this Claudius was 
an Irishman, except a head prefixed to the former in these words ; 
" Claudii Scoti presbyteri ad Justura abbatera." But Scoti was 
in all probability added by some one, who thought, as some old 


writers did, that this Claudius was an Irishman ; and such was 
particularly the opinion of those, who confouaded him with Cle« 
mens. (See above Not. 20.) Mabillon, quoting ( i4nna/. Ben* ad 
A. SIS) part of said prefiu:e or letter to Justus, has not ScoHy 
but Claudius peccator. Ware and Harris ( Writers at Claudius or 
Claude) fdlowed Usher as to this Claudius having been a native 
of Irelakid ; and Colgan (A A. SS. p, 703.) mamtains the same 
opinion. If he was, he cannot be confounded with Claudius of 
Turin, who, as sf^ars from the work of Jonas, bishop of Orleans, 
written against him, and as is universally acknowledged, was un- 
doubtedly a Spaniard. Labbe undertook {Dissert, in BeUarmin. 
Sfc. De Scriptar. Sfc. Tom, 1.) to show that the author of the com* 
mentaries and prefaces was much more probably Claudius of Turin 
than an Irishman, and has been followed by the editors of the 
Biblioth. Patrum^ (Tom. xiv. A* 1677*) in a note prefixed to their 
publication of the Commentary to the Epistle to the Galatians. 
Mabillon (ib,) lays it down as certain, and, besides many others, 
so does Fleuiy, Hist. EccL L. 48. f. 7* 

(14S] To what has been ^d already (^Not. 20.) concerning this 
concision I shall only add, that the Spaniard Claudius, who after- 
wards became bishop of Turin, had taught in the same place with 
Clemens. His department was to explain the Scriptures, while 
Clemens lectured on the Belles Lettres. (See Fleury, Hist. Sfc. 
L. 45. $. 18.) As their names were accordingly often associated, 
it h no wonder that some one mistook them as one and the same 

(144) Besides what has been now observed of Claudius' biblical 
pursuits, we have also the authority of Jonas of Orleans, who says 
that he was endowed with some scriptural knowledge, ^' in expla" 
nandis Sacrorum Evajigeliorum lectionibus quantulacumgue no- 

(145) Colgan {A A. SS. p. 70S.) adduces a veiy unchronolo- 
gical argument to show that Claudius of Turin was different from 
the commentator. He says that he lived after the reign of Lewis 
the pious, during which the commentator flourished. Now the s 
fact is that he died before that sovereign. (Fleiuy, L. 48. §. 7«) 
It is true that Jonas of Orleans did not publish his work against 
him until some short time after the death of Lewis, and a still 
longer one after that of Claudius. Jonas himself died in 843. 


(146) See Usher, £p. Hib. S^. Not. ad £p. 21. Ware md 
Hanrisi Writer Sj Book n.x^ 1« '. 

(147) See Colgan, ilk^. S5.79.20i. 

(148) Uaher {ib. nun^^Y.) hb»{>iihlbhed fnun lheMS..fai tbie 
Cottonian KheBiyi ecindisting t>f 99 chapters, the preface to it» 
which has beo^ jocpufainhedby Colgaii, (ih. p. 202.) Its addresar 
is, <^ Dilecto .fiatri R^hsa^-^fnalhacAo'Q'Mas p^ccator in Christo 

(149) See Cdgan, Ware, iaadt HMr; hecr, cifU ■ ■ 

§ XV. Indrect, bishop of Kilmacdluach, died in 
815. (150) He riiusttidt be confounded with St. 
Indrect, who is said to have been the son of an Irish 
king, and to*havebeen' killed aboiit a hundred years 
prior to these times, together with his sister Domi- 
nica and some Irish* companions, not far from Glas<» 
tonburjr by some West-Saxons robbers. (151) Eocha, 
son of Tuathal, anehoret, bishop, and abbot of 
Loutfa, diedvin S2I^ and in ' 824 Ciiana, surnamed 
the mse^ wh^^asafeof W^Op there. ( i 52) To 825 is 
assigned the death of RiUmeU wlio is called prince 
and bishop of ^Gloiift^rt,^' a^ likewise of Flan Mac-' 
Famchellaie iiishop of Einly. (153) Cormac, son of 
Suibhne, abbot, of Clonard and a writer and bishop, 
died ia 829, (154) afe did Tuadear, bisiiop of KiK 
dare, in 833, {155) 

Flangus MacwLonsecfa, archbishop of Armagh, 
lived, as we have seen, until 926. It is probable that 
he was assisted during part of his* administration by 
Artrigius as his coadjutor bishop. (15&) For we find 
this Artrigius acting as bishop for that see in the 
year 823, in -which, as related in the ^ Irish Annals, 
" the law of St. Patrick was propagated through- 
out Munster by Feidhlim, son of Critothan, kin^ 
of Munster, and Artrigius, bishop of Armagh.** 
(157) This wa$ an archtepiscopal visitation of that 
province, in which the metropolitical rights of the 
Bee of Armagh) which at that time were extended 
all x)ver Ireland, were enforced, after having been 


probably disregarded for some time, owing perhaps 
to the contentions which had prevailed concerning 
the right to the possessions of said see. (158) The 
law of St, Patrick comprized also certain dues, that 
used to be paid to the church of Armagh as the 
chair of our Apostle, and which had been established 
in earlier times; (159) and hence we understand 
why it was necessary for the king Feidhlim to inter- 
fere on this occasion. Two years later, in 825, Ar- 
trigius went to Connaught, and enforced the said 
law throughout its three parts or territories. (16o) 
He is placed as successor to Flangus for two years, 
after which Eugene, surnamed Monaster^ (perhaps 
from having been abbot of the irionastery of Ar- 
magh) is stated to have held the see of Armagh for 
eight years. (l6l) ^\xt it appears very probable, 
that the incumbencies of Artrigius and Eugene, 
united together, lasted only eight years, during two 
of which Artrigius seized upon the see, after which 
he was put ouf to make way for the legitimate bi- 
shop Eugene. (162) Artrigius, having lost the see, 
lived until 833 ; and Eugene died in 834; (163) 
in which year Farannan became archbishop, and go- 
verned Armagh for fourteen years, without being 
disturbed by a competitor, until he was expelled in 
848 by Turgesius. (164) During these times some 
other distinguished ecclesiastics died in Ireland, 
among whom, as scarcely any thing is known con- 
cerning them except their names, I need mention 
only two, Aldan Hua Condumha, ascribe or learned 
man of 'Durrogh (King's county) in 828 ; and Ka- 
thernac, a scribe, priest, and wise man of Armagh in 
830. (165) 

(150) AA. SS. p. 254, and Ware, Bishops at KUmacduach. 
Their date is 814, i. e. 815. 

(151) Colgan (»6.) treats of these saints after Capgrave and 
others. Their history, is rather involved and beset with chrono- 
logical difficulties. 


( 152) 4 Masters ap. A A. SS. p. 796. I have added a year to 
their dates. 

( 153) Ware, Bishops at Clonfert and Endy. 

(154) 4 Masters, ap. A A. SS. p. 360. They have A. 82f8 (829.) 

(155) Ware, Bishops at Kildare, 

(156) See above Nat. 114. 

(157) 4 Masters, ap. Tr. Th. p. 294. Their date is 822 

(158) It is odd, that Usher has been represented by some 
writers, among others Colgan (ib.) and Harris, (Bishops at Ar^ 
trigius) as understanding the Um of Si. Patrick as a Monastic rule. 
Usher says no such thing. He mentions (p. 919} a rule not a 
law of St. Patrick, and then happens to speak of other rtiies (Mo- 
nastic) such as that of St. Brendan, concerning which he says 
elsewhere, fp. 1050.) that it was the rule called the Law of Ciaran 
and Brendan. But he does not treat of tlie law of St. Patrick. 
If Colgan had read Usher's words with more attention, he would 
not have fallen into that mistake nor led others into it. 

(159) Ke^ng relates ( Book 2. p. 47. ) that an interview had 
been held at Tirdaglas in Ormond between Hugh OUain, king of 
all Ireland, and Cathal Mac-Fingin, king of Munster, in which 
methods were concerted for advancing the annual revenue of St. 
Patrick tliroughout Ireland, and that they established a particular 
law for that purpose. Hugh Ollain died in 743. (See Chap. xix. 
§. 9.) He makes mention (id. p. 52.) also of a similar tax levied 
on Munster by the king Feidhlim son of Crimthan and Artrigius of 
Amu^, viz. the persons above spoken of. 

(160) 4 Masters, ap. Tr, Th p.9,94t. at A. 824 (825.) 

(161) Catalogue from the Psalter of Cashel. 

(162) O'Flaherty {MS. Not. ad Tr. Th. p. 294.) states that 
the real successor of Flangus, who died in 826, was Eugene ; but 
that he was in 827 pushed out of the see by Artrigius, who kept 
it for some time. 

(163) 4 Masters, ap. Tr, Th. p, 295. 

(164) See Usher, p. 860, and Ind. Chron. ad A. 834 and 
848. The 4 Masters at A. 834 (835) and some following years, 
(ap. Tr. Th, p. 295) who have been followed by Ware, {Bishops 
at Farannan) say that there were great disputes from the begin- 
ning concerning the possession of the see between Farannan and 




Diennit Hua Tigemaich, akid that one held it for a while, and 
the other for another. OTlaherty (MS. notes, ib.) rejects the 
whole of these statements, and maintains that Farannan held the 
see without competition until 848. In fact, the Cashel catalogue, 
the best authority on the subject, allows 14 years for Farannan, 
and places after him (that is, not after his death) Diermit for four 

(165) See Ind. Chron. to Tr. Th, I have added a year to the 


Horrid depredations of the Scandinavian pirates 
in Ireland — Several monasteries plundered and 
numbers of monks and others of the clergy mur- 
dered — Diermid abbot of Hy brings the reliques 
of Columba to Ireland — is succeeded by Indrecht 
-^Joseph ofRosmor^ a bishop and excellent "writer 
— Death qfOrthanaCy bishop qfKildare — Several 
Irish bishops and priests took shelter in foreign 
countries during the troubles caused by the Danish 
invasion — A synod lield in England interdicting 
the Scottish priests from administering the sacra- 
ments — Death of St. Ferdomnach — and ofFeidh- 
Urn son qf Crimthann king qf Munster — Emly 
laid waste — Olchobhair bishop qf Emly raised to 
the throne qf Munster — Turgesius expels the 
primate Farannan and all the religious and stu- 
dents from Armagh — Turgesius killed, and the 
Danes defeated and expelled by the Irish — MaoU 
seachlin sends ambassadors to the French King^ 
Charles the bald, to form an alliance with him^^ 
Return qf the Danes^^Fin-galls and Dubh^galls. 
^-^St. Donatus bishop Fiesole — Brigid, a holy 
virgin, sister of St» Donatus, settles in Italy — 
Mark an Irish bishop, Moengal and others. 


settle at Sti GaU in Smtzerland — Several other 
learned Irishmen settle in the Continent. ^^ John 
Scotus Erigena — writes on predestination — his 
work 'condemned by the third Council of Valence 
"--^account of di^rent tracts Written by him-^ 
John bishop of Mecklenburgh an Irishman-^ 
John qfMalmesbury — Macarius an Irish philo- 
sopher in France^^The abbot Patrick of Glaston- 
bury — The learned priest ProbuS'— 'Deaths of va- 
rious bishops and abbots in Ireland^ and in Hy — 
Ireland harassed by the Danes and intestine 
feuds — Irish schools and religious houses not so 
much disturbed as in the time of Turgesius—' 
Deaths of many scribes and learned men — Deaths 
of Irish Saints in the ninth century. 
•■ . . . , 

\SECT. I. 

Meanwhile the Scandinavian pirates, having 
landed in various parts of Ireland, were Ijommitting 
horrid depredations. In 821 they plundered and 
laid waste Cork, Lismore, and the monastery of Inis- 
damle, (I)and in 823 treated in like manner that of 
Bangor, (2) which, it seems, they had already plun- 
dered some years earlier. (3) The devastation of 
823 Was probably that, in which it is related that 
the abbot and a great number of the monks were 
killed, and the ridh shrine of St. Comgall broke 
open. (4) Whether it was the same as the one, on 
occasion of which those pirates are said to h^ve mur- 
dered nine hundried monks of Bangor in one day, 
(5) I am not able to ascertain. In 824 they pil- 
laged again the monastery of Inisdamle, burned that 
of Maghbile, and in 826 ravaged and destroyed that 
of Lusk. (6) In 831 they entered Armagh, and 
plundered it three times in the course of one month. 
This was the. first time that Armagh was occupied by 
foreigners. (7) In the same year they despoiled the 
church of Duleek, the monastery of Monaghan, and 


the towns, i&c. of Connor (8) cmd Louth* (9) In 
8S4 Glendaloch and Slane were plundered in like 
manner; (10) and in the following yeat** ffcey ran* 
safcked and* burned Ferns, the monastery of Clon- 
raore (in the county of WeKford), and> d^veral 
churches in Munsten (11) In this year, vi^, 835, 
a gteat host of them, commanded by Turgesius, de- 
stroyed almost all Connaught^ together* with some 
parts of Leinster and Meath^ and within the three 
following years subdued a great "part of Ulsteir, de* 
molishing churches and persecuting the faithful. (12) 
In 836 a party of the Danes marched from Itiver- 
dega, or Inverdee, now called . Wicklow, { 1'3) to 
Kildare, which they ravaged, and set fire to the 
C-U*ch, one half of which was consumed. (14«) This 
happened afterFeidhlim Mac Crimthann,kingof Mun- 
, ster, had in the same year taken forcible posfseslsion 
of Kildare and carried off the clergy at the time that 
Farannan, archbishop of Armagh, was there with 
some of his ecclesiastics. (15) In 837* two lai^e 
fleets of the Northmen arrived in theBoytie and 
Liffey, who spreading themselves over the plains, 
through which these rivers flow, plundered in all di- 
rections churches, monasteries, and the habitations 
of all sorts of people, carrying off flocks, herds, &c. 
(16) In "839 they burned Cork, Ferns, and €lotifert, 
killing the religious, and destroyed the church of 
Slane; (17) and in 840 a party of them, cortiing 
from the neighbourhood of Lough Neagh, plundered 
Louth, and carried off many bishops, wise, learned, 
and distinguished men, some of whom they put to 
death. (18) In the same year they set fire to Ar- 
magh, and burned its cathedral and other sacred 
edinces, (19) In 842 they plundered the monas- 
teries of Clonmacnois, Birr, Saigir, and the church 
of Ferns ; (20) and in 844 burned Clonmacnois and 
Lothra (Lorragli), besides ravaging the monastery 
of . Tirdaglas. (2l) One of the churches, vvhich 
Turgesius destroyed and burned, when in Connauglit, 


probably in the expedition of 835, was that belong- 
ing to the English at ' Mayo. (22) Many other 
. churches and monasteries, such as Taghmon, Timo- 
lin, &c. are mentioned as having been pillaged or 
ruined during this period by those merciless in- 
vaders ; and let it suffice to say, that almost every 
part of Ireland suflPered more or less from their fury. 
(23) Every where they carried away sacred uten- 
sils, destroyed libraries, persecuted holy and learned 
men, many of whom they killed. Among these are 
particularly mentioned Aidus, abbot of Tirdaglas, 
whom they put to death in 844 ; and Kethemac prior 
of Kildare, whom with many others they slaugh- 
tered in said year at Dunamase. (24) To this year 
is assigned also the martyrdom of Nuad, son of Se- 
gen, during the pillaging of the church of Killachad 
(in the county of Cavan) by a band of Northmen, 
who had proceeded from Dublin. (25) 

(1) Tr. Th. Ind. Chron. ad. A. 820 (821). For Inisdamle see 
Not. 69 to Chap. x. As it was an island in the Suir, it was very 
convenient for an attack by the Danes, as were also Cork and Lis- 
more by their situation near the Lee and Blackwater. 

(2) lb. p. 633. The date marked is 822 (823) ; yet in the Ind. 
Chron. it is 821, owing, I suppose to a typographical error. 

(3) I find mention made of a devastation of Bangor by the 
Danes in 812. See Archdall at Bangor. 

(4) Keating (History, &c Book 2. p* 50.) mentions these cir- 
cumstances at about this period. The year in which they occurred 
seems to have been 823, to which also the annals of Ulster affix a 
plundering of Bangor, and the scattering of the reliques of St. 

(5) See St. Bernard's Life of St. Malachi/, cap. 5. 

(6) Tr. Th. Ind. Chron. ad A. 823 (824) and 825 (826). 

(7) 4 Masters, ap. Tr. Th.p. 295. aX A.D. 830 (831). The 
Ulster Annals have A.S21. What will Br. Ledwich say to this? 
He wished to persuade us, that St. Patrick had been brought to 
Armagh by the Danes ; (see Chap. ii. §. 16. ) now it is dear from 
what has been said of the law of St. Patrick as having existed be> 
fore they ever reached that city, that he was known th&re long 



prior to their depredations. And he calls hhnself an Irish an* 
tiquaiy! ! ! 

(8) Tr. Th. Ind. Chron, ad. A. 830(831) That ihere was an 
M monastery at Monaghan is well known ; and Colgan mentions 
(A A. SS.p.7lS ) as abbot of it (perhaps finrnder) St. Moeldod. 
a member of the great house of the dynasts of Oigid, butdoesnot 
muk at what time he lived. The Annak of Ulster have a prior 
spoliation of Duleek by the Danes at A. 824. 

(9) 4 Masters, and Archdall at Lauth^ 

(10) Tr. Th. Ind, Chron. ad. A. 833 (834). 

(11) lb. and Annals of Ulster at A. 834 (835). Clonniore i» 
said to have been pillaged two or three times before. (See Archdall 
at Clonmore. 

(12) Ware, AtUiq. cap. 24. (13) See Chap. v. §. U 

(14) Annals of Ulster, and 4 Masters ap. Tr. Th.p. 629. ad 
A. 835 (836). 

(15) 4 Masters ap. Tr. Th. p. 295, and 629. ad A. 835 (836). 
Archdall (at Armagh) in his careless manner says, that it was For- 
annan and his clergy, who were carried off. Keating relates that 
Feidhlim being provoked by certain proceedings of some of the more 
nordiem people of Ireland, laid waste the country extending from 
Birr to Tarah. Thus, while the common enemy was in their 
country, the unhappy Irish were destroying each other. Keating 
is wrong in stating that Feidhlim became archbishop of Leath Mo* 
gha, or the Southern half of Ireland. He never was a bishop, but 
in the latter part of "his life gave himself up to piety, and lived as an 
anchoret. He reigned 27 years, (see Keating B. ii. p. 54.) the 
first of which was, according to the Annab of Innisfallen (Harris' 
copy) A. D. 819, but (according to Mr. O'Reilly's) 820. 

( 16) Tr. Th. p. 629 ad. A. 836 (837) In this place he speaks 
of these fleets as consisting of thirty ships each, and yet, (ib. 
p. 111.) referring to the same authority, (the 4 Masters) he tells 
us that each of them was of sixty. Then in the Ind. Chr. instead 
of A. D. 836, he has 838. In both these positions he has been 
followed by Ware (Antiq. cap. 24.) But O'Flaherty (MS. not. Tr. 
TA. at p. Ill) observes, that the true date is 836 (837). That 
of 838 is mentioned by Giraldus Cambrensis. The Annals of 
Innislallen have 836, and state that each of those Northern fleets 

VOL. Ul. 


( 17) Tr, Th. Ind. Chron, od 838 (859) and Aiinak of Iiuii»- 
&Uen at A. 839. 

(18) AA..SS. p. 736. fiMii th^ 4 Mastera at i4. 889 (840) 
iThis deiraiUtiim, &c b mentiotied also' in the Ulster annals at 
said year.. In Johnstons Es^rdcU Loligh-neagh is, instead of 
Lock-echa, cafkd Lodi-da^iMdch. 

(19) Tr. Th.p. 295. and Ind. Chron. ad 839 (840). 

(20) Tr. Th. Ind. Chron. ad A. 841 (842) and p. 634. 

(21) lb. Ind. Chron. ad A. 843 (844). 

(22) See Usher Ind. Chron. at A. 818. 

(23) Keating, Book i\.p.50. 

(24) See A A, SS. p. 370. and Tr. Th. p. 629. The date 
marked is 843 (8i4) Aidus is called the on of Dubh-da-cbriocb, 
and is said to have been abbot also of Clonenagh. He was taken 
i|t Donaraase and led away by the Danes to Mimster, where they 
put him to death on the 8th o£ July. {AA, SS. p. 356.) 

(25) AA.SS. p. 57S. 

§ II. Diermit, abbot of Hy, came, to Ireland in 
831, bringing with him the reliques of St. Columba. 
(26) Howlong.after he continued to govern the 
Columbian order I- do not find recorded ; but it ^- 
pearsthat he was succeeded by Indrecht or Indrech- 
taigh; who in 849 brought to Ireland some sanctified 
things of St. Patrick. (27) Joseph of Rosmor, a 
bishop* au excellent writer, and abbot of Clones and 
other monasteries, died in the year 840, (S8) to 
which is assigned also the death of Orthanoc bishop 
of Kildare. (29) During the troubles caused by 
the Danes several Irish bishops and priests took 
shelter in foreign countries. In a council held at 
Chalons sur Saone in 813 a decree was passed stat* 
ing, that there are in some parts of France Scots 
(Irish),' who call themselves bishops, and ordain 
priests and deacons without the permission of their 
seigneurs t or of the superiors of said persons ; and 
declaring such ordinations null as being irregular 
and mostly simoniacaL (30) It seems that some of 
those emigi'ant bishops made use of their spiritual 


power as a means of livelihood; The practice of 
raising persons to the episcopacy without being at- 
tached to fixed sees had been carried so far in Ire- 
land, that it is not to be wondered at that some of 
them might have made a trade of their rank. yV 
sweeping canon was passed by an English synod 
held in 816 under Walfred, archbishop of Canter- 
bury, at Ce-licyth, interdicting the Scottish priests 
in general from administering the sacraments^ be- 
cause it was not known where or by whom they were 
ordained. (31) It is probable that some Scoto-Irish 
priests had, in their flight from Ireland, neglected 
to bring testimonials of their ordination, and thus 
contribvited to afford an occasion for that canon. 

St. Ferdomnach, a wise and learned scribe or doc- 
tor of the church of Armagh, died in 845, and his 
memory was revered on the 10th of June. (32) 
In the following year died on the 8th of August the 
celebrated king of Munster Feidhlim, son of Crim- 
thann, after having in the latter part of his life 
aton^d for his violent and cruel proceedings by a 
very strict course of penance and great austerities. 
(33) In the same year £mly was laid waste by the 
Northmen. (34) Its abbot and bishop Olchobair Mac- 
Kinede, the immediate succesisor, in all^appeanmce, 
of Flan Mac-Famcfaellaic, contrived on the death of 
Feidhlim son of Crimthann, to get himself raised to 
the throne of Cashel or Munster. (35) He is the 
first of our princes, at least of great rank, in whom 
I And the mitre and scepter united. This royal 
bishop was of a warlike turn, and, being assisted by 
Lorcan, king of Leinster, defeated the Danes in a 
great battle fought in 848 at Sua-naght, in which 
they lost 1200 men, and also in two others, same 
year, in which about 1700 more of them were slain. 
(36) Olchobair lived until 850. (37) 

(26) Annals of Ulster in Johnstone's Extracts at A. 830 (8S1). 
. (27) lb. at A. 848 (849). Johnstone calls them << St Pa- 

T 2 



trick's oaths or saDCtified Uitngs." I suppose he mistook a wofd, 
meaning vows for oaths. They were probably offerings, that had 
been made by persons resorting to Hy in honour of St. Patrick. 
Smith ( Life of St. Columba, p, 166.) calls them Co- 
luf^kiUes sacred things. Instead of Indrecht he has Jurastach ; 
but the abbot*s real name was Indrecht, See A A, SS, p, 254. 

(28) A A, SS. p. 308. Ware, led astray by the blundering com- 
piler of the third index to this work, has placed Joseph of Rosmor 
at Clonmacnois, and has been followed by Harris. Archdall has 
him at Clones, and so fiir he was right, but he ought not to have 
placed him likewise at Clonmacnois. The 4 Masters* date for his 
death is 839 (840). 

(29) Tr, Th, p, 629. 

(30) See Fleuiy, Hist, Eccl, £. 46. $. 5. 

(31) It b added that clergymen are not allowed by the canons 
to officiate without the permission of the ordinary, and that this 
rule should be particularly enforced against foreigners, with whom 
there was no metropolitan jurisdiction ; alluding it seems, to the 
Irish system, according to which there was no regular metropoliti- 
cal see except theprimatial one of Armagh. Celicyth or Calcuth 
was somewhere in the kingdom of Mercia and in a central part of 

(32) Tr. Th. p. 295 at 844 (845). 

(33) lb. /7. 186 and Ind, Chron. ad A. 845 (846) from the 
4 Mastere. The Annals of Inni^fallen (Mr. O'Reilly's copy) as- 
sign his death to 847. Ware reckons this Feidlim or Feidlemid 
among the Irisb writers, observing that his- works are lost. The 
Ulster annals call him the best of the ScoiSy a scribe and anchored. 
Compare with Not. 15. 

(34t Tr. Th. Ind. Chron. 

(35) Annals of Innisfallen, and Keating B. ii. p. 54. 

(36) Ware, Antiq. cap 24. In the Annals of Innisfallen, at 
A. 848. Scia-naght is called Scieth'Niachtain in the Decies, /. e. 
either in the county of Waterfbrd or southern part of Tipperary. 
(Harris's copy) and Ware Bishops at Emit/. 

(37) AnnaJs of Innisfallen. 

§. III. Turgesius entered Armagh in 848, and 
expelled the primate Forannan together with all the 


religious and students. (38) Taking with him his 
attendants and the church reliques he was sent to 
the Danish ships at Limerick. (39) But this year 
was fatal to Turgesius ; for in it he losthis life, hav- 
ing been defeated and made prisoner by Melseachlain, 
king of Ireland, who drowned him in Loch-vair. (40) 
The Irish then attacked the Northmen in all direc- 
tions, and drove great numbers of them out of their 
country, so that the nation recovered its liberty, 
after a devastation of about thirty years, and Mel- 
seachlain sent ambassadors with presents to the French 
king, Charles the bald, for the purpose of forming 
a bond of peace and friendship, and reqtiesting per- 
mission to pass through France on his way to Rome. 
(4"!) Forannan's place at Armagh was now occupied 
by Diermit Hua-Tigernach, who is said to have gone 
to Con naught for the object of enforcing the law of 
St. Patrick. (i2) The Northmen, although broken 
and defeated, returned again in 8*9 with a powerful 
fleet, and renewed the war. (43) As if to help 
them, the Irish began to Hght among themselves, 
and their king Melseachlain not cmly made peace with 
them in 850, but was assisted by them in gaining a 
great victory over some enemies of liis. (44) Dub- 
lin, which was aU*eady in possession of a description 
of Northmen, called Fiii-gals^ or- white-foreigners^ 
was attacked in 851 by anotlier, cMed Dubh-gals^ 
or black^oreigners^ who made great havoc of the 
Fin-gals and plundered the city. (4r5) In 852 a party 
of these pagan Northmen entered Annagh, and laid 
it waste on Faster Sunday, which was probably the 
cause of the death of the primate Diermit, who died 
in the same year, as did also Forannan, who had 
held the see before him. (46) Diermit, whose in- 
cumbency lasted four years, was succeeded by Fethgna, 
who governed the see for 22 years. (4?) Olchobair, 
who died in 850, was succeeded at £mly by Maine 
son of Huargusa. (48) 


(58) Usher, p. 860. and Ind. Chron. at A. M». The 4 Mas- 
ten op. Tr. Th, p. 295, assign this expulsion to A. 843 (844) ; 
but Usher's date Is approved of by O'Flaherty, {MS- Not. ad Tr, 
Th. ib.) and agrees with the catalogue fh>m the Psalter of Cashel. 
See Not, 164 to Chap, xx.) Yet in Johnstone's Extracts from the 
'Annals of Ulster it is ass^ed to A. 844 (845). But Usher's 
copy of them was probably more correct. 

(39) Tr. Th. loc. cii. D. O'Connor, the wretched translator 
of Keating, has quite misrepresented (B. ii. p, 6.) his text as to 
Foraiuian« He midces him say, that Forannan, who was then 
primate c£ Armagh, tedred fi*om Cashel with his clergy to Emly, 
and that in this «^tude, protected by bogs and woods, did this pri* 
mate^ together with them, take up his residence during the 
tyranny of the. Danes. Now Keating says no such thing, nor in- 
deed could he ; for besides Forannan's having been sent to Lime- 
rick, he was not archbishop or bishop of Cashel. The substance 
of Keating^s or^;inal statement is as follows. Having, in opposi- 
tion to the ooncuirent testimonies of our ancient writers, taken 
into his head, that the see of Emly iVas not marked by any pecu- 
liar distinction, and that Casliel was an archiepiscopal see in 
those times, he then strives to show how it came to pass that 
Emly was mistdien for ah archbishopric by saying that the arch- 
bi$b<^ of Cashel retired thither with his dergy during the Danish 
peri9ecution. This is indeed a mere supposition, for there was at 
that time no archbishop, nor, -I believe, even a bishop of Cashel. 
Nor do I mean to state that Emly was, properly speaking, an 
archiepiscopal see, although it enjoyed a certain degree of honour 
and preeminence. (See Not^&7 to Chap, vi.) Besides, there is 
no foundation for Keating's hjqpothesis that the clergy of Cishel 
ffetired to Emly. They were more safe in the dty than there, 
Imd we have seen that Emly was ransacked by the Danes in 846. 
Keating, to i»op up his stoiy of the Cashel cleigy having been 
driven thence by the Danes, and fled to Emly, represents it as cre- 
dible, because Forannan and his clergy had been expelled from 
Armagh. This is truly a queer sort of argument ; as if from the 
cafie of Forannan having been certainly driven from his see it were 
to foUow, that other bishops, &c. were also expelled. Enough as to 
Keating himself; but how strangely have his words been mistrans- 
lated .so as to bring Forannan, &c. to Cashel and Emly ? 


(40) Usher ("p. 860. and Ind. Ckrofi.) wuignB thedownfiii and 
death of Turgesius to 818. But the Annidt of Innra&llen mark 
them at 845> before Melseachlain wag king of. Ireland* Aiso Wave 
(Aniiq, cap, ^.)' seems to pkoe them in 845y.wlule Melseachlain 
was king only of Meath, and before he was. raiied< to the t)ii0ii8 
of an Ireland in 816. (See Chap. xx. ^, 8»)[ He.mentlons (he 
drowning of Tiiigesius in Loehvatr, and^aftiePwardu: states^that a 
battle was fought in 848 between Melseachlain, when, king of ire* 
land, and the Danes (without naming Turgesius) mtFore^ in which 
they were defeated and lost 700 men. The 4> Masters (a/?. A A. 
SS.p. 509.) assign the drowning of Tuigesius in tliat k>ugh to :S4S 
(844) while Melseachlain was stili no more than }fiag oL'Mealh. 
Neither they nor the Annals of Ulster or of Innis^le* have any 
thkig about the 15 beardless young men, who, .aceoiding^to Gi- 
raldus Cambrensis, killed Turgesius. If it be tn\e that Mebcaehlain 
was king only of Meath at the time • of his putting Turgesius to 
death, the statement of the 4 Masters, or that of ^ InnisfiUJen 
annals, must be more correct than, that of Usher-; vWiiei«ea$ it is 
universally allowed, that Melseachlain became king of all Ireland in 
846 r and it will follow that the expulsion of Forannan from ^r^* 
magh by Turgesius was prior hot only to 848, but likewise to 846. 
(See above Not. 38.) Yet if we consider, that Ushei'^s- date (848) 
w this expulsion rests on strong grounds, we must suppose ^hait 
Turgesius was still a]ive in said year, and tliat* Melseaehlain was 
king tyf all fieland, when he got him into Ms hands. '■ Oiraldus 
Canibrensisv speaking of the downikl of Turgesius by means of 
Melseachfein, calls the latter Icing of Meath ; and henee<periiaps 
was derived the opinion, that hb was not as yet sovereign of all 
Ireland. Be this as it may, Usher shows (p, 860) from - Norwe- 
gian chronicles that 848 was the year in which those invaders were 
greatly humbled i^ Ireland and their power reduced. Now it is 
nattiral to- suppose, that the death of Turgesius was immediately 
followed by the destruction and dispersion of his followers, and 
consequently it appears most probable that it did not occur until 
said year 848. , Lodlvair, in which Turgesius was drowned, is 
placed by Seward (at Looh-uar) near Mullingar. 
• (41) Udher p. 850, and Ind. CKron. ad A 848. 
' (42) the 4 Masters (ap. Tr. Th. p. 295) assign Diermit's tour 
to Connaught to A. 835 (836) at a time when, according to them> 


he was contendiiig against Fonmnan for the see of Armagh. (See 
Not. 164. to Chap, xx.) But, as there iras most probably no such 
contention between them, Diennit's gmng to Connaught was after 
848 ; or, if it was in 886, he went thither not as archbishop but 
as deputed by Forannan. 

(43) Ware, Antiq. cap. 24. The Annals of Ulster in Johnstone's 
ExtracU state at il. 848 (849) that they came in 140 ships, as do 
also those of Innisfallen at A. 849. 

(44; Ware, ib. 

(45) Annals of Ulster at A^ 850 j(851), and Ware, ib. Also 
Innisfidlen Annals at A. 851. 

(46) Usher, p, 860 and Jnd. Cbron. at A. 852. from the An. 
nals of Ulster. In said annals these two prelates are named heirs 
(comorbans) of St. Patrick, and Diermit is called the wsest of all 
the doctors ofEuropCy while to Forannan are given the titles <^ 
scribe^, bishop, and anchoret. 

(47) Catalc^te from the Psalter of Cashel in Tr. Th. p. 29'2» 

(48) Ware, Bishops at Eml^. 

% IV. St Donatus, bishop of Fiesole in Tuscany, 
flourished in those times. (49) He was a native of 
Ireland, and, it seems, a bishop before he undertook 
a pilgrimage to Rome. (50) A disciple of his 
named Andrew, of a very illustrious family, (31) 
whom he had instructed in Ireland, accompanied 
him in this peregrination. They arrived at Rome 
during the reign of Lewis the pious, but in what 
year is uncertain. (52) Having remained there for 
some time, and obtained the Pope^s blessing, they 
removed to Tuscany, where they visited some 
churches. On arriving at Fiesole Donatus was re- 
ceived by the clergy and people of that then very 
respectable city with great honour; and, as the see 
happened to be vacant, was requested to undertake 
the government of it. At length^ he complied with 
their wish, and acted, for a long time, the part of a 
good pastor, until God was pleased, to call him out 
of this world on a 22d of October, some years after 
A* Z). 86). (53) Some tracts were written by St. 


Donatus, but none of t)|em, as far as I know, are 
now extant, (54) except his own epitaph, and a 
pretty little poem, which is prefixed as a prologue to 
a poetical life of St. Brigid. {55) Andrew became 
a deacon of Fiesole, and remained there for seve- 
ral years, until by order of Donatns he re*establi$bed 
the church of St. Martin near the river Mensola, 
which washes the feet of the Fiesole hills, where he 
formed a monastery, in which he piously spent the 
remainder of his days until having survived St. Do- 
natus, 4ie died on, it seems, a 22d of August, but in 
what year I do not find recorded. (56) Dempster, 
with his usual effrontery, has forged the names of 
certain tracts as if written by this saint. (57) A 
sister of his, named Brigid,, a very holy virgin, 
whom he was very anxious to see before his death, 
left Ireland to pay him a visit, and arrived in time 
to find him still alive, although very near his end. 
On his death she determined to remain in Italy, and 
retired to a forest above Fiesole ' at the foot of the 
mountains, where, practising great austerities, she 
led a solitary life and lived to a great age, most 
highly esteemed by the people of the neighbourhood. 
The year of her death is not known ; the day ia 
said to have been a first of February, the anniversary 
of faier great namesake St. Brigid of Kildare. After 
her death a church was erected and dedicated under 
her name on the spot, where she died, called Opa- 
cuSf which was, and perhaps is still greatly resorted 
to on that day, in commemoration of her, by the in- 
habitants of the adjoining districts. (58) 

(49) In Buike's Officia propria^ Sfc, there is at 22 October an 
Office of St Donatus, taken chiefly ^m that read at Fiesole. 
Colgan had a very ancient IMe of this saint, taken from a collection 
€9f chronides of that church* UghelH treats of him (Italia Sacra, 
Tom. 3. coL 21 S.) and calls him nobUis Scottus, 

(50) That Donatus was an Irishman is clear not only from the 
Office, in which lie is stated to have been of a noble and orthodox 


ftnrily in the Old Scotia (Ireland)^ but likewise fK)in his Life, as 
<)uotedby Colgaii, fAA. SS. ;?. 5S8.) where we read, that Ire- 
land, llieiriand of the Scots, sent him to Fiesole; <' Iste, fratres 
tfHOy isle beatus ille et vere praedicandus Christi sacerdos. B.Do- 
natus, qnem n^bis Hibemia Scotormn insula tmiMmtsit.** Colgan 
caflk^ faitb (iB. p. 236) a bishop, while still in Irtiand. 
, (91) A Life of this Andrew has-been written by i%ilfp Villani, 
wlio ilifidtes hffiii « native of Ireland ; <' Puit homo Dei Andreas 
oriundus ex insula HibeihHa, quae aSo mst^ wigsin nomine Sco- 
tia aj^pellatur, Afi. (See A A. SSJ p. 236.) CoJgan /ib.p. 2S7) 
mentions also an anonymous life df Andrew, or St. Atidrew, 
up<m wfaidi some notes were written by Constantine Cmetano. 
^ (52) In the anonymous Life •of St Andrew k » said, that Do- 
natus and Andrew came to Italy in the time of Lewis the pious, 
and Cajetano marks the year as 816. (A A. SS. p^ 237 > But it 
was probably some years later. At any rate the Office of Dona- 
tns is wrong in statlhg that they were at Rome in 602. 

(SS) Cajetano says> that he became bishop of Flesote in the 
very year of hk ttrival in Italy, viz. as he thought, A» D. 816. 
(See A A. SS. p* 23d.) UgheDi also marks that as the year of his 
promotion; but Coleti in a note observes, tiiat it must have been 
later than 826 ; for Gnisolphus was bishop of Fiesole in that year 
and attended at a synod then held at Rome. Donatus was cer- 
tainly bishop there before 844, in which year he was present at 
the-cdronotion (of Lewis, (he son of Lotharius, as king of Italy. 
He was still -its bishop iii 861, whereas he was present at a Lateran 
coundl tliat sat in this year under Pope Nichdas I. against John, 
archbishop of 'Ravenna. (See Coletis addition to Ughelli, ib, 
torrii 2. coL 350.) The precise ! year of his (leath is -n<yt known. 
He was l)arted m the cathedra), and on his inomiment were en- 
graved the following verses, which. had been composed by himself; 

Hie ego Donatas S^tohim sanguine cretus . 

Solus in hoc t^tanyJo {iulvere, verme, voror. 
R^bus It&licis serviVi j^urJbus aohis^ 

Lothario magiK), Liidolrico^ue'bonoy 
Octenis lusin^y sepienis msuper annis . . 

' Post {^ubtna ' Praesul h urbe . fui. 


Oratuila discipults dietabam scripta iibellis 
Sichemata metrorum, dicta beata senum. 

Parce viator adis, quisquis pro munera Christi 
Te tnodo non pigeat cema:« busta mea, 

Atque precare Deum, residet qUi culmina caeli^ 
Ut mihi concedat r^na beata sua* 

If the Octenis &c. is to be understood of the dumtioh of his in- 
cumbency, as Ughdlli understood it, he was bishop of Flesole for 
47 years. But he was dead before 877» in whidi year, lis Coleti 
remarks, Zenobius was its bishop. The BelliBM^Bts also ( ComT 
men$.praeo. at the Acts of St. Ehigid of Ftesole, 1 Febr.) under- 
stood the Octenis &e. m Ughelli did. The^ xxmjectured, that Do- 
natus did not become bii^op of Elesole nntfl 841 or 842, and then, 
assigning to him 47 years of episcopacy, conchided that he lived 
until near 890. But this cannot agree with what Coleti says con- 
cerning Zenobius. it is very probab!e that he was made bishop of 
Fiesole soon after 8^, peihaps in 827, whence reckoning 47 
years, his death may be affixed to about 879. The Bollandists 
observe, that Donatus obtained ^m the above menftioned Lewis, 
with whom he was very intimate, some favours and 'privileges at 
Capua, and that the year, in which he obtained them, was appa- 
rently 866. Lewis was at this time, and for several years before 
it, emperor, and is called Lewis the second. He was the Lewis, 
who is distinguished in the epitaph by the epithet gobc^, and died in 
875, in which year he was succeeded, as en^peror, by his uncle 
Charles the bald. In all probability he survived St. Donatus ; for 
otherwise would not the name of Charles, to whom the empire and 
the kingdom of Italy devolved, have been mentioned Jn4he epitaph? 
In Burke's Office of St. Donatus, by. a strange anachronism, he is 
said to have died in 840. 

From the epitaph it appears, that Donatus had been employed 
in teaching gratuitously, and that he composed some tracts, 
Gratuita discipults dictabam scripta UbeUisy partly of a poetical 
kind. Schemata metrorum, and partiy theological, dicta leata 

(54) Dempster has made up some tracts for hhn, whidh are 

mentbned by Ware {Writers at Donat) merely on his authority, 

yet it is certain, that he composed some works. (See Not. prec.) 


(55) The ancient author of the Life of St. Donatus, quoted by 
Colgan (A A. SS. p. 238. and Tr. Th. p. 255.) ascribes to him this 
prologue, which Colgan has prefixed to the Life ci St, Brigid, said 
to have been written by Chilien of Liiskeltra. (See Not. 18 to 
Chap, VIII.) Usher has given ^a part of it. Prim. p. 1060, but 
with two or three variations^ It begins thus-. 

Finibus occiduis describitur optima tellus 

Nomine et antiquis Scotia dicta libris. 
. Insula dives opum, gemmarura, vestis, et auri ; 

Commoda corporibus, aere, sole, solo. 
Melle fluit pulchris et lacteis Scotia campis 

Vestibus atque armis, frugibus, arte, viris. 
Ursorum rabies nulla est ibi ; saeva leonuni 

Semina nee unquam Scotica terra tulit. 
Nulla vehena nocent, nee serpens serpit in herba 

Nee conquesta canit garrula rana lacu. 
, In qua Scotorum gentes habitare merentur, 

Inclyta gens hominum milite, pace, fide. 
De qua nata fuit quondam sanctissinia virgo 

Brigida, Scotorum gloria, nomen, honor, &c* 

After this description of Ireland it goes on as if prefatory to a 
Life of St, Brigid ; and it really seems, that the author of it wrote 
such a work. But it is not to be concluded, that the Life attri- 
buted to Chilien was written rather by Donatus ; for, as Colgan 
observes, there are in some MSS. other prologues prefixed to said 
Life ; yet if, as I see no reason to doubt, Donatus was the author 
of the above one, it may, I think, be concluded that he drew up 
a Life, probably not extant, of St. Brigid. Concerning the epitaph 
see Not, 53. 

(56) See A A. SS. p. 236, and 238. 

(57) See Ware and Harris, Writers at Andrew, 

(58)1 have here given the substance of the Acts of tlus St. Brigid, 
as made up firom Ferrarius and others by Colgan, 'A A, SS. at 1. 
February. The Bbllandists have at said day, extracted a short 
Life of her from Villanis* Life of St. Andrew. In consequence of 
their having brought down the death of St. Donatus to near 890 
(see Not, 53 ) and her having survived both him and Andrew, 


they supposed she lived until about 900. This is, I believe, too 
late ; probably she died about 880. 

§• V. In 841 Mark, an Irish tushopi together 
with Moengal, alias Marcellus, his sister's son, re- 
turning from Rome stopped at the monastery of St. 
Gall, where the Irish were always well received as 
being countrymen of that saint. And in fact it is 
stated that it was as such that Mark visited that mo- 
nastery. They were requested to remain there for 
sDme time, and at length agreed to do so. Mark 
then dismissed his other companions and attendants, 
to whom, being much displeased at his staying there, 
he gave his horses and mules, some money &c. re- 
serving his books and some other articles for the use 
of the monastery. Moengal was exceedingly learned 
in sacred and human literature, and afler some time 
was placed over the interior schools of the cloister. 
{59) It is probable that they both spent the re- 
mainder of their lives at St. Gall's; (oO) audit is 
said that Moengal died in that monastery on a 30th 
of September, but in what year is not mentioned. 
(61) Among the persons instructed at St. Gall by 
Moengal are reckoned Notker Balbulus, Ratpert, 
and Tutilo ; (62) and to him is attributed a certain 
tract on the lessons of the Gospel. [63) 

In the same year 841 another countryman of St. 
Gall, and consequently an Irish Scot, named Euse- 
bius, arrived at the same monastery and there be- 
came a monk. (64) Having remained for some 
years in the monastery, he retired in 854 or 855 to 
Mount St. Victor, where there was a church dedi- 
cated to the martyr of that name, in the part of the 
now Grison country called Rhaetia Curiensis. There 
he became a recluse and lived for 30 years in a most 
pious, contemplative, and austere manner, until his 
death on the 30th of Januarjs A. D. 884. {&5) 
He is said have been endowed with the gift of pro- 
'phecy, and used to be consulted as such by the 


people of that cpuntry* The king C3iarles (66) had 
so great Hm esteem for him« tb«t» on his request, he 
made a grant of Mount St. Victor to the monastery 
of St. Gall. 

(59) Ekkdiard {De casibus mona^terii & GalU ap, Mdch. 
Goldatt. R. AU Scriptor. Tom* 1. p. S6.) writes; '^ Grimaldi 
>(abbot of St Gall) temporibus Marcus quidam Sc(4tigena qpisoopus 
Galium tamquam compatrwtam suum Roma rediens visitat. Co- 
mit^tur eum sororis filiqs Moeog^l, postea a nostris Marcellus 
diminutive a Marco avunculo suo sic nominatus. Hie eiaX in di- 
vinis et humanis rebus eruditissimus. Rogatur episcopus loco nos- 
tro aliquamdiu stare/' &c. See also Mabillon (AnnaL Ben* ad A. 
841). Harris (Writers at Moengal) makes them visit the abbot 
Grmioald as their countiyman, having misunderstood £kkebard*s 
words^ who calls not him but St. Gallus their compatriot. 

(60) Mabillon (i6.) says, that Mark went, after having been* 
for some time at St. Gall's, to France on the invitadon of Charles 
the bald, and that he retired to the monasteiy of St. Medard at 
SoisscvDs. He adds .that perb^s Moengal also removed to France. 
But the bishop Marie of St. Medard must have been djfierent fit>m 
the one of St Gall, if i^^e are to believe Eric of Auxerre, who tells 
us {De mirac. S, Germani, L. 1 . c. 55*) that he was a Briton, al- 
though educated .in Ireland; while Ekkehard positively states, 
that the Mark of $t Gall was an Irishman. And Mabillon him- 
self ^td. and ^c^a j?ene</. Sec, IV. Part. 2. p, 4!6l*) fffpresents 
Marie and Moengal as countrymen of St Gall and Irishmen. 

(61) See Harris, Writers at MoengaL 

(62) Mabillon, Acta Ben. ib. p. 4>6S. 

(63) See Hams at Moengal. 

(64) Colgan has the Acts of St Eusebius at 30 January. He 
thinks that his real n^une was Euchedius^ but gives no reason, ex- 
cept that this was an usual name ii> Ireland, whereas Eusebius 
was not so. Be this as it may, he represents him as not arriving at 
St Gall until A. D. 354', in consequence of his having supposed 
that Eusebius became a recluse very soon fifter he reached that 
place. For in that year or the following he withdrew £rom the 
monastery and shut himself up. But Mabillon {^nnal. Ben,) 
assigns his arrival at St. Gall to 341. Eusebius is called by R^- 

CHAF.. XXI* : OF lABLAND. 287 

pert of St. Gall (De orifine et casibus S. GalliJ Scotigena^ and 
by Ekkehardy also of St GaU (De casibus^ &c.} sitncti GaUi com' 
patrianusy that is an Irishman, 

(65) llat)pevt (ib.J has these dates for his death, but does not 
mention his haying died a martyr, as noted in the Necrologmm of 
St. GaU, which states, as quoted by Colgan and BoOandus, that 
Eusebius was killed by one of the inhabitants, when remonstrating 
with some of them on their bad conduct. Mabillon (^Annal, &c. 
at A> 841.) es^HPpsses strong doubts as to this miutyjrdom and says ; 
" Suhlestaefdei videntur, quae de ejus martt/ris referuntur apud 
BoUandum" Had it taken place, would it not have been men- 
tioned by Ratpert ? The same Necrologium seems to make Eusebius 
a recluse for near fiffy years; but, according to Ratpert, he was 
such only for thirty. Colgan strives to explain the words of the 
Necrologium as if relative to the whole life, and indicating that he 
died in the 50th year of his age. This cannot agree with his hav- 
ing arrived at St. Gall in 841, at which time he would have been, 
in this hypothesis, no more than about seven years old. A foolish 
story related in the Necrologium as to Eusebius after his death 
fihowsy that its authority is not Worth attending to in what it has 
concerning him. 

(66) This Charles was, says Mabillon, fib, J the son and suc- 
cessor of king Lewis. He must have meant Lewis the Germanic. 
Consequently Charles was the one, that became emperor, and who. 
is called Charles the^a^. 

S VI. Helias, likewise an Irishman, was bishop of 
Angouleme during the reign of Charles the bald. 
He had gone to France in the early part of the ninth 
century ; for he was a disciple of Theodiilf bishop 
of Orleans, (6*7) who died in 821. He became a 
very learned man and waa an admirable teaoher. (68) 
One of his scholars was the celebrated Heric or Erie 
of Auxerre, (69) Helias succeeded bishop Lau- 
nus in the see of Angouleme, but in what year I do 
not find stated. (70) In 862 he assisted at the sy- 
nod of Pistes, (71) which had been summoned by 
Charles the bald, and in 866 at that of Soissons. (72) 
His death is assigned to J. D. 875 or 876. (73) 

Among the crowd of learned Irishmen, who went 


over to France in those times, the most celebrated 
was John Scotus Ei-igena. (74) He was of very 
small size, but gifted with extraordinary genius. 
His studies were chiefly classical and philosophical, 
in which he excelled, considering the times he 
lived in ; but he was greatly deficient iii theolo- 
gical learning, which he seems to have scarcely ap- 
plied to in his younger days, as he was not intended 
for the church ; nor was he ever in holy orders, nor 
even a monk. He was a very good man, and irre- 
proachable in his conduct. His birth must be as- 
signed to the early part of the ninth century ; for 
he was a grown up and highly learned man when he 
removed to France, which was before 847, as appears 
from his having been connected there with Pruden- 
tius before he became bishop of Troies. By his 
learning, eloquence, and wit he became a singular 
favourite with the king Charles the bald, who was' 
so pleased with him, that he kept him constantly 
with himself, and did him the honour of having him 
as a guest at his table. Their conversation was 
sometimes of a jocose kind ; and although John 
was not always sufficiently cautious not to give 
offence in his jokes, yet the king used to put up 
with whatever he said. As he was well skilled in 
Greek, Charles commissioned him to translate into 
Latin the works attributed to Dionysius the Areo- . 
pagite, (J 5^ and accordingly he translated the four 
bookii De caelesti Hierarchia^ de ecclesiastica Hier- 
archiaj de Divinis hominibus, and de mystica theo- 
logia, which he dedicated to the king. (76) This 
translation was greatly admired for its accuracy, but 
being too literal was considered obscure. (77) It 
was published between 858 and 867 ; for it is men- 
tioned in a letter of Pope Nicholas I. to Charles the 
bald. (78) 

(67) In the chronicle of Ademar fap, Labbe Nova BibHotheca^ 
SfC, Tom. 2. p. 159.) there is at A, 819. a series of teachers sue* 


ceedifig each others among whom is Theodulf as having taugbs 
Heliam ScoHgenam Engolismemem episcopumy and then HdiM 
as the master of Heine or Heric (of Atuttrre) See also Sam- 
maitham GtMa ChrisHana ad Ecd. Engolism. Tom. % col. 

(68) In the Hisiotiapotaificum^Sfc.,Eng(dwnensiurnfap, Labbe, 
ih.p.^lj we read; << DeAincto Lauoo sttscefrit Helias Scoti- 
gena cathedralem Engolkmensem, qui in Gallia mirifiee schoUu 
rexiL It has afterwards the series of teachers as in the chronicle 
of Ademar. In the Gallia Christiana (loc.cit.J Hellas is styled 
Df r doctittimoB. 

(69) The Heine, as called in the chronide of Ademar, or 
Henric, aa in Ihe Histor* Ponlifi EngoUim. was Heric of Aux- 
ene,. at f^pears from its being added t§iat Heine taught Remigius, 
^c. His having studied for some time under Helias- hdped to 
make him well ao^iainted with leanied Irishmen then in France^ 
and with that A>ck of phiiosdphert, which j as he says m bis [»«- 
face to the Acts of Sc Germanfitis$ addressedco Charlea the bidd> 
bad passed over fiom Ireland- to* France;' ^ Qaid Hibemiam me- 
morem^^contempto pehgi diBOftaiEne^ ptB^letami ' cum grego phi*, 
ioflopfaordai, ad littora nostra mignuitem? Qiionim quisquis [^eii- 
dbr est dhru sibiindioit exiliM^ ^rSakmloni si^otiBsimo ilMBut* 
laluviad-niimk." > Hcias^ his txaster^ was oettainly one of tiiobe 
^imons» wttdmHeiiefaf^lin view; and hence k i*plain ^that by 
ficfl^f^ito/laacHdias isicaUed, is to be uhdetstood a native of Ire* - ^, 
land, notNif N.iBrilain; ibr, had he becna BHtisbSoot, Hferie 

voald hQfc'have mentioned Jielaod alaae. 

(70) . Ckudtus Eoberti in Us ^Gkllia> GhriHiana (at Epist, Em- 
goliinuj eays^ that 'he was. bishop of Angouleme during 40 ysaia. 
If 80^ he diould have been raised to the see in 635 or 836. But 
he Qould hot have been bishop there befiM'e 859, in which year 
Launus was alive. (Sammarthan ib* col* 983) ^ . . / 

(71) Sanimarthan. ib. coL 984s. Hste^ was a place near the 
Sraie» where it is joined by the AndieUe* (See Fleiiry, Hitt* 

{72). Gl^ JLdbeiti> lac cit\ and Sammarthan. tS. 

>(79>.Ilie Sammarthaiii, (ib.). i c fe igr i pg t» the efaveniele of 
Ademar^ rj^lacehis dcaithl in 875*]i^ clmxiieley aocofd* 
iagito. LaM>erfl'tedrtton> the year mwrked for it is 8W» In th^ 

VOL, III.- . U ; - 


jjijynlmic the ranns of the mstyr SuBmagMmm die 
<he» Chefke the held mrtniM the inpenal throne. If this 
teCiea be oovrect, thedeediof EfieBCMuiotbe iibcedbdaee87& 
Fer Chalks was not empenNruDtfl the hrtter end of 875. Tetiiie 
pawige nay pedbap be caqphuied itt awaiuag «^^ 
CfaiHes was cmwiied eaofcsor. It adds that IWias died dm^ 
hisre^ As ta the day of his death, a chrotMde of ^ ii n j u i dg a w 
u^kAb the 9M of September. But as it is wrong with teg/md l» 
the yeer of it, it may be wrong also as to the dajr. 

(74) It is surpriziiig that even at this day some wdten fweuasd 
that Erigeaa was a native of Sootland, Ibr imtanre Ohahaws^ in 
lias Biogrqphifisl Oictionaiyy and Bees' Enqrdopedi^ at £r^gaM» 
BolwiAstaiidwg the genend eonseot of sDmanjmsBof real leans- 
19^ wiio have had oocasioa to tieat of him, diat he was an likh. 
iiiiQ* Among the Frendiy Dupin, Fiearjy the anthon of the 
^Qftoii>e liltefaiiey and a crowd of others ; Mo6heini» J. P. Mtnp* 
iE«y A with ether leaivedGermanSiaUagieeojsthkpdiat. Theaor* 
mm9f ErigmUy is akmesoffident. to prove i^aa it means a native 
of£riap£rin»thal.Js^Iidttidr Insteod of fr^gona, we sometjasos 
fart him QtOei Mrmgenot .ejiwcin an oU.MS* wrftten abont 9QQ 
yesil. ago eontiKmng his .ttnosialian o£ the wodo attAuted to 
Djooyiiiisthe Aieopagite^ (SseaDinertatiniiconoenuiighimlqf 
FMiot PaHi^ of St.-6oievieve in the Af^alix to BerpefmtSde 
hfirhTmn,,S,p.90L )n thia dissertatian he ifr pofltiice^ stated 
lo. tlRve been, an hishmati. It is ta be -observed^ diat this. smBame 
was given to him by others; byi soviet as by Siflsbcrf, he was 
oded Minigenai and by aome Etingtruu Certain Scotdiauthon, 
aeoovdmg to their usual mode of sebbing losland of many of 
ittf^disthigiiished men». would fiaa j^e us bdieve that Erigata 
metmsanattveof Air^iathe South^jvest of Soodand. Bot^if he 
was from that place, wmdd Che name not .hare been Airgena or 
dHg€maf Oi'«how could, be have been called Ent^genas fiir 
surdy it w91 not be said<that Air was Aersame as £rin» Bewles, 
what could Sigebert or other continental scbolarB of those di^ 
know about Air in Moisdir.fintaihy a phase which pcdiapa did not 
thee.s»st2 TliesetScatofar.gemiemen be unacqiu^ 
wtthlshe bisloKy of their own countrfr. Tbey ought to ipopiiv that 
^Ajr, Airshire^ &c. did not, m the times of of John SbotuaEii* 
getm, belong to the Scots. They were part of th^ StraAduyd 


or Cunbrian Idngdoin of the Britons^ md did liot get into tht 
possessioii of the Soot» untO the year 946. (See Udier» Pr. p. 
esi and IfuL Chron. ad d. 946. alio Chalmers, Caledonia, VoL i. 
p^ 553» 9eqq<) The country of the British Soota lay in Engena's 
dajnh as wdl as fiom their flrse anival in Britain to the North of the 
filth of Clyde; (see Usher, p. 611, 612, and Lloyd on Chunk 
govemmetUf ch. 1. §, 9. teqq.) and aldiough in 843 by conquering 
the Picts they extended their kingdom to the northward, they did 
not enlaige it to the south of the frith until above 100 years kter. 
it Is true that the Irish Scots are said to have seized upon, about 
At beginning of the 9th centuiy, the^southem point of Scotland 
o^led Giffhmiyftom Gad, Irish. (Usher, p. 667 and Ind. ChroH. 
adA.SiO(k) Buttiiis acquisition did n6t by any means extenfl as 
ftr as An*, ff « Er^na was bom at Air, he was a Briton ; but, 
should the ancient Mtons daim him\«i thefr oountryma% c^ 
should ftnypart of England^ for tins also iias been attemplied, do 
the saime, ^e; national ^ithet, Sodusy is sufficient to dedde the 
question*. The best account I havemet with of this extnundtnaty 
man^ partieulariy of his worics^ is diat given by the Benedictiil^ 
authors of the HiOoife LUterairey Toru v. p. 416| ««i^ 

(75) 'IBbese works weie at tlfat time conadered in Brance as 
of great importance, owing to the then prevalent opinion that 
Dionysius the Areopagite was the same as St. Denis the first bishop 
of Paris. 

(76) Usher has published {Ep,Hib. SylL Noi. », S8*) two of 
these dedicatic^ns, one in terae, the other i|» piosei The fonmer 
b^gins^ thns-; 

** Hanc Cbam, sacro Gineborum nectare fiutam, 
Advena Johannes wp(mdo meo Carolb. 
MittiiBe Kanqgenum, cui r^ia stemmata fblgent, 
Munera votiferi rint tibi grata tui.'' 

In thelmtter John gives aaacooont o£ DiaQnulis and of Aa 
bm booksi qonduding with some vcrs a tf ; ^ 

** Lumme sidereo Oionysw auxit Athenas, 
Areopagites, magmficusq^e saphoi. 
Primo commotus I^iaebum subeunte SeknOf 
Tempore quo stauro fixus erat Dominus," 8cc, 

V 2 


Here, aocoidiiig to his usual practice in his poems, he inter- 
nuzed some Gredc words. 

(77) Anastasaus Bibliothecarius, in. a letter written to Charles 
the bdd» and published by Usher (No. 24. Ep. Hih. Syll.) says ; 
•< It is wonderful how that bubarous man,** (for every one' not 
a Greek or Roman was called barbaroui) *' who placed at the 
" extremity of the world might, in proportion as he was remote 
*• from the rest of -mankind, be supposed to be unacquainted with 
** other languages, was able to comprehend such deep things 'and 
** to render them in another timgue. I mean John the ScarigenOt 
** whom I have heard spoken of as a holy man in every respect 
** But he has greatly diminished the advantage, that mi^t be de- 
" rived from such an undertaking, having been over-cautious in 
" giving word lor word--7which I think he had no other reason 
•* fiar than that, as he was an humble man, he did not presume 
" to deviate from the precise meaning of the words, lest he m^^ 
** in any wise injure the truth of the text. But the consequence 
"•* has been^ that he has involved an author, sufficiently difficult 
** in himself, in labyrinths, and has left him, whom he proposed 
*f to explain, so as still to require explanation." 

(78) The ponUficate of Nkholas I. began in 858, and ended 
in 867. 

§. VII. Meanwhile Jobn was engaged in teaching 
philosophy, and, it seeing at lea§t for some time, 
at Paris. That which he explained to his disciples, 
was of a mixed, and in great part, a very bad sort. 
(79) Before the above mentioned translation ap* 
peared, he published a treatise on divine predesti- 
nation in 1 9 chapters. At this period there were 
great disputes in France concerning the mysteries of 
predomination and grace, to which the opinions and 
writings of the monk Gothescale had given rise. 
This is not the jplace to give an account of that 
celebrated controvei*sy ; and it will be sufficient to 
observe that, while Gothescale was defended by 
^ Prudentius,. bishop. of Trpies, Florus a deacon of 
Lyons, Lupus of Ferrieres, Ratramn of Corbie, and 


Remigius, archbishc^ of Lyons, he was opposed by 
Hincmar, archbishop of Kheims, Rabanus, arch* 
bidiop of Mentz, and some others. A party of his 
opponents were not'content with having got him con- 
demned by one or two synods, but, with the over- 
bearing Hincmar at their head, procured to have 
him cruelly flogged and thrown into prison in the 
year 849. Gothescale was in this prison, when 
Hincmar and Pardulus, bishop of Laon, finding his 
doctrine abetted in tracts written by Prudentius, 
Lupus, and Ratramn, applied to John to draw up a 
treatise on predestination. He complied with their 
request, and dedicated the work to them, some short 
time before B52. In it he relied too much on logi- 
cal subtleties, and fell into various errors. Among 
other stranee opinions, which he is chained with 
having held, striving to maintain that there is only 
one predestination, viz. that of the elect, he ad* 
vanced that, sin and punishment being mere priva- 
tions, God cannot foresee them, nor, in consequence, 
predestine to punishment ; that the pains of the 
damned are only their sins, or the tormenting recol- 
lection of them ', that the damned will at length en- 
joy all natural advantages ; that the irregular move* 
ments of the will can be punished, but that our na^* 
tare itself is not capable of punbhment ; and that 
human nature is not subject to sin, alluding to ori- 
ginal sin. As soon as this treatise was published, 
Venilo, archbishop of Sens, sent extracts from it to 
Prudentius, requesting him to refute the errors it 
contained. Prudentius was shocked at finding in 
themi as he thought, the bad principles of Pelagius 
and Origen. Having procured the whole work, he 
judged that it was of a downright Pelagian kind, 
and in 852 set about refuting it, chapter by chapter, 
and position by position. Ihe same extracts being 
sent also to Lyons, the deacon Florus was en- 
gaged by the ecclesiastical authority of that city to 


draw up an answer to them, which he did much in 
the same manner as Prudoitius had. (80) The 
19 chapters of John were condemned by the thiid 
council of Valence, held in bdS, which repsesents 
them as conclusions of impertinent syllogisms con- 
taining inventions of the devil rather than any pro- 
position of faijth. (8 1 ) This condemnation was con- 
firmed in 859 by a council of Langres, and in the 
same year, it is said, by Pope Nicholas I. (8S) Be- 
sides the errors of which he was guilty in this tract, 
John has been chai*ged with often contradicting him- 
self, and now starting an assertion and now unsay- 
ing it. (83) 

(79) Moaheim aays (Ecd^ Hktory at 9th ceniuiyy Part 2. ck. 
I.} that John taught the plnloflophy ci Anstode ; but as Bnicker 
diows, and will be seen lower down» it was rather of the new Fla* 
tonists of the Alexandrian schooL 

(80) See Fleuiy, L. 4<i9. §. 58. These works of Prudentius and 
Flolrus, as also that of John, to which they replied, may be seen 
in the interesting collection (published by G. Mauguin) Veterum 
auctarumi qui i^ono seeulo de fraedestinatione et gratia scrtpte- 
runt. Usher has published in his Histoiy of the GodiesodeiaQ 
controveiy fp. 115. feqq.) an old lynopsis of Jolm's chi^iters. 

(81) In quHnu commentum diabdli poHus quam argumentum 
diquodjidei deprehenditur!* See Fleuiy, L^ 4<9. §. 83. 

(82) AnnaL Bertinianiy and Fleoiy, ti. $. i8. 

(88) Fhid^tius states (cap. 19.) that John pronounces eternal 
miseiy to the damned, to whom he had a little higher up pro- 
mised joy, &C. at a certain period; <' Ecc9 consuetimma tibi 
cofitrarietate miseriam aetemam indtm^ quHiu Paulo ante gau' 
dtiimf pulckritudinem^ gloriamy JiJgoremque contulerasJ* Floros 
brings the same charge against him ; ^* Mirandum est nimisy quo- 
mode dicat omnium impiorum et Angdarum et kominum corpora 
ftetemi ignis supplicnim perpesmroy quod superku tarn aperte et 
tarn muUipUater ntgpfoit; quod utique ,in hoc loco out Jiicte et do- 
tote coifewa eel; et abominahilis est JDeo, qui defde gus in corde 
tenet mendaciumy et in ore xmk quasi proferre veritatemf autU 


vffre ipta ret veriMey tt Hmore qffkitewmt Eccmme iuptrohu ne 
mnnino u^idgkaJmUcarehtry hoc eanftwm td^ oociui mA ^mmano 
ei casta ttdisi can/hmoj quam superiui tamia M iam miMplei 
praecesnt negaH&T He sayt also that, after hii having laid do«Fn 
'that prescieDoe and predestinatfoit urece the uanei he afterwards 
teaftoflfld that they were difiertnit; ^* Qui hadenm praeidmikm 
ei praededinaihnem unum adHruxeraSj nunc d^flifte^ qamiiinu 
subdoiey conJUeritr In fact, John's work is wtttten in such a 
manner, and m such a constant run of syllogisdisal acuteness, that 
it is often diHeuh to catch at the real meaning of his cqateat. 
Betodes, he uses some words in a sense peculiar to himself, par- 
ticulaiiy the term nature. He lays down that huipan nature 
cannot be corrupted by sin, and aooordingly dyotndt be pun- 
ished; but that it is the will that is capable of sinning, lind ^xm* 
sequently of punishment, llras, treating of original fion, he lays 
{cap. 17. $. S.) that in the (imt man the generality <^ nature <Ud 
not sin, but the individul wiH of, (for he states that this 
individual will of every one was contained in that c^ Adam) and 
that it would be unjust to punish any one for the' sin of another ; 
** Non 'Uaque in eo (primo Homine) pecceeoH naturae genertdkoiy 
ted tmicujusque vndvMua votuntas-^n Uto (primo homine) per se 
ipium singulus guisque potuii proprium commUiere ddietum; in 
nuUo quippe vindiceUur juste akerius peccaium. It appears almost 
certain, that he did not acknowledge any corruption or enfeeble- 
ment not only of human nature, but even of the will as caused by 
the sin of Adam ; but, for fear of being considered as a professed 
Fdi^an, and a denier of original sin, he recurred to the e^ctnip 
vagant hj^thesis, that every one, that is, every descendiait of 
Adam, committed the same actval sin, and at the same time, that 
Adam dki. Thus the sin of Adam, as committed by him alone, 
did not affisct his posterity ; ^r^ as he says, it would be unjust to 
•punish any one for another person's sin ; but every one oommittied 
an actual sin on that odlttion. Now this hypothesis, if admltled» 
might stand without the necessity of admitting what the Church 
has always considered as original sin, or of supposing that either 
human nature or any of its faculties has been impairedby it« Then 
he adds that nature is not at all punished, because it is from God, 
and does not sin ; but that a voluntary movement making a libi« 
diBous use of the good of nature is justly punished ; " Proinde in 


nvBo na^ra fUMtur^ quia ex Deo esi et nonpeecai; motus eattem 
vobmtarhu liUdinoge utens naturae dono meriio pumiturr The 
constant perfecdon of nstare it one of his great prind|^ea» and 
another is, that no natee can be .fwnish^ by another. Thenoe 
he concludes, that God has not made any punishment, and that 
the punishment of sinners are nodiing dse than tJbe sins them" 
selves* Accordingly he heads the 16th chapter j^^ these words; 
'' De eo quod nulla natutam'punitj ei nikil aliud esiepoenaf pec*- 
€atorum nisipeccata eofumr — Then, gmng on with his dialectics, 
he says ; << Proculdubie igUur tenendum nuUam naturam ab alia 
natura ;^uniriy acperh6e nuUam poenam a Deo essejadam/' 
whence he ddducies that no punishment has heen foreknown or 
predestined by God; ^^mimdeque nee ah eo (foeRam)prae$citam nee 
praedeetinatam"** It \a a«general .axiom of his that God cannot 
foresee any thiDg, of which bei is. not the author^ 9^ therefore he 
maintains that he does not jfor^see sin or evil* llius, besides many 
other passages to this purport, fa|^ says {cap. 1(X) '< Sicut Deus 
maU auctor wm est, ita nee pr^uadus mali nee praedestinaifu est" 
This is strai^ dootrioe indeed^ as; if God could not foresee ne- 
gsifons or aberrations fr<Ha Ins iaws. firom these principles he 
comes to the main pointy which he was endeavouring to prove, 
vfz. that there is< no predestination of the damned, 1. «. that the 
Almighty has not, in consequence of his foreknowledge of sins, 
predeteimined and prepared punishments for the peppetraHMrs of 
them ; for, if he does not foresee sins, nor make punishments, how 
'can a jx^estination of this sort. He ppndudes the work 
mikf in a very audacious apd .consequential inani^^r, anathema- 
tizing all those^ who hokl more ^han one predestination, that of 
the blessed ; for, be says, there is only one, viz, as to things that 
exist, but not as to those that do not. Connected with tin's theoiy 
is his maxim, that predestination is nothing else than foreseeing ; 
^hu9 wereadYcop. 18.^; *^ Non aliud igitur praedeetinare quam 
praevidere" Here and there we me^t^tlth some very singidar 
noticms ; for instance, speaking (cap. 17.) of the fire of the future 
state, he says, that it is not a punishment, and that in it will dwell 
the happy as well as the roiserfdiie, '^ non minus habitabunt beati 
quam miseri;' but that, as light is pleasing to some eyes, and to 
others hurtful and pernicious, as food is agreeable to some and to 
others destructive, &c. in like manner said fire will be cheering to 


the blessed and doleful to the damned. In the 19th chapter he 
teDs US) that the bodies of the saints will be changed into an aethe- 
real quality, as likewise those of the damned who will renjoy aO 
the goods of nature except beatitude, whicb> he adds, is from 
gmce.. Here he seems to state, that there will foe no'di0ereoce 
between the blessed and the unblessed, except that the former 
will enjoy heavenly beatitude, while the latter will be lefi in a sort 
of tranquil state of nature. It does not ap|)ear to me, that John 
was 60 liable to contradict himself as Prudentius and Ilonit 
iqiagined; but I allow, that the art, with wluch he manages his 
terms and reasonings, is apt to make one think, that be sometunes 
fidls into contradictions. Oh the whole, his hock is lull of bad 
and dangerous opinions, and is mudi more philosophical than 
truly theological. And how could it be otherwise? He com- 
menced it by announcing, that every question is solved by the 
four rules of philosc^hy; ** Qjuadnwio regularum totius philo* 
fophiae quatuor omnetn guaestianem soM" But theology is 
fbunded on revelation, and is not to be mangled by the Qfiadruf 
tium. He sometimes quotes the Fathers, particularly St. Au< 
gustin, but in the quibbling and clipping mode of c^tbus pole- 
nucal disputants. John was catainly not a learned divine, as Mo- 
sheim calls him, (at 9^ ceni^. Part 2. ch. 2.) although it must be 
allowed that, as Mosheim adds, he was of uncommon sqgacity^and 
genius; and I agree with this author fib. ch. I. J that he was the 
firsil;, who joined scholastic with mystic theology. For, the scho* 
lastic theology, which the world could have done veiy weD with* 
out, had been (Mracdsed in Ireland some time before John flou- 
rished, as Mosheim observes, (at 8th cent*. Part. 2. duS,) where 
he says that th^ Irish, who were distmguished beyoi^ all other 
European nations for knowledge, wore the first teachers of scho- 
lastic theology. Whether what he adds concerning their spuming 
at authority in theological matters at that period be true or not, I 
shall not stop to inquire. I may, however, remark, whatever may 
be thought of John, that Dungal, who was not longiN^ior to him^ 
and who was a real theok)gian, had a great respect for. authority 
relatively to theological questions, aa we have seen (Chap, xx; 
§. 13.) fit>m his treatise againt Claudius of Turin. 

. ■ • ■ 

§• VIII. Many of the erroneous opinions, into 


ifhick his sort of philosophy led hitii, are to be 
foiisd in his work On Natures^ mpi ^ vrf»v^ writteo 
ihi form of a dialogHe, and divided ittto five i)Oo1cs. 
(M) It b^ns with a division of natures into fonr 
sorts ; 1. 'niat, which creates and is not created ; 
£• That> which creates and is created ^ S . That, 
wliich does not create and is created ; 4. That 
mbich neither creates nor is created* In the three 
first books John treats of the three first sorts, and 
lit ihe two following he explains the return of the 
created natures into the increated one. ^e says, 
that God has created from all eternity in his Son 
the priinordial causes of all things, goodness by itself, 
essence by itself, life by itself, greatness by itself, 
peace by itself^ and so on as to the other Platonic 
ideas. He teaches, that the humanity of our Lord 
has been entirely changed into his divinity after his 
' resurrection ; that the wickedness and punishments 
of devils, and of all the damned in general, will end, 
at some time ; that at the general resurrection all 
sensible and corporeal things will pass into the 
human nature ; that the body of roan will be trans- , 
formed into his soul ; that the soul will pass into the 
mimordial causes, and these into God, so that, as 
before the existence of the world there was nothing 
but God and the causes of all things in God, there 
will b^ after its end nothing else than God and the 
eauses of all things in God. To this he applies a 
passage of Solomon, All that xvas^ that which will be. 
as if, he adds, ** Solomon plainly said, that God 
alone and the causes of all things in him was before 
the world ; and that afterwards he, and the causes 
of all things in him, will be alone. ^' (85) On va- 
rious occasions John speaks like a downright Pan- 
th^t, and a member of the school of Pseudo*Dio- 
nysius and the new Platonists. He states that, when 
it is said that God makes all thii^, this means that 
he is in /til things, f. e. that the essence of all things 
subsista — that in God there is no accident, and that 


therefore it was not an accident in God to csMte tbe 
universe, and consequently tliat he was not.sidNMfcing 
before he did create it. (86) He says, that all Ibings 
are God, and God all things — ^tbat Grod is tiue 
maker of all things and made in all. (87) Tbea 
we find him advancing some strange potttiooEis . of 
another kind, ex. c. that the division of htinmn in*- 
ture into sexes was a consequence of sin, iis foreseen 
by God, that the souls of beasts cannot pendb, &c* 

(84) This work has been called by some w-f^i ^^9m\ fM^t^^f or 
'of the dioision of Natures. F. Paris (see above N^*^4(^ (||]4pecla9 
that fM^iTftSi was added by some one that wished to shreen dbe dia. 
racter of John, as if, in case he should be chaiged with |||e faepe* 
sies, in which the wt^) ^vnmf abounds, it mighl be answered Ami 
this was not his work, but the 'one with the additioo^^f^if^K. TUs 
is a ftr fetched conjecture, and, I believe, quite uofiHinded ; fiw 
that addition might have been made to the title pn account of die 
division of natures being treated of in the - woj^ and mxtm old 
writers make mention of it sometimes with and sometimea withoul 
that addition. F. Paris had closely examined it, and has .given 

asummaiyof its doctrines in the first artide of his disaertaljon. I 
shall follow his account of them, together with that given by 
Brucker in his histoiy of philosophy, as I have not at hami the edi* 
tion published by Thomas Gale at Ox&rd in 1681. 

(85) See the dissertatbn by F. Paris. 

(86) In Deo non est accidens ; itaqtue n^ est I)eo acddens 
universitatem condere* Non erga Deus erot 4ub$istent aniepum 
universitatem ^CreartU,** 

(87) ** Omnia esse Deum, ei Deum esse omnia^Deum esse 
omnium Jaetorem, et in omnibus Jactum** 

(8S) Coiq>are with Brudcer Histor. PhUa^opk. Tarn. iii. p, 
621, seqq, where more may be seen concerning his . extF^M^gaiit 
and indeed antichristian doctrines. Brucker does not, hesitate Co' 
call him a Pantheist. 

^« IX. John also wrote a metaphysiaal tract On4he 
vision of God i but what doctrine he laid down in it 


I am not able to tell. His book on the Eucharist 
appeared before 861 or 862. (89) It is not extant, 
tne copies of it having disappeared since it was con- 
demned by the council of Vercelli in 1050, (90) 
Hence it is impossible to discover his precise system 
on that mystery ; some thinking that he admitted 
the real presence^ denying transubstantiation ; and 
others, that he denied both. (9l) That this tract 
contained, or was at that time supposed to contain, 
some errors, appears from an answer by Adrevald, 
a monk of Fleury, who in his treatise, Contra inep- 
tiaSi Johannis Scoti, brought forward passages from 
the Fathers in opposition to it. (92) Vet it seems 
that it was not easy to ascertain in what particular 
doctrine John meant to insinuate, or whether he 
really denied the real presence, although Ascelin, 
who lived in the eleventh century, and who had read 
his treatise, thought that his real object was to do so. 
(93; If he did, which by the bye we are not bound 
to believe, he certainly deviated from the doctrine 
held in Ireland concerning the holy Eucharist, 
which was evidently that of the real presence. (94) 
Nor is there any sufficient reason to think, that it 
was on account of this tract that Pope Nicholas I. 
in his letter to Charles the bald concerning John's 
translation of Dionysius Areopagites, which, he says, 
ought to have been sent to the Holy see for its ap- 
probation, observes that John had been reported by 
many to have formerly held some bad doctrines. It 
can scarcely be doubted, that the errors alluded 
to by the Pope were those contained in the book on 

Eredestination, and which the said Pope is said to 
ftve condemned- in 859. (95) The story of John's 
having left France in consequence of being accused 
of heresy, and of his taking shelter with Alfred the 
great English king, is as unfounded as any thing can 
be. (96) John was probably never in England, ex- 
cept that perhaps he passed through it on his way to 
France. During the pontificate of John VIII. which 


did not begin until the latter end of 872, he was 
still in France, as appears from some Greek.and Latin 
verses addressed by him to the king Charles, after 
which he has others, in which that rope is praised. 
(9?) It is more than probable, as will be soon seen, 
that he was dead before he could have been received 
by Alfred. If there was any time, at which John 
would have gone to England in consequence of wish- 
ing to shun persecution in the continent, it should 
have been during the pontificate of Nicholas L after 
his propositions bad been condemned by the councils 
of Valence and Langres, and after Nicholas had 
written concerning him to Charles the bald. Now . 
Alfred, with whom, according to the story, he took 
refuge, was not king until after the death of Pope 
Nicholas } and, after he became king, he was too 
much engaged in his Danish wars to set about pro<- 
moting learning and encouraging learned men, which 
in fact he did not apply to until about 8S3. Some 
English writers, aware of this difficulty, hswe deferred 
John's reception bv Alfred until said year 883 ; (98) 
but this is a ridiculous supposition, for which there 
is not the least authority in the genuine and coeval 
accounts that remain of Alfred's proceedings. As- 
serius, his friend and biographer, makes no mention 
of John, notwithstanding the particular care he took 
in describing the literary men, whom Alfred m^^ 
couraged and had at his court. He speaks indeed of 
a John, who, invited by Alfred, went over to him 
from France in 884. This John was quite different 
from John Scotus ; for, as Assierius informs us, he 
was an Eald-Saxon, that is» apparently a continental 
Saxon, a priest and monk, and became abbot of 
Aetheling or Athelingey. (99) The other John was 
m Irishman, nor was he ever either a priest or monL 
Yet, strange to say, to prop up the fable of John 
Scotus having been with Alfred, he has been con- 
foomded with John of Aetheling. It would be a 
waste of words to enlarge on this subject, and I shall 


mfywidikAliMJmtm Itted in hk monastery untM 
ttir n i bmt w hi ch yetr^ke inis Uiled by two hirdi 
stssassifia ((OQ) 

(Wy HiMire Litteime, Tmn.5.BtEngena. MMSkmdm^jt^ 
dait'i^waiwritteabeftre 859» the year in wfaidi Hkicmar «iU 
diM06dhbiieecmAtreatM:onpnd€8tH8doii to Charles the bftUL 
(See Ac$m Ben. See. 4 Poyi. 2. j9r^ $. 8.) 

(90)- Seme learned men, and pavdcolaiiy F* Paris (DineHaUan^ 
4^) hate eudeavoared to psore, that the fiunoos tract De carport 
dt'Mangtdne Dcmnih puldidied under the name of Bertram, is 
tibff identicid woric of John. It is stnii^, that they could hare 
teijfght 8»; &r there is a marked diifisrenoe betwteett the style of 
lim trealise and that ef John's, real writings* His style is stzoi^, 
nervous, and of a dose, bold, autfadritative kind. That of De 
eofpatBf &c is radier ctiffiise, and withal often involved and oh- 
sen, besfiles not beh^ ^piite ag correct as John's. But it is noiW 
ttBiviereally admitt^, that said tract was written by Ratramn the 
tdebeated mo&k. of Coillier who was oontempoiaiy with John. 
I1iiskasbe^>provedfiomwTitev8 who lived above 800 yeans ago, 
by MsbShn (AmaL B^tk ad A\ 858. and Pr^. ad Ada Ben. 
See. 4. i*i»i^ 2i§. 6. seqif:) and after hioi by odie^ (See Hia. 
Letters ^ at R(i0^a:ime.) If it had been written by John> he 
could not be aoca^ed 'of having denied the real presence Jn the 
EtSQ^Bariirt or even t^snsubBtantiation. For, besides JamesBelliMi 
Doeto^ of Sott>oMe, MabiUon, and the authors of WO. Later, 
hme deaiiy^showvs that it does not cenfiaii^ any such^denial; and^ . 
netwJthstancBHg ail- the noise raised by the CaimiBts wfio supposed 
that it favoured^ their system, the very Centuriators of Magdeburg 
stiie, that it coptaiiied tlie seedis of tranaiibstantiation. 

(91) See HuL Letter, ib^ at Brigena* 

(99) MabiUon, Armjoi. Ben. ad A. 858; It i»a^ small tract, 
csansisting of a tissue of passages ftbm Saints Jerome^ Augustitk and 
Ghnegory, explanatoiy of the true doctraleef the Eudiacist. Tlie 
autboi^ dbes not qiiete any of John's words, n^ does' he oiter h9S^ 
reasonings. It has been publii^lied by D'Ache^, ^pmie^. 2ter* 
I^ aX. 1. and isllid to have been written about 870. 

(93) Asodin^says that a person could net at fit«t perceived what 
was JohnV meaning as totlie mystery ef the Budtartst, because^ 


Ml» ft' ppiiOMr, he prcftoifted some cUagi 
butiAi^ would produce d^efth ; and Att, 
peaipges of the Fathers, he ifoioA fkooi fef hit, ^dttei.- Thm 
hamg quoted froni the ICmI of St Giagoiy the fclhniaf 
pof^, «< Pfrfirif^ in nM$ tua^ Dominei sOerwimiia fmd ceth' 
tm^y tUf fttUe mine speeie gmmu$^ rtrum verikHe^.cafiamwf^ 
OnthiftJobn added; ^^ Speeie gerHtOurnoH verit^W Aabelfai, 
Epigl^ 0i Beren^agt. in notk ad Vit^ Lmmfr* Hetiee he dedooed 
that Jc^n: uteuded t^ show, thitt wliat kcsnsttcnled on' the 
attar is tiot trul^ the body or Uood of Chnst* Biitwi&AaodM 
leav% John ini|^t ha^ written these few words without nn^nigig 
to denj the real presenoe. His object in%ht have been to states 
that akhoo^ the holj Eucharist iqopean under the' tem^of btead 
and wtfte^ yet it is not xea% bread'and win^ but onljf appMWCiy 
•0. Batranm t^tfotes'tbe same prayer^ and'tna&is tlie same ol^ 
sfirvation on it as that of J<^ i yet It. is certain^ that iis doii^ so 
didiiotniean to impugnt he real {>te8eQce. Soaae oAtr^praoft shoidd 
he adduced to show clearly .that John iea% denied that doctficie^ 
andl gi^eatiy doubt whether they can be foond* Riaoinar itt Us 
second tnalisd on predestirtttiony addroBsed- to ChMes^tlke baMia 
%SBty says, that some persons in ht&time held Various eiyors, anieilg 
whiah he mentions that of the saciaiii6nt of the altar not bdng ^ 
tnebodjr and the true blood of the Lord^ but only themteaoiy of 
them; ^^ fnorf sacra^zenta o&irrjf non verttm corpu^M ww stf^ 
gimsii Domini ; sed tsuitkm wtemoria veri eorpork et $ali^guinky 
It la apoally supposed that he idladed to Ji^^ becauseeon^of the 
othereifDXSt which he mattes, are found in Jphb'B treatise on ywi- 
destinadain.'or injdiewoiic bh.Natui«& This, Howevei^ Is notoefetaiii . 
aiid> eiwn admitting it was theease, Hincmar mi^^luree nisundeiw 
etoodlasmeabingiiL the same — nwaer as agreat nuiMbervf pttaons 
faarennisundeEStooddl^t ofRatramn? J^din might have said in a very 
orthodox, senses that iiie sacrament of the altar is a naeoMy or coobh 
memomdon of tte true body and blood' of Cbnst, supposii^ attfae 
samOiliiBie that thej were really present, although not in the sasae 
fanDoa manner as they wereduring our. SaTionr'anusssoa on eaith, 
when* he' waa visibly, and appeand ha human shape, with dicthict 
Vaib0, &C.' 1£ it be true,^ that John stated that the saoamentof 
the aliar/ is iot the iroe bedy and the fra^ blood of the Lord, he 
nii|^:haFeundenitoedthe wordirue relativdy to terayatBarof 
Pascasius Radbertus^ who held that the body of Christ in the 



Eochani^iddiotigh invisible to ti8,um the sambfor^ as it proceed- 
ed fimn his blessed' Mother, as it suAered on the cross, imd n^ it 
rose from the dead. According to him^ the phrtise true body, 
.miBant a palpable body, such as our &iviour had during his mission 
on earth, and such as he has in heaven. Now other learned 
'men^ and v^ good Catholics, maintained that the body and bbod 
of Chfist, dliiough really and substantially present iii die sacra- 
jment^of •the.altar, are not. there ubder the £»rm of a^^a^body and 
bloody as meant by Bsscasios, 1)ut in a spiritual^ and not in a cot- 
Inn^ or carnal manner. Verdn says, (Beguia fidei CetihoL cap, 
i{« ^.11;) ^^ that the body of Chisst under'4he i^mbols not only 
can be caUed spiritual and Christ himself Spirits * but likewise 
besaid to beunder/the ^^rmbols in a spiriiual manner ot 9pi- 
fituallyy aa animal. or. corporeal matmer or cfffporeaMy 
€fc carnally " He..ihen.:gives his proofs; ^' Probaiur, ^uia est 
tbiad^modtm'spirittu.multipticiterfScilidetnetU angdusest hk 
\9eliibi imnsiiUitii impatibilia ; -et totus t» tatOtetxtotus .miquaRiet 
pairte;'. at enim . indivtdkiMsf «i nori JtongUAlis z ^ka Corpm 
(^mtif seu Chriituafnesilsukjsymbolis imisiiAifi^jiinpiaibiksy et 
t0t^$ in^MOftt tatuf $ub quialiket^pdrtey qma ibi'eeiyikdwisikUistt 
non JrangibUis. . Mddm veroiexktendi corpormks^ . sea .corporaU" 
ter et carnaUt^r.existerey est existere viMiliii&rf patibiliter teeun' 
dum extensionein tad' iotum, seu.totum in toto^ et partem in' parity 
etjrangibmter ; ergo corpus Ckristi, seu Chri^us^ est in sytnbo^ 
'lis ^nritusdi ntodo seu spiritualitery et ndn xorporali seu camaiif 
-nee oorpamUter seu cah^nliter ib:i£do sensuy &c. Veron provei, 
4faal «hia.dodarine> is^flerfectly consonant with that of the ooimcil of 
.TienI;, se9s» IS. If John, speaking of .thccommemoEation of the 
true body and true blood of the Lord,, had said that the body and 
iblood ivere iiot present in any maimer, hexould be justly charged 
Tidthihaving denied the. real 'presence, i But Hincmar jdoes nofeaay 
•that he did ; and perhaps Hincmar was a follower of Pa8cfaaati% 
and consequently supposed that ihose^ who opposedhim as to the 
mode of Christ's presence in the.Eucfaarist ^Ibr as to the substance 
and reality of Jthe presence there, was. no . question) were in enor. 
Nor is there any sufficient auihorify ibr making John, say, that in 
the eudianstical cdmmemonitbn the body and. bk>od of Cbriat 
are absent* Thas.faas been asserted by Mosheim, who writes {iul 
Sec IX. <fWi. 2. cap. 3. f. 90.) that John^tanght " pahem. et 


vinum ah$ent%s corporis el sanguinis Chrisd esse signa et imagines/* 
Mofiheiin gives us no voucher for this position, nor, I believe^ 
could he. Any declaration of this kind made by John would have 
roused the whole world against him ; for, as M osheim himself, 
when entering on the histoiy of the Pascasian controversy, ob- 
serves, it had been hitherto the unanimous opinion of the Church 
that the body and blood of Christ were administered to those, who 
received the sacrament of the Lord's supper, 'and that they were 
really present in that holy institution ; but as to the mode of this 
presence there were various opinions, and there was not as yet 
any decision of the Church on this subject. Now the question ex- 
cited by the work of Pascasius was relative merely to the mode or 
form, in which the body and blood of Christ are present in the sa- 
crament of the altar, and not to the presence itself It was said 
work that gave occasion to John to draw up his treatise ; and 
I have not as yet met with any decisive proof that he went farther 
in it than merely to impugn the system of Pascasius relative to 
the mode of Christ's presence. Yet, as the question was of a veiy 
nice and intricate nature, he probably used certain expressions^ 
whidi some persons might have considered as heterodox. 

(94) The very phrases used by the old Irish writers, when 
speaking of the celebration of Mass, are alone sufficient to show, 
what was the general belief on this point. Tl^ey call it the sacri^ 
fice, the sacrifice of salvation, the mysteries of the sacrifice, the 
sacrificial mystery, the sacred mysteries of the Eucharist, the mys- 
teries of the sacred Eucharist; sacrtficium salutis, sacrifidi myi" 
ierioy sacrificate mystertumy sacra Eucharistiae wysteria, sacrae 
Eucharistiae mi/steria. (See St. Gallus ap. fFal. Strab. V* S. G. 
Zr. 1. r. 18. Cumineus, Li/eofSU Columhay cap, 4<. and Adam- 
nan, Zr. 1. c 40. L. 2. c. 1. Z. S. c. 12. apd 17* &c.) Strong, 
however, as these expressions are, which oould not be used were 
the body and blood of Christ supposed not to be really present, 
we find still stronger ones. Thus, the cdebration of Mass is ex- 
pressed by the making <^ the body of Christ. Adamnan relates, 
(Ir. I.e. 44.) that on a Sunday St. Columba ordered Cronan, whom, 
althoo^ a bishop, he thought to be only a priest, Christi corput 
_ ex mare conficere. (See above Nat. 182. to Chap, xi.) The oon- 
secratioQ of the Eucharist is called by those writers, immdatwH of 
the euti hast or of the sacred Lord*s sacrifice; and the sacramen« 



tel communion is expressed by the phrase, receiving the body dni 
Hood of Christ or of the Lord. In the ancient Life of Si. Ita we 
read (cup. 17*) that on a solemn day, wishing to receive from the 
hand of a worthy priest the body and blood of Christy she went to 
Clonmacnois and there received in a secret manner the body and 
blood of the Lord, It b added that the clergy, not knowing what 
was become of the body and blood of the Lord, were greatly 
alarmed and fasted together with the people until it was dis- 
covered, that Ita had received it. Then the priest, who had im- 
molated the host» f^immolavit hostiam) which St. Ita received, 
went to see her, &c. (See above Chap, xi. $.3.) Cogitosus, de- 
scribing ( Vit. S, Brigidae, cap. S5,J the church of Kildare, says 
that by one door the bishop entered with his clergy to immolate 
the sacred Lord's sacrifice, sacra et Dominica immolare sacrijicia ; 
aiid that by another the abbess and her nuns entered, that they 
i^^t enjoy the banquet of the body and blood of Jesus Christ, 
vt cqnvivio corporis et sanguinis fruantur Jesu CJiristi, Another 
phrase for the celebration of Mass was, with the old Irish, the 
offering of Christ* s body. In the first Life of St. Kieran of Saigir 
{pap. 25.) it is said, that on every Christmas night, afler his com- 
munity had received the sacriflcefrom his handy he used to go to 
the nunnery 6f St. Cocchea there to ofier the body of Christ, ut 
corpus Christi offerret. Whenever the viaticum received before 
death is mentioned in the lives of our saints, it is usually called the 
sficred body and blood of the Lord; thus we read of St. Furaey 
(Lifcy L. I. c. 59* J that he died j9o^/ sacri corporis et sanguinis 
sttmptam vivijicationem; and of St. Fechin (Lifcy cap. 48.) that, 
sacrosancti corporis et sanguinis Dominici sacramentis munitust 
he gave lip his spirit to his Creator. 

Besides the use of these phrases, we find some of our ancient 
writers positively asserting that the body and blood of Christ are in 
the Eucharist, St. Columbanus of Bebbio, in his tract Depoeni- 
tentiarum mensura taxanda, (ap.Bibl.Patr. Tom. 12.) lays down 
No. 42. that confession be required deligently before Mass, lest a 
person should receive unworthily ; for, he says, the altar is the. 
tribunal of Christ,, and his body, which is there with his blood, 
marics out those who s^proach in an unworthy state ; tribunal enitn 
Christi altar Cy et corpus suum inibi cum sanguine indicat indignos 
accedenteu Sedulius, the commentator of St. Paul, in a note a(ter 


the Word, Take and eat; this u my body; (1 Cor, xu 24-) BsHyii 
^^ As if Pttul said, l^ware liot to eat that \xAj onwotthily, wh^mis 
it is the body of Chiidt; Q|«m PauluSy Ca^de He iBud corpus 
indigne conteddtis^ dum corpus Ckristi est.** Usher, eiideUvour- 
*ilg (Discourse on the rdigum of thi anekni Irish) to squeeze 
S(^fDething against the real preaeiKJe out of this Sedulius, has very 
unbecomingly omitted the now quoted passage, but gives us ano« 
ther, that conies just after it, in which SeduHus remarks on the 
wdrds, in remembrance qfme^ (ibj that Christ " left a memory yf 
himself unto us, just as if one, that was going on a distant joum^, 
should leave some token with him whom he loved ; that as ofteh 
as he b^eld it he might call to his remembrailce his benefits and 
friei^dship." How this passage mib'tates agiainst the doctrine of the 
real presence I cannot discover, especially after SeduliuS having 
said what we have seen abotft the body of Christ. Any Catholic 
mi^ht 9p&Bk in that mannisr, if treating of the institution of the 
holy sacrament, which is certainly commemorative of Christ's 
passion and the benefits received through it It is accordingly a 
Vdbat af Christ's love for us ; but this does not exclude las being 
really present in it, although in a manner di^rent from that^ in 
which' he apt)eared on the cross. At this very day the Catholics 
use expressions similar to that of Sedulius. In a lesson, written 
by St. Thomas of AqUinoj of the ofiice for Corpus Christi day it 
is statM, th^t in the sacrameht *< is kept up the memory of that 
" most excellent charity, which Christ showed in his passion*— 
'< and that in the last supper, when, having celebrated the Pasch 
« with his disciples, he was about to pass from this world to his 
" Father, he institutied \h\A sacrament as a perpetual memorial of 
<< his passidn, a ftilfilmeiit of the ancient figures, the greatest of 
" the miraicles wrought by him, and thus left a singular comfort 
** to the persdhs grieved for his absence." Would any one quote 
this passage in o{^sition to the doctrine of the real [H^sence* 
on account o' said doctrine not being expressly mentioned in it ? 
But, it may be said, that doctrine is laid down in a former lesson 
taken from the said tract of St. Thomas. To this I rqdy, that 
Sedulius had m like manner expressed that doctrine immediately 
before the wqrds quoted by Usher, who, had he wished to act 
fairiy, should have produced both passages. He alleges also what 
Sedulius has concerning " our offering daily (in the Mass) for the 

X 2 



Commemoration of the Lord's passion, once perfijrmed, and our 
own salvation." What has this to do with the question ? Wfaal- 
ever some divines may have speculated about the nature of the 
sacrifice of the Mass, it is certainly commemorative of the Lord's 
passion, and daives ail its virtue from the one passion on the cross ; 
and it is &r from being an article of Catholic belief, that in .the 
celebration of Mass there is any such thing as a new passion of 
Christi << What is,'' says Bossuet, (Hia.des Variations^ L*vu 
§. 37.) " the sacrifice (of the Mass) except Jesus Christ present 
in the sacrament of the Eucharist, and representing himself to his 
Father as the victim, by which he has been appeased ?" (See also 
«i. $. 23.) For, to be a truly commemorative sacrifice, it is neces- 
sary that Christ be really present ; otherwise how could the Mass, 
or the essential part of it, have been called the sacrific^jqfthe Lwd^ 
as it has constantly been ? (See Veron, ReguLJidei, &c. cap^ 2. 
§• 14.) Usher was equally wrong in appealing to the poet Se- 
dulius. .He quotes a passage, in which the poet, aUuding to the 
offering of Melchisedec, mentions corn and wine, segetis Jructus 
et gaudia vitis* But said passage is relative not to the Lord's atj^ 
per, but to the one leper, who, out of ten, returned to thank 
Christ. Luke xvii. 15. Sedulius is vety dear on the real pie- 
sence, where he alludes to the Eucharist. Of these passages, 
which have been very uncandldly omitted by Usher, although he 
had read them, one is in the Carmen Paschale^ Lib. 4. as follows i 

<< Nee Dominum latuere doli, scelerisqu^ ftituri 
Prodidit auctorem, panem cui tradidit ipse^ 
Q^ipanis tradendus erat; nBm corporis atque 
Sanguinis ille sui post quam duo munera sanzit» 
Atque dbum potumque dedit, quo perpete nunquam 
Esuriant sitiantque animae sine labe, fideles." 

An^ lb, another lower down ; 


Corpus, sanguis, aqua, tria vitae munera nosttae : 
Fonte renascentes, membris et sanguine Christi 
Vesdmur, atque ideo templum Ddtatis habemur; 
Quod servare Deus nes annuat immaculatum, 
£t &dat tenues tanfo maruore capaces.** 

Chap. xxi. of Ireland. 309 


In the corresponding part of his prose work (£. S^c 18.) on 
the same subjeet he says ; ^* Omnes enim; qui Christo duoe in 
aquanim fonte renacimur, ejus corpus et sanguipem sumentes edi- 
mus et potamus, ut Sancti Spiritus templum esse mereamur, &c. 
AU we, xxsho under our chief Christ are bom again in the 
Jbuntain of watery taking do eat and drink his body and bloody 
that toe mai/ deserve to be the temple of the Holy Ghost" Sedu- 
]iu8 alluded to the practice of the ancient Church, according to 
wliich the Eucharist was given to persons just after their baptism. 
This was observed even with regard to infants, and continued 
down to as late as the 9th century. Alcuin says ; << After an infant 
is baptized, let him be clothed. If tlie bishop be present, he is 
to be immediately confirmed with chrism, and then receive the 
communion ; but, if the bishop ' be absent, let him receive the 
communion from a priest/' Jesse, bishop of Amiens, in a letter 
de ordine baptismi writes ; ** After the three immersions let the bi- 
shop confirm the child with chrism in the forehead ; and lastly let 
him be confirmed or communicated with the body and blood of 
Christ that he may become a member of Christ." (See Bingham, 
Originesj &c. B. xii. ch. 1. sect, 2.) Usher recurs also to the com- 
mentator Claudius, whom he supposed to be an Irishman. But, 
as he was not, (see Chap. xx. §, 14.) we might overlook what 
Usher strove to extort from him. * Tlie fact is, that the passage, 
which he quotes from Claudius, is quite opposite to his theory, 
notwithstanding the quibbles he uees to make him appear favour- 
able to it. If ever, there was an author, who clearly announced 
the doctrine of the real presence and the sacrifice of the Mass, 
Claudius was one, and that in a passage quoted by Usher himself 
{Ep. Hib. Syll. Not. ad No. 20.) from his commentaiy on Leviti- 
cus. These are his words ; ** Christus in cruce camem suam fecit 
*^ nobis esibilem. Nisi enim fuisset crucifTxus, sacrificium corpo- 
** ris ejus minime comederetur. Comeditur autem nunc in me- 
** moria Dominicae passionis. Crucem tamen praeveniens in 
** Coena ApOstolorum seipsum immolavit, qui post resurrectionem 
** in caeli tabemaculum suum sangm'nem introduxit, portans cica* 
«( trices passionum. Christ on the cross made hisjlcsh eataUe 
** Jbr us. For^ unless he had been crucified^ the sacrificce of his 
** body would not he eaten. But it t.v eaten at present in memory 
** of the Lord^s passion. Yet antidpnting the cross, he in the 



** mjiper of the Apostles immolated himself^ he cuAo (ifi^r his rC' 
** surrection introduced his blood into the tabemade of heaven, 
** hating tnith him the scars of his sufferings," ' 

In the paasagesi wfaidi Usher collected on this subject, and in 
those whence he upderto<^ to prove that the Irish practised com- 
munion under both kinds, he found tlie Eucharist often called 
the body and blood of Christ^ To evade the strength and ^ain 
meaning of these expressions he recurs tadialectical and Calvin- 
istical quibbles for the purpose of lowing, that it would be ab« 
surd to suppose, that the body and blood are really and truly con- 
tained under the appearance of bread and wine. Here he deviated 
entirely from the purpose of his discourse ; whereas the question 
which he affected to discuss was merely historical, viz. what did 
the ancient Irish actually believe as to the nature of the Eucha- 
rist, and not whether what they believed was absurd and antiphilo- 
•ophical or not. But pressed by plain words and facts he took 
shelter under scholastic wrangling, in which he was well versed, 
although far from being so in real and staunch theology, great as 
he undoubtedly was in history, chronology, and antiquities. With 
considerable art he takes hold of the school opinions of some di- 
vines, such as the Rhemish ones, and then argues as if they were 
those of the whple Catholic church; but after all he does not 
clearly e3qplain his own doctrine, which, there is every reason to 
think, was rather Calvinistical than conformable to that of the 
Church of England. As to the communion under both kinds, he 
mi^^t have saved liimself the trouble of collecting passagies con- 
cerning it ; for it is not denied that in old times it was practi^ in 
Ireland as well as eveiy where else. Yet there were cases, in 
which that of the cup was withheld ; and we meet with a very re- 
markable one in the Poenitentiale of St. Columbanus, which is 
annexed to his monabuc rule, ^e prescribes, that noyio^ do not 
qiqproacfa the cup ; novitiif quia indocti et inexpertiy ad CMlicem 
nott accedant> (See.Mabilloii) Annal, Ben. ad 4* 59p.) 

Long as tfiis note aheady ic^ I cannot but make ^ fe;^ observations 
pn certain notes which Toland addupes (?f(tzarent^9 Letter 2. sect. 
1 .) as an^es^ed to ^ M^. copy of the four Go§pel^ lyiitten at Armagh. 
The writ^ or' transojber was o;ie IVIaolbrighde, and it isnoy^ jn the 
Harleian Ijbraiy. Toland says that Simon, althoiigh on other 
points quite mistaken as to this MS. was prettty right in his Bi- 




Uiothe^e Critique at guessing it to be 800 years okl, which would 
|)riDg its age at present to n^ore than 900. But as Toland was 
versed both in the Irish language and in the history of Ireland, he 
must have kno^n that it is mifch more modern, as appears from 
various facts, dates, and names of princes, clergymen, &c. men- 
tioned in it, and from which Dr. O'Conor, (Prolegom. Part, 2.'p* 
CLxi. s^ffi ad Rfrum iiibern, Scriplores) very learnedly proves, 
that it was written in the year 11 38. Now who is there so ignorant 
as not to admit, that the doctrine of the real presence against 
which Toland urges these notes, was universally held in the 
Western Church, Ireland included, at that period ? Lest, how- 
ever, it may be said that tlie notes quoted by Toland, were co» 
piejd from a tex|; pf older times, I shall lay them before the 
reader. I must indeed take his word for the genuineness of them, as 
I have not access to said MS. He has leil out some parts of them, 
which might help to elucidate the author's meaning ; but, even as 
be has given them, they prove nothing against the belief in the 
real presence. The first is, that ** the reason for blessing the 
Lord's supper, was, that it might mystically be made, his body ;'* 
afier which occur these words ; **^ This bread is spiritually the 
Church, which is the body df Clurist ; ut mysHce^ corpus ejus 
^fieret-^spiritualiter panis hie Ecdesiae est^ qune Corpus ChriHi" 
Now the former words, instead of meaning wliat Toland wished 
to insinuate prove the reverse. The phrase, to be made ^is body^ 
N conveys the idea of the real presence Its being said that this is 
done mysticaUy is just as if we should say that it is done in a 
mysterious mai^ier, and surely this is held and spoken of by every 
Catholic. Instead of mystically^ it is usual at present, in ex- 
pressing the effect of the consecration of the elements, to say 
sacramentallym Thus the council of Trent, (Sess. 13. cap, 1.) 
after havipg laid down '< that Christ is truly, really and sub- 
stantially present in the sacr^^t of die Eucharist under the c^- 
pearance of bread a&d wine," adds, '< that there is nothing re- 
pugnant in believing that our Saviour himself is always seated ia 
heaven at the right hand of the Father according to the natural 
mode of existing, and that nevertheless he is in many other places 
tacramentally present to us with liis substance.*' As to the latter 
words, This bread is spiritucdlyy Sfc. they do not affect the ques- 
tion concerning the real presence, aud merely express a very usual 


metaphorical allusion to the Church. Were they to be understood 
stricdj, it would follow that Christ had no real human body. The 
second note is ^yparently more difficult, but probably would not 
be so, had Toland given us the whole of it. In this note the Eu- 
charist is called " the mysteiy and figure of the body of Christ — die 
first figure of the New Testament — this figure k dafly reiterated, is 
received in faith, &c." Mysterium et figwra Corporis Christi — 
prima Novi Testamenti Jigura — Haec vero figura guotidie itera' 
tury accipitur in Jide^ &c. These words would not indicate the 
least doubt as to Christ being really and substantialy present in the 
Eucharist, were it not for the quibbling use which the Calvinists 
made of the term figure. Many of the most firm abettors of the 
real presence have not 8cnq>led to speak in a similar manner. 
Bellarmine, who oflen has such phrases, gives us a summaiy o^ 
them in his General Index, where he says; </ Eucharistia est 
'< signum, symbolum, repraesentatio, ac typus mortis Christi, seu 
«< camis et sanguinis, ut visibiliter in cruce ilia suffixa, ille effiisus 
" est. The Eucharist is a sign, st/mbol, representation, and type 
** of the death of Christ , or of the fiesh and blood according as 
" the one ivas affixed to the cross and the other shed J* This man- 
ner of speaking does not by any means exclude the actual pre- 
sence of Christ*s fiesh and blood in the Eucharist. St. John 
Chrysostom says, (Hom^ 17 in Ep, ad Hebr,) that the Eucharist 
is a type or figure of the sacrifice of the cross, and yet in the 
same place asserts, that the same Christ, who was then offered, is 
now ofiered. And surely the whole action, by which the sacra- 
ment of the altar is consecrated, is a representation of the death 
of Christ on the cross. The distinction o^ the elements of bread 
and wine, and the repeating of the mjrsterious words separately 
over them represent his passion and death, in which the blood 
flowed out of his body ; not that Christ dies again in the sacra- 
nient, but that he places himself in it as the victim who has died, 
and consequently as the sacrifice of redemption and salvation. It 
is therefore a very silly and indeed unlearned practice to aigue 
from such phrases as above against the doctrine of the real pre- 
sence. . In the great work, Perpetuite de la Foy, by Amauld 
and Nicole, it is observed (Tom, 1. Liv. x. ch. 4.) that such terms 
^ fig^^c^ type, &c. have been, even since the time of the Beren- 
garian controversy, applied to the Eucharist by writers, who wre 


universally allowed to have been strenuous supporters of that doc- 
trine. No objection will, I suppose, be raised from the words of 
the note, received in faith ; for it is certainly a mystery, which 
requires fiuth both for believing in it and for receiving it worthily. 
B^llarmine says in the above quoted Index ; ^* Hoc mysterium 
(Eucharistia) sola fide comj[>rehenditur, this mystery is cpmpre' 
hended by faith alone'* The third note, so far from favouring 
the system of Toland, is in direct opposition to it* Remarking on 
the words of our Saviour, This is my body, it has ; ** Et hoc 
dixity ne nostra dubitaret fides de sacrificio quotidiano in Eccle* 
sia^ quasi corpus Christi esset^ quoniam Christus in dextra Dei 
tedet,** Toland has translated the passage in such a manner as 
to make it appear contrafy to the belief of the real presence. He 
renders it thus; << This he said, lest our faith should stagger 
about the daily sacrifice in the Church, as if it U)ere the body of 
Christ, since Christ sits on the right hand of God." Now to ex- 
press the author's meaning in English, instead of were the hody^ 
the translation should be ijoere not the body, or the whole should 
be be given as follows ; *' And Christ said these words, this is 
my body, lest our faith might doubt of the daily sacrifice in the 
Church being the body of Christ in consequence of Christ's sitting 
at the right hand of God." Surely no man of common sense 
wouldor could state, that Christ said the words, this is my body^ 
for the purpose of cautioning us not to believe that it is in the daily 
sacrifice. Are not, on the* contrary, these the words, which have 
induced all antiquity* to believe that it really is in said sacrifice? 
The words, whidi forced Luther, eager as he was to vex the Ca- 
tholics, to continue in that belief, and to defend it ? Those, which 
all the impugners of the real presence have never been able to 
get over, or to explain in any rational manner different from that 
of said doctrine ? The author's meaning is perfectly clear. His 
object was to show, that, whereas Christ sits at the right hand of 
the Father, doubts might arise concerning his body being in the 
daUy sacrifice ; but that, to expel such doubts, Christ announced 
those plain and peremptory words, This is my body. 

I shall not enlarge further on these points, as my purpose is not 
controversy, but merely to prove that the ancient Irish did ac* 
tually and unequivocally hold the doctrine of the real presence, of 
the sacrifice of the Mass, &c. just as they are held at this day by 


the P(tfjbolics. And indeed it would be vefy straiige if t|i^ i}|4 
' not, ffff otherwicie how coul^ they have beeii in conmninipn with 
th^ En(0i9b Christians) irhose greatest man 3ede never accused 
them 1^ any errw as to the Eucharist, with the Romans, Ita- 
lians, French, &c. all of whom undoubtedly professed those 
. doctrines? 

(95) See above $.7- In the Pope*s letter, which, acconiing 
to Mauguin, was written a^umt ^65, we read ; " Relatum est 
** Apostolatui nostro, quod opus B. Dionysii Areopagitae, quod de 
** DiviniB nominibus, vel caelest3)us ordinibus Graeco descripsit 
« eloquio, quidam vir Johamies, genere Sootus, super in Latinum 
*^ tfanstuloit, quod juxta morem nobis mitti et nostro debuit 
^* judicio approbari, praesertim cum idem Joannes, licet multae 
** scientiae esse praedicetur, olim non shne sapere in quibusdamfre'^ 
*' guenti rumdre dkeretut, Itaque quod hactenus omi^um est vestra 
** industria suppleat, et nobis praefatura opus sine ulla cuncta^ 
<< tione mittat, quatenus, dum a nostri Apostolatus judicio fuerit 

^* approbatum, ab omnibus incunctaneter nostra auctoritate accept 
'^ dus habeatur/' Some writers have said that the l^ope had 
required that John should be sent to Rome, or banished from 
Paris, of whose school he was the capital. This is founded on 
an alteiBtion made in the Pope's letter afler diceretur, or, as in 
said corrupted letter, dicaiur. Balaerus {Hist, Univers, Paris. 
Tom. I. p. 184.) has published this letter in its altered form from 
certam Collectanea of Naudacus. But the phrase Capital (head) 
of the school of Paris was not used until, at least, 300 years afler 
the death of Pope Nicholas. Would Anastasius have, a' few years 
after said letter was written, spoken in the gentle manner he did 
concerning John (see Not* 77.) had the Pope been so displeased 
with him as that story insinuates. Besides, the Pope himself does 
not positively charge John with maintaining errors, merely saying 
that it was reported that he formerly had. 

(96) This fable has beeri propagated chiefly by William of 
Malmesbury, firom whom others have copied it, which is indeed 
surprizing, to this very day. We meet with it, among several 
gross mistakes concerning John's transactions, in Rees* Cyclo- 
poedia. William has it De f^estis regum jinglorum, L* 2. c 4. 
and D0 pontificidm, L* 5. From him it was taken with other 
stories by Simeon of Duriiara, Hoveden, &c. He was so ill in- 


farmed of John's proceedings, that he makes Eorus write against 
his work On natures. Now we have seen that it was the tr^se 
on predestmation, which was answered by Florus. 

(97) See Hist. Letter. Tom. 5. at Erigena. Th^ verses )uive 
been published by Du Canga. 

(98; Ex. c. Hoveden, AnnaU ad. A. 883. Matthew of West- 
minster, &c. Thus Turner says, (History of the Anghsaxons, 
B. 12. ch. 4.) that John went to England after th^ death pf king 

(99) Asserius says, that Alfred diversi generis monachos in 
eodem, monasterio congregare studuit: primitus Joannem pres» 
byterum et monachum, scilicet Ealdsaxonum genere, ahbatem 

(100) See Mabillon, Annal. Ben. ad A. 895. Strange th# 
Turner fib. J strives to support tljie paradox of John Scotus h^vix^ 
be^ the same as John of Aetheling. 

§• X. Our John has been confounded also with, 
another person of that name, who was in the twelfth 
century considered as a martyr at Malmesbury^ and 
who is said to have been killed there by bis school- 
boys with their writing styles. That such a circum- 
stances occurred at Malmesbury is very doubtful ; 
hut whether true or false, it is an idle conjecture to 
suppose, that this John called martyr was the same 
as John Scotus. (101) The fact is, that John 
Scotus remained in France and died there previous^ 
in all probability, to the death of his] protector 
Charles the bald, (102) which occurred in S77« 
And it appears certain, that his death was prior to 
875, the year in which Anastasius wrote to Charles 
concerning the translation of Dionysius Areopa* 
gites. (I OS) For Anastasius speaks ot John in such 
a manner as if he were already dead. (104) 

Besides the works already mentioned, John 
drew up a translation of, a;t least in part, the 
Greek scholia of St. Maximus on difficult passages 
of St. Gregory Nazianzen. (105) He is usually 
supposed to have been the John, who compiled the 


Hxcerpta concerning the differences and agreements 
qf the Greek and Latin verbs, which are found 
among the writings of Macrobius. (106) Seven 
Latin poems of his, mixed with Greek lines, but 
different from the Grreek and Latin verses above 
mentioned, are still extant; (107) but whether they 
have been published as yet I am not able to tell. 
Some other works have been attributed to him 
without sufficient proof or authority, except a 
homily on the beginning of the Gospel of St. 
John. (108) 

(101) This story comes also from William of Malmesbury ^ib*J 
who, after telling us that John Scotus was induced by the muni- 
ficence of Alfred to go to England, and that he taught at Malmes- 
buiy, makes him be kiUed there by boys. He gtves the epitaph^ 
which was to be seen in that place ; 

Clauditur hoc tumulo sanetus sophista Joannes^ 
Qui ditattis eratjam vivens dogmate miro^ 
Martyrio tandem Christi conscendere regnum, 
QjuOf meruit^ sancti regnant per secida cunctu 

What has this to do with John Scotus ? Would Asserhis have 
been ignorant of John Septus' martyrdom at Malmesbuxy, he who 
mentions so particularly the murder of John of Aetheling ? None 
of the many old writers, prior to William, who speak so often of 
John Scotus, ever call him a martyr, not even the Berengarius his 
great admirer and defender. The fable of John Scotus having 
been the same as John of Malmesbury is still kept up by some 
superficial writers ; but, like certain other stuff of theirs relative to 
him, it is not worth further consideration. 

(102) SeeMabillon, Annal. Ben. Tom. S. p. 242. and Hi.s#. 
Letter, at Erigena. 

(103) This letter (see above Not. 77.) is stated in a MS. copy 
of it, which was in the Jesuits' library at Boui^ges, to have been 
written on the 23d of March, 8th Indiction, that is A. D. 875> 
six years after the eighth General council, which is mentioned in 


the latier part of it. (See Dissert, on John Scotus by F. Paris. 

Art. 6.) 

(1(H) Anastasius remarking on John's method of translation 
saysy that he 'was an humble man. Were John then alive, he 
would have said w, not toas. He observes that John would not 
have received the jgifl of tongues had he not been burning with the 
fire of charity, and uses some other verbs in * past tenses strongly 
indicating that John had ere that time left this world. Some 
writers have said, that he returned to Ireland in his latter days and 
died there. This is a mere conjecture without any fbundadon; 
Had he died in Ireland, there would be some mention of him in 
the Irish annals. 

(103) Hist, Letter, ib. It has been published by Gale at the 
end oftliework On Natures. 

(106) See ib- and Usher, Ep. Hib. SylL Nat. to No. 23. 

(107 ) Hist. Letter. Avertissement to Tom, 5. p. xix. 

(108) Ib. at Erigena. The fabulous Bale says that John 
translated Aristotelis Moralia de secretis secretorunty seu recto 
regimine principum into ChaMmCy Arabic, and Latin. He founded 
this nonsense on a story patched up by some old Scotdi writers, 
and still retained by some new ones, viz. that John, when veiy 
young, travelled to Athens and there studied the Greek, Chaldaic, 
and Arabic languages. What a shame to advance such fooleries ! 

§. XI. Much has been said about John's name • 
having been in the Roman martyrology at 10 No- 
vember. It would be very strange if it had been 
placed in it by the authority of any Pope, consider- 
ing that his book on the Eucharist had been con- 
demned by the council of Versalli, and that his doc- 
trines on predestination had been also condemned 
long before ; to which may be added that there has 
been a great and rather general prejudice against his 
character with regard to orthodoxy. To clear up 
this matter, it is to be observed that the name of the 
John, who is said to have been killed at Malmes- 
bury, was in some Anglican calendars at 10 No- 
vember and got into the edition of the Roman Mar- 
tyrology published by order of Pope Gregory xin. 


at Aatwfeip in l6S6. (109) This was bwiiig to tfe 
said John having been confounded with John bishd^ 
of MeckleiiBuf^, wjid was a real martyr, arid who 
Silflfet'ed oik thfe iOth of November, A. D. 1065. 
This Johii was a Scotus, or Irishman, and, having 
been aipt^birited bishop of Mecklenburgh, was sent to 
breach m SttaVdnia, that is, the old Slavoiiia lying 
between the Elbfe and the Vistula, whifch ivas inha- 
bited b^ the Vandals, Vinuli, &c. He was most 
chieily treated in that country, and barbarously put 
to death in their chief town Rethre at the time 
now mentioned. (110) Considering all these cir- 
durastances, it may be fairly coftdhided that the 
matter stood as follows. There was buried at Mai- 
mesbury a John, siirti^med the Wise, but not called 
martyr by older writers. (Ill) This surname gave 
fise to a notion that he was the same as the renowned 
John Scotus ; and thus it became necessary to sup- 
^sSe that John Scotus was ^t Malmesbury. Then, 
t6 account for his having been there, was made up 
the story of his going over to Alfred, &c. Mean- 
while the cruel death of John of Aetheling, caused 
by repeated wounds inflicted at the instigation of 
some of his monks, was much spoken of in England. 
* Some of the good people of Malmesbury took it into 
their headiS, that this murdered John was ho other 
than theii* John the Wise ; but, as it would have 
been atdcward to make him appear as killed by, or 
through the means of monks, the bliame of his death 
was thrown upon the poor schoolboys. (112) One 
circumstance was still wanting, viz. the day of the 
martyrdom, whereas William of Malmesbury and 
his followers had not marked it. Luckily sdme one 
found the martyrdom of John Scotus assigned to the 
loth of. November, and without troubling himself 
about Mecklehburgh, of which he had been bishop, 
or Slavonic, where he was killed, identified him with 
John of Mdlmesbuiy i and hence for this John the 
iQth of Ndvktnber Was marked in some English ca- 


lendai's, ice. Thus! by puttirtg various Johtas iri re- 
quisition the history of John Scotus flrigetia has been 
egregiously mangled aiid distorted. (113) 

(109) In tliat iriartyrology are thfese t^ordsi ** Eodm dit 
(ibtK November) S. Joannts SctAiy qui graphiis pUerorum con- 

jbssvs mdriyrii coronam adeptus est" t)apin statof (at 9th c^ti- 
toy Vol. ^.p.87» English ed.) tliat they Are not in any atb^ 
^tioh of the Roman martyrology ; and Mabillon makes mefatiori 
of only th^ Antwerp edition of 1586 as containing the naine of 
John Scotus. (See Acta Ben. Sec, 4. Par. 2. p. 513.) Yi&t 
Titzumon says ( Catalog, praecip. sanctorum HiBerniae, Liege A*^ 
1619.) that it was in an edition of 1583, and declares thdt it 
was Barbnius, who expunged it from the Martyrology. *^ 1 
know/' he adds, '^ that there was ready an apology for Johii 
Scotus approved of by the sufirages of great Popes, Cardinals, 
^c** Such an apology has not yet seeii die light nor probably 
ever will. As to the year 1583, mentioned by Fltzsimon, either 
it i^ a mistake for 1586, or he confounded the Roman Martyro- 
logy with an edition of that of Usuard published at Antwerp in 
1583, in the appendix to which Molanus, led astray by Hectof 
Boethios, inserted the name of John Scotus. Arnold Wion also 
f^l into this mistake. (See F. Paris, Dissertation^ &c. Aft, 7.) 
By the bye, F. Paris was wrong in denying, that the name of John 
Scotus was in any Roman Martyrology published at Antweip in 
1586, and maintaining that there was no such editi^. Btit th^r^ 
certaJily was, and printed by Chr. Plantintis. There is a copy 6f 
it in the llbfaiy of Trinity Coll^ Dublin, with John's name t& 
Hbove, which got into it from the appendix to that of iJsuard bjr 
Molanus. Although that Antwerp edition was printed by order of 
Gr^ory xiir. it does not follow that he approved of it or of the 
insertion of John's name; nor indeed could he, whereas he wto 
dead sinc<i the 10th April of the preceding year 1585; 

(110) See Fleury L. 61. §. 17. John of Mecftlenbuigh is 
pndsed mote thail once by Adam of Bremen. See al^o Colgan, 
AA. SS.p. 407. and bdow Chap. xxv. f . 3. 

(111) Gotzielin, Who wrote some time before William ofMidin^- 
b'uiry published his De gestis^ &c. m&kes mention {Cdiafogue 
of 'saints turied in England) (rf* John tffi'Wise, whose repAiiins, 


as well as those of Aldhelm, were in the church of Mahnesbuiy. 
(See the Dissertation by F. Paris, art. 6.) 

(112) In the epitaph (above Not. 101.) which was written before 
the times of William of Malmesbury, but after John the Wise had 
been confounded with John of Aetheb'ng, there is no mention of 
those schoolboys. Were the martyrdom caused by them, would 
not some nci||e have been taken o£ such a circumstance as greatly 
he^tening the account of the martyr's sufferings ? It is also worth 
observation, that in said epitaph John is not called Scotus ; whence 
'we may infer, that the opinion of his having been the same as John 
Scotus was not prevalent at the time it was written ; otherwise, 
there would assuredly be something in it to indicate, that he was 
the &r famed John Scotus. 

(113) See Mabillon and Dupin, locc. citt, ad Not. 9. and Har- 
ris, f Writers at Erigena ) 

5* XII. At the same time with John, or perhaps 
somewhat earlier, there was another Irish philoso- 
pher in France, named Macarius, originally, I sup- 
pose Meeker or Meagher^ who disseminateian error, 
afterwards maintained by Averroes, viz. that all men 
had but one soul. From him it was taken by a monk 
of Corbie, against whom Ratramn wrote a treatise on 
that subject. (114) A monk, Columbanus, who from 
his name may be fairly supposed to have been an 
Irishman, flourished also in France in these times. 
By order of Charles the bald he put in verse aiv old 
genealogy of emperors, kings, and French lords, 
which had been drawn up by that sovereign. (112) 
Among the Capitulars of this Charles there is one, 
taken from the Acts of the council of Meaux held 
in 845, relative to the hospitals founded by pious 
Irishmen in France, for persons belonging to their 
nation. In it the king is informed that they were 
usurped by strangers, and reduced to a state of de- 
solation, so that not only persons applying for ad- 
mission were not received, but likewise those, who 
had from their infancy served God,. in them, were 
driven out an j forced to beg from door to doon 



(116) Whether the king took care to have a stop 
put to this abuse, we are not informed. To this pe* 
nod belonged the abbot Patrick, who is said to have 
flourished in 850, and to have left Ireland about th at 
timef retiring to Glastonbury, where he died on a 
24th of August. His history has been greatly ob- 
scured by nis having been confounded by some 
Glastonian scribblers with our great apostle. (117) 
It does not appear that he became abbot of Glaston- 
bury ; but he had been an abbot in Ireland, and 
perhaps a bishop. He was apparently one of those, 
who ned from the fury of the Northmen ; and it 
may be plausibly conjectured, that he was the same 
as Moel-Patrick, son of Fianchon, a bishop, an- 
chorite, and abbot elect of Armagh, who died in 
862, (118) There is no foundation for the opinion of 
some writers, that the abbot Patnck was the insti- 
tutor of Patrick's Purgatory in Lough Derg ; (119) 
and as to some writings attributed to him, the autho- 
rity, on which they are, is such as to render them 
not worth inquiring into. (120) 

Among the Irish emigrants of these times I find a 

pious and learned priest, named Probus^ who must 

not be confounded with Probus the biographer of 

St. Patrick 021) He retired to the monastery of 

St. Alban of Mentz, where he died on the 26th of 

May, A. D. 859. He was very fond of classical 

studies, insomuch so that his friend Lupus of Fer- 

neres thought that he applied to them more than 

became an ecclesiastic, and composed niany tracts, 

several of which seem to have been poetical. None 

of his works appear to be now extant. He is praised 

in . the Annals of Fulda as a man of pure doctrine 

and holy life, who was an honour to the church of 

Mentz. (.122) 

(114) Mabillon says (Anna!. Ben, ad. A. 867.) that Macarius, 
irhose en^r was that there is but one soul in all men, was, perhafM, 
the Macarlus to whom Rabanus dedtcated his bo#t De Computo, 



Ratramn gave him the nickname Baccharius, Ratramn's tract 
against his disciple of Corbie was in an old MS. of the monastery 
of St; Eligiusof Noyon. Hams in his incorrect accoimtof Ma- 
carius ( Writers J has changed it into a tract written by Macarius 
himself. But no accomit remains of any writings of Macarius, 
although he was a teacher. 

(115) Hia. Letter. Tom. v./?. 51S. 

/(1 16) This Capitular may be seen in Sirmond*s collection under 
the head of 6th Capitular. It is also in Baluze's CapUtdariy Tom. 
2. col. 34*. The hospitals are called HospUalia Scottortim^ that is, 
says Sirmond, Hibemorumy as he proves in his note, which has 
been copied by Baluze, ib. coL 731. See also Fleuiy, Hist. EccL 
Liv. 48. J. 30. ^ 

(117) See Chap. vii. andib. Not. 20. 

(118) 4 Masters ap. A A. SS.p. 366. Their date is 861. yet, 
as Patrick of Glastonbury is said to have belonged to Rosdela, 
(see Not. 18 and 20 to Chap, vii.) it seems more probable, that he 
was different from Mod Patrick. 

(119) See Chc^. vn. §.U. 

(120) See Ware and Harris, Writers at Patrick abbot. 

(121) Wq have already seen, {Chap. iii. §. 3.) that the au- 
thor of the Life of St. Patrick, whose original name was Coenea^ 
chair^ lived in the tenth century. Probably that was also the 
Irish name oi the Probus we are now treating of. 

( 122) See Histoire Letter. Tom. v. p. 209. seqq^ at Probus, 
and Mabillon, Annal. &c. at A. 836. 

§% xiii/ Of the ecclesiastical affairs of Ireland for 
many years after about 852 very imperfect accounts 
remain. Mane, son of Huargusa, who became bishop 
of EmlyinSJO, (123) died in 857, and wais sue-. 
ceeded by Coenfeolad who was also king of Cashel 
and lived until 8 72. (124) Aedgen surnamed Brito, 
apparently a Briton, scribe, anchoret, and bishop of 
Kildare, died in the 1 l6th year of his age on the iSth. 
of December, 863. (125) He was succeeded by 
Moengal, who lived until 870, and after whom 
was Uobartach Mac-Naserda, who died' in 874^ 
and whose memory was revered on the 15th of Ja* 


nuary. (126) Another bishop of Kildare, Lasran 
Mac-Mochtighern, is said to have died in the same 
year. Cathald Mac-Corbmac, bishop of Clonfert, a 
distinguished and eminent man died in 862. (127) 
A namesake of his was in these tihies bishop and ab- 
bot of Ciondalkin, whose death is assigned to 876 
(877). (128) Manchen, bishop of Leighlin, died 
in 864. ( 129) To the year 866 are affixed the 
deaths of St. Conall son of Fiachna prince of East 
Meath, and of the royal blood bf Ireland, and bishop 
at Killskire five miles from Kells in Meath and the 
only bishop we meet with in that place ; of St. .Cor- 
mac Hua Liathain, an anchoret, abbot, and bishop, 
whose see I cannot discover ; of Aidhechar a bishop 
and chronographer and aUbot of Connor and Lann- 
ela ; and of Robertach likewise a dironographer and 
bish<^ of flnglas. (130) Coripac Mac-£ladac, a 
scribe, abbot, and bishop of Saigir, died in 868, and 
in 872 Coenchamrac, bishop and abbot of Louth. 
(131) Fachtna, or rather Fethgna, who had suc- 
ceeded Diermit at Armagh in 852, died on the 12th 
of February or 6th of October, 874. (132) In some 
of oUf annals he is styled " Comorban (heir) of St. 
Patrick and head of the religion (primate)' of all Ire- 
land,'' whence it inay be concluded that, whatever 
apposition there was to the exercise of the rights of 
Armagh during the contests for the possession of 
that see, they were universally acknowledged in his 
time. He was succeeded by Anmire, who held the 
see only nine months, and died in 874 or 875. 
(133) After him was Cathasach Mac- Robertach, 
whom we find called prince of Armt^gh. His in- 
cumbency lasted four years, and he died some time 
in 879, before the end of which year Moelcoba 
Mac-Crunnvail was archbishop of Armagh. For he 
is styled by that title, when in said year he was, 
together with Mochta or Mocteus, a lecturer of Ar- 
magh, made prisoner by the Northmen. (134) 
He is stated to have held the see for five years, 

Y 2 


which agrees with his death being assigned to 885, 
or 886. (135) 

(123) Abov« $. d. (124) Ware, Buhopi ^Emfy. 

(125) Idem at Kildareftota the 4 Masters a;\ 2V. Ti&. p. 629. 
Their date is 862 (863). 

(126) See Ware ih. and 4 Masters, ib. who add Ihat Robar- 
tach had been also a scribe, or doctor, and abbot of Achonry. 
They observe that Inis-Robartach, or the island of Robariach, 
got its name from him. Harris says, in his addition to Ware, that 
he did not know the situation of it. Perhaps it was the tract now 
called the idand of Allen and surrounded by the b<^ of said name 
in the county of Kildare. There is a place in it called Roberts- 
town 21 miles from Dublin. 

(127) 4 Masters ap. A4. p. 544 at J. 861 (862) 

(128) lb. 

(129) lb. p. 3S2. ad A. 863 (864). Ware (at Letghlia) has 

A. 865. 

(130) 4 Masters ap. A A. SS. p. 784. Besides Cormac Hua 
Liathain they have fib. p. 360.) two other bishops Connac prior 
to him, one a scribe and bishop at Kill-Fobric (barony of Ibriduin, 
county of Clare,) who died in 837 (838); and another a writer and 
bishop at Laithrigh-briuin in the country of the OToelans (see ib. 
p. 541.) and now county of Waterford, whose death the^ ass^ 
to 854 (855). Colgan find. Chron. ikj calls Aidhecar abbot of 
Kill-eleniis; but. this means the same as Lann^da^ ^ereas the 
Webb word Lan or Uan^ which was much used by the ancient 
Irish, corresponds to our KUl or KiUe. Of these bishops Conal 
is the only one particularly treated jqS by Olgan, viz. at 28March^ 
the anniversary of his death. 

(131) 4 Masters ib. p. 360 and 473 ad A, 867 (868), and p. ' 
*J^ad A. 871 (872). There were some other minor bishops in 
these times ; but the names of almost all of them are unknown. 

(132) See Ware at Armagh and TV. Th. p. 295 ad. A. 873 
(874. ) Colgan says that his memory was revered on the 12th of 
February. O'Flaherty (MS. not. ib.J remarics that he should have 
said 6th of October. But even supposing that Fetfagna died on 
that day, his commemoration might have been on the day marked 


by Cdgiin. Yet Colgan adds, that Fethgna died on the 12th of 

(153) Ware and Tr. Th. locc. citt. The Cashel catalogue al. 
lows him one year, as it avoids fractional parts of the years. 

(154) Usher,/iidl Chron. atjt^ A. 879 from the Annals of Ulster. 
(135) 4 Masters ap. Tr. Th. p. 296 at ^. 885 (886) I havo 

here followed the series of the catalogue from the Psalter of Ca- 
'shel, which is preferred by Ware and Colgan. Harris has added 
certain dates for Cathasacli and Moelcoba, which make Ware's 
statement appear very confrised. The Annals of Ulster diSer from 
the Cashel catalogue as to the succession of Anmire, &c. For they 
place Anmire after Moelcoba. Then in the 4 Masters we find 
dates disagreeing with those of other accounts, and which Colgan 
considers as wrong. Not being able to reconcile these jarring 
statements, I shall merely lay before the reader a system drawn up 
by O'Flaherty, which I find in a MS. note to Tr. Th. p. 292. It 
is this : Fethgna, who died in 874, was succeeded by Moelcoba, 
who having held the see until 879 was taken by the Northmen. 
In consequence of his captivity, Anmire was placed on the chair of 
Armagh, and after nine months possession died in said year 879, 
in which he wa6 succeeded by Cathasach, who ruled for four years 
and died in 883. In another MS. note (ib. p. 319.) he says that 
Moelcoba lived after his captivity until 888. 

§. XIV. Indrect, who was abbot of Hy in 849 (136) 
aod a very wise man, suffered martyi-dom through 
some Anglo Saxons on the 1 2th of March, A. D. 853. 
(137) What was the cause, or on what occasion^ or 
where he was killed I cannot discover ;, but it could 
hardly have been on account of his faith, as the 
Anglo-Saxons were then (christians. Perhaps he 
was murdered by robbers ; and it is known that in 
those times holy and distinguished men, so put to 
death, used to be called martyrs. His next succes- 
sor at Hy was, in all appeai*ance, Kellach, son of 
Alildy who was also abbot of Kildare, and who died 
in the country of the Picts in 865. (138) After 
him the abbot of Hy was Feradach, son of Cormac, 
who lived until 880. (139) During his administra- 


tion, and in the year 878, the shrine and Te- 
lies of St. Columba were brought to Ireland^ lest 
these might Ml into the hands of the Danes. (140) 
It can scarcely be doubted that it was on this occa* 
sion that the remains of St. Columba were depo- 
sited at Down, where those of St. Patrick had been 
from the beginning, and whither those of St. 
Bridget had been removed some not long time be- 
fore. (141) 

During this period Ireland herself had been 
greatly harassed by the Northmen. In 853 Am- 
lave, alias Aulifie or Olave, a Norwegian prince, 
accompanied by two brothers of his, Sitnc and 
Ivar, alias lobhar, came to Ireland, and all the 
Northmen submitted to him, and he exacted con- 
tributions from the Irish. (142) Amlave took pos- 
session of Dublin, and Ivar of Limerick, which he 
built or rather enlarged ; ( 1 43) and Sitric is said to 
have built Waterford. (144) In 856 a sharp war was 
carried'on between them and Maelseachlin, king of 
Iceland, in which great numbers were slain on both 
sides; and in 857 there was fighting in IMunster, 
during which Carthan Fionn with the Irish and 
Danes of his party were defeated by Ivar and Am- 
lave, who afterwards in 859 ravaged Meath. (145) 
In 860 Maelseachlin defeated the Danes of Dublin, 
and in the same year a party of Danes assisted Aidus 
or Aedan Knnliath, son of the former king Niall 
Calne, in another devastation of Meath. It was 
through the assistance of Amlave and his followers 
that this Aidus was raised to the throne of Ireland 
in 863. (146) Yet he afterwards quarrelled with the 
Northmen, and joined Kieran son of Ronan and the 
Kinel-Eogain (the people of Tyrone) in a battle 
against them in 866, near Lough Foyle, in which 
they came oflF triumphant with the heads of 240 
of the Northmen chiefs. (147) In 869 Amlave 
plundered Armagh, burned the town and all its 
sacred edifices, &c. and killed or made prisoners 



ajbout 1000 persoM. (148) While in the year 870 
h^ and Ivar were absent in North Britain, where 
they destroyed Alcluith or Dunbarton^ the Irish 
king Aidus Finnliath laid waste Leinster from Dub- 
lin to Gowran, and soon after their return to Ireland 
in 97U with 200 ships^ Amlave died* (149) Ivar 
then became king of all the Northmen in Ireland, 
but died in 87^> in which year, while Donogh, son 
of Dubhdavoirean king of Cashel, and Carrol prince 
of Ossory, were devastating Connaught, the Danes 
of Dublin plundered Munster* ( 1 50) Then we find 
the Northmen fighting among themselves, as like- 
wise the Irish, for instance, the Momonians against 
the people of Meath in 880« 

(136) See above §. 1. 

(137) AA. 5& p. 254. from the 4* Masters at 4- 852 (853.) 

( 138) Annals of Ulster at A^ 864< (865). The 4 Masters op. 
Tr. Th.p. 500. and ^9. have A. 863 (864). 

(139) Annals of Ulster at A. 879 (880), According, to the 4^ 
Masters, ( Jr. Th. p* 500.) Feradach died in 877 (878). 

(140) lb. at A. 877 (878). The 4 Masters^ (loc cU,) assign 
this removal to 875 (876). What I call reliqueSf Johnstone^ (Ex^ 
tractsy Sfc) calls oaths. See 0*Reil]y*s Irish Dictionary. Coii)« 
pare with Not. 27. above. 

(141) As to the time of the removal of Su Bdgid's renuuns to 
Down, see Not. 18. to Chap. viii. Colgan conjectures (Tr. Th. p. 
SGS') that the person^ who removed theqsy was Keallach abbot of 
Kildare and Hy> who» as we liave just seen> died in 865. With 
regard to those af St Columba, 0*Donnel relates (Lt/e of St. 
Col. B. 3. ch. 78.) that they were brought to Down in the time of 
Maader the son of a Danish king, who was laying waste the 
northern parts of Britam and the island of Hy. He has a story, 
which we may pass by^ about how the Danes threw the sarcopha- 
gus ocMitaining them into the sea, and how it floated to Down, 
where it was opened by die abbot of that place, &c. O' Flaherty. 
(MS. Not.adloc. Tr. Th. p. 446.) marks A. 875 as the year 
of this removal to Down, meaning the 875 (876) of the 4 Mas. 
ters, for the transferring of the shrine, &c. to Ireland, which* 

^ however, the Annals, of Ulster assign to 878. 


(142) Aiunls of Ulster at 852 (853). They call AmlaTe 
Ung of the Lochlanach, In the annals of Innisfallen we read, 
according to Mr. O'Reilly's translation ; '< A. 858. Aiilifie the 
king of Norway's son came this year into Ireland, aconnpanied in 
that eiqiedkion by his two brothers Sitiic and lobhar. The, 
Danes and Norwegians submitted to him, and he was also pakl tri- 
bute by the Irish.'* 

(143) Were we to believe Giraldus Cambrensisy Sitric was the 
founder of Limeridc But we have seen (above $. 3.) that it was 
already a tow*\ .jr, at least, a village, iiiiere Danish ships were sta- 
tioned in the vime of Turgesius. And hence also it appears, that 
the Northmen were in possession of it before 855, the year marked 
by Fenrar, History of Limerick^ p. 5. He refers to Ware, who 
says nothing about the year 855. Ware indeed (Antiq, cap, 24. at 
A. 853.) quotes a passage from Giraldus, in which that author 
states, that Amlave built Dublin, Ivar, Limerick, &c. As to this 
building of Dublin, Giraldus was quite wrong ; for fiiom what has 
been seen (above (. 1. and 3.) it is plain that it was inhabited by 
the Northmen several years previous to the arrival of Amlave ; 
and the Annals of Innisfallen affix their first taking possession of 
it to A. D. 837. It is, however, true that both Dublin and Li- 
merick, which were inconsiderable places, before thc^ were first 
occupied by the Northmen, were probably much enlarged by Am- 
lave and Ivar. 

(144) That Sitric was the founder of Waterford, as Giraldus 
says, seems to be universally allowed. Smith {History of Water- 
fordj ch. 4.) assigns the foundation of it to A, 853. But it was 
probably somewhat later. 

(145) Annals of Inm'sfallen, and Ware, Antiq. cap, 24. 

(146) Annals of Innisfallen. Compare with Chap. xx. ^. 8. 

(147) lb. at A. 866. 

(148) lb. at A, 869. and Ware Antiq. cap. 24. The Annals 
of Ulster (Johnstone's E^rac^^) and the 4 Masters, (ap. Tr. Th.p. 
295.) assign this destruction of Armagh to A. 867 (868). 

(149) See Annals of Innisfallen at 870, (871) and compare with 
Ware ib. 

(150) lb. at A. 873. Ware assigns the death ii^ Ivar to 


§. XV. While this miserable state of afihirs con* 
tinued it might seem that studies of every sort were 
neglected in Ireland. But it does not appear thati 
vrith the exception of Armagh and Hy, the religious 
establishments and schools were much disturbed or 
nearly as much harassed as they had been in the times 
of Turgesius. And in fact, besides some learned 
men already mentioned, we find several others, who 
were distinguished in this period as scribes or doctors 
and writers. Luacharen a scribe of Clonmacnois died 
in 864 ; Martin of the same place and another Mar- 
tin, scribe of Devenish» in 868; (151) Cobhtach Mac- 
M uredach , abbot of Kildare, and famous for his wisdom, 
in 869; (152) Dubthach scribe of Ol-achaid (county 
of Cavan) in 870 ; Robartach, a monk and scribe of 
Durrow (King's county) and a very exact chrono- 
^pher in 87 1 ; Aldus scribe of Roscommon, and 
Torpadius of Tallaght in 873 ; Robartach O'Kearta 
scribe of Kill-achaid in 874; Domnald scribe of 
Cork in 875 ; Moelpatrick scribe of Trevet (Meath) 
in 885 ; Suibhne a celebrated doctor of Clonmacnois 
in 890, to whom we may add Soerbrethach of Cork, 
who died in 892. (152) Concerning these persons 
I do not find any thing particular related, and I have 
ma^e mention of them merely to show that, not* 
withstanding the misfortunes of that period, schools 
were still kept up, and that Ireland could then boast 
not only of the learned men, who removed to foreign 
countries, but likewise of many others that rems^ined 
at home. 

Among the distinguished persons of the latter part 
of the ninth century, marked as saints in the Irish 
calendars, we meet with Suibhne O'Fionnachta, bishop 
of Kildare, who died in 879; Scannal, likewise 
bishop of Kildare, who died in 882; (154) Mure- 
dach son of Bran, a king of Leinster, and abbot of 
Kildare, whose death is assigned to 883, (155) as 
is also that of Tulelatia; abbess of its nunniery ; and 
Moeldar, bishop of Clonmacnois, who died in 887. 




(156) But the most celebrated saint of this period 
was Corbre, or Corpreus, sumamed Cram, that U 
crooked or benty who succeeded Moeldar in the 
see of Clonmacnoisr His reputation was so great, 
that he was called the head of the reUgiousr 
of almost all the Irish of his time. As no Acts 
of his are extant, I can only add, that lie died 
in 900 on the 6th* of March, the anniversary of 
which was celebrated as a festival at Clobmacnois» 


(151) Tt. Th. p. 6S2* 8Bd Ind. Ckron. * 

(152) Ib.p.e2Q. 

( 153) See ib. p. 632. and Ind. Chron. I have added a year Ui 
each of its dotes. Sinlme of Clonmacnois is spoken of under 
the name of Stoffne, by some En^Ush annalists at ^. 891» as the 
most skS&l doctor of the Sooti or Irish, and the Annuls of Ukter^ 
marking las death, call him an andioret and an excellent scribe. 
(See Usher, p. 732.) He was in all appearance the p^Dson, 
whom Caradoc of Lancarvan, quoted by Usher {ib,) caDs Smb* 
man Cubiitf and who, he says, being the gceatest of the doctors of 
Scotia (Ireland) died in 889. • Caradoc took thn date from some 
Irish document, and it is the very one given for Smbhe's death 
by the 4 Masters, which, according to the usual method, I have 
changed into 890. It differs only by one year fiom jthat of those 
English annals. Florence of Worcester has a date different from 
both, viz. A, 892. 

(154) 4 Masters, ap. Tr. Th. p.e39 at A. 878 (879) and 891 
(882). Ware, (Bishops at Kildare) assigns the death <yf Soibfane 
O'Eonnachta to 880, and that (^ Scannal to 884. 

(155) TV. Th. ib. A 882 (883). ArchdaQ ( Kildare) 
has Muredach at A, 882 ; but he had him befiire at A. 870, where 
he calls him Moreigh Mc. Broytiy without any authority, although 
he strangely refers to TV. Th. p, iS29, where no such perscm is 
mentioned at iSttat year. He says that Moreigh, i. e. ^uredach> 
had been king of Leinster ; but this is a mistake founded upon a 
typographical error in TV. Tk.Jb. where rex appears instead of 
re^ And it is clear from the catalogue di the kings o£ Leuister, 


(ib.p, 598.) that there was no Muredach, or Mordgfa, son of Bcaa, 
or Brojn> unong them. 

(156) Four Masters ap. A A. SS. p. 509. ad 686 (887.) 

(157) See AA. SS. ad 6 Mart, wheie Colgah treats of St 
Corpreus. I have added a year to his di^ fixim the 4 Masters. 
He relates « curious anecdote, whidi indeed we are not ibound to 
believe, of Maelsechlain, who had been king t£ Ireland, appetring 
to the saint, and telling him that he was in purgatory together with 
the priest, who had been his confeaior during his lifetime. It is 
added, that Corpreus prayed for the dellveranoe of the kiag, while 
his priests prayed for that of the quondam confessor, and that tkey 
were both freed from purgatory in the course of a year. What- 
ever may be thought of this naxratiMe, it shows the practice of tbe 
times as to praying for the dead^ which was observed in IreUmd at 
much earlier periods. It is ¥ery odd, that Udier undertook (iMf- 
course of the Religion^ Sfc. ch. S«) the hopeless task of endeivotar- 
ing to prove that the ancient Irish did not prey ftr the dead; for, 
historically speaking, whether they were right or wrong, there is no- 
thing more certam or more easily demon^mted than that they did* 
As to what he has about Pattidc*s IHiEgaitory in Lough Dcig AOt 
being as ancient as some had imagined, I agree wiAi kkn ; l»nt, 
althpugh he does not clearly eiq^n himself, he must.hihre known 
tliat. said Puigatory was not considered as a liabitation or ve- 
ceptacle of departed souls, but as a pSace v^ese Hving peESOtHS 
might be purged from their sins. (See J8b^ 154 to Cbap^ Vn^} 
Accordingly it has nothing to do with the question relative to BfHf 
futui^ state of mankind or to prayers for the dead; The psBsa^e 
quoted by Usher fivmi the book De triius haiitacttliSf ascribed ^to 
St. Patrick, proves nctthing oil either side of diis queatbn. It 
states that there are three regular habitations established 1>y Ckod, 
viz, heaven, earthy and hell ; diat the just are jdaced in heaven, 
the wid^ed in hell, and that on the earth there is a mhtture of jgood 
and bad persons, and that out of it the two other places aie sup- 
plied. What has this to do with what the Catholics call Argo- 
tor^f wfaiidi not to enter into school questions as to k)cality, Ac 
was never supposed to be a regular or permanent faaliitatioa tr 
state, but a passage, through which some souls should pass before 
their entering the kingdom of heaven, and whidi nehlier iwaa nw 
is visited by the far greatest part of mankind. The auAor says, 


that the just are raised to heaven, ^but does fiot state that they tOt6 
so immiidiately on their exit firom this life« Now this is tlie great 
pcnnt tX issae, viz* whether all the just, that is, aU those who die 
in the state of grace, without considering their greater or lesser 
d^irees of perfection, proceed indiscriminateiy to heaven as soon 
as they leave this world* Concerning this point there is nothing 
in that passage ; and accordingly, as I said, it afibrds no argument 
on either side. This observation equally applies to some short 
passages quoted by Usher from oth^ wnters, which are quite irre« 
levant to the question concerning prayers for the dead, and ^ich 
I shall not tn>uble the reader with examining. It was very un&ir 
for Usher to refer to the Greeks against Purgatory ; for he well 
knew that, although they do not admit pui^atorial fire, whidi, 
however, did not prevent their union with the Latins at the 
oOuncO of Florence, they have always prayed and do still pray for 
the dead. As to what he has agsunst BeUarmine concerning an 
argument in favour of Purgatory i&om the visions of St Fursey I 
riiall not dwdl on it, merely observing that he himself gives a 
passage from them, which certainly seems to confirm that doctrine. 
To get rid of said passage he tells us, that God's justice was soffi- 
dendy satisfied by the suflMngs of Christ, and that man need not 
give further satis&ction thereunto by penal works or sufferings 
either here, or in tlie other world. This is a glorious doctrine for 
sinners, as if, because Clmst suffered for them, they should not 
make any atonement for^their traqsgressions. It is true, that eveiy 
exertion of man to satisfy the divine justice would be useless had 
not Christ by his sufierings appeased his heavenly father, and thus 
enabled man to a{^)ear before the throne of mercy in the confident 
hope that, through the merits of Christ, his works and peniten- 
tial feelings and sufferings may procure for him forgiveness from his 
Creator, But in Usher s system the sinner may sit down quiet and 
easy, and, do no more than merely cease to sin, saying to himself; 
Christ has sufftrQdfor me ; I am not bound to give myidfthe 
trmMe of any atonement or penitential task ; I need not ftrayy Jastj 
Sfc. Why then has the Christian church from its very commence- 
ment constantly held that, notwithstanding all that our Saviour has 
done .'for us, sinners should make some atonement for their trans- 
gressions, which might serve as a laborious cleansing of their souls, 
a {NToof of their conversion, and an antidote against relapse ? Why 


has there been established during the whole course of the Church 
such a multitude of penitential regulations to be observed by te* 
pentant sinners ? Usher was well acquainted with them> but must 
ha^e looked up to them as useless, nay unjust* For, inftct, his prin- 
c^e was the monstrous tenet of imputed righteousness, that bane 
of true Christianity and morality, a doctrine which excludes the 
necessity of any penitential sufferings or mortification, on the part 
of man, as it does also the existence of a state of purgation after 
death. For, to quote a passage from a tract, which 1 wrote some 
years ago, (Introductiouy by Irenaeus, to the Protestant Apology 
for the Roman Catholic Church) " if a person be reputed just 
*^ only by outward imputation, there can be no gradation of sanc- 
.*^ tity; whatever may be the habits of* different persons, their 
'< justificatioa must be the same, because no sentiments or deeds 
^' of their own are at all looked to or required in the work of 
^' righteousness, as being not inherent in their [souls, but simply 
<' an external remission of sin. Thus Christians of every sort are 
^< placed on one level, and they are either absolutely and uncon« 
^' ditionally pardoned, or not pardoned at all. Accordingly after 
'< death they must proceed straight forward either to heaven or 
'* hell. If no process for cleansing the soul, by penitential suffer- 
** ings and actions indicating real repentance, be requisite upon 
*^ earth, it is not to be supposed that it will take place in the 
" other world.*' Usher well understood the tendency of this 
doctrine towards the denial of any purgation of souls after death ; 
for he says that it is upon the opposite doctrine, viz. that which 
requires penal works or sufferings from man, notwithstanding the 
sufferings of Christ, that the Romanists, as he calls them, do lay 
the firame of their purgatory. 

He was obliged to acknowledge that the ancient Irish used to 
offer the sacrifice, u e. celebrate Mass for departed souls ; but he pre- 
tends that this was done only for such souls as were supposed to be 
in a state of bliss, and that it was a sacrifice of thanksgiving for 
their salvation rather than of propitiation for their sins. If such 
was the only object the Irish had in view, when offering the sa- 
crifice for the dead, or commemorating them in their prayers, they 
differed ftom all other Christians in the world. For, as even Bing- 
ham fOrigineSy Sec. B* xv. cA. 3.) admits, notwithstanding his 
^asions, even the souls of persons called sinners, that is, not great 


jlinnara but imperfect Chriitians, were prayed for both in public 
and private,,. T^usSt.. Jpbn Cbryiostttii^. (Horn* 41'. ml. Cer,) 
who ig quqyted by Binghan?, gpeaUbg i^ainst immoderate smtow 
for the death of sion^ii^si^s ; << they are not so mucb tob^la- 
<< mentcd, as si;cco«ired with prayen^ siqDplicationi, afans, and 
'< oblations. B>r the90. things. were not des%ndd in vain, neither 
" i3 it without reason that we make mention, of the deceased in 
<< the holy mysteries, interceding for them to the Lamb thatts 
** slain to take away the sins of tl)e worid; but that some conso- 
^^ lation may henee arise to them. . Neither is it in vain that he, 
^< who stands, at the oltar when the tremendous mysteries are oe- 
'< lebrated, cries; IV^ qffir unto thee for all those that are asleep 
'' in Christt and all that make commemorations Jar them. For 
** if there were no commeo^orations made for Uiem, these things 
** would not be said.-— Let us not therefore grow weary in giving 
^< them our assistance, and offering prayers for them. For the 
** common propitiation of the whole tvorld is now before us. Theie- 
*^ fore we now pray for itk^ whole world and name them widi 
<< martyrs, with confessc^s, with {xiests ; for we are all one body, 
" though one .member be moreLcaDcellent than another, and we 
" may obtain a general panionjor them by our prayers^ -hy our 
'^ almSf by the help of those that are named together mth them.^ 
Who, but a fool, could imagine that Chrysostom did not mean a 
sacrifioe and prayers of propitiation ? Or what is to be thought of 
the following plain, words of St. Augustin (Enchirid, cap. 110)? 
<< When the sacrifices of the altar or alms are offered for all the 
^< deceased, who had been baptized, they are for the very good 
^' thanksgivings^ and for those, who were not very bad, they are 
^^ propitiations^ St. Cyprian distinguishes oblations and sacri- 
fices of thanksgivings, as, jex, c. for the martyrs, from those of 
supplications and prayers, for the less perfect departed souls. 
When Tertullian says (Be Monogamia, eap. 10.) that « every 
woman prays for the soul of her deceased husband, and meanwhile 
requests relief for him and a share in the first resurrecdon, and 
makes ofierings for him on the amiiversaries of Iris death," who is 
the polemic bigoted or silly enough to tell us, that her prayers 
and ofierings were of thadoigiving, not of propitiation? Were I 
arguing controversially, I could say a great deal more on these 
subjects ; but I hav^ stated this jnuch merely to show, how Usher 



has miwepresented the practioe and doctrine of the ancient Irish 

The truth is that the Irish had» like all other Christians, sacri- 
fices and prayers, both of thanksgiving and of propitiatbn. .Sooae 
of the cases referred to by Usher were relative to thanksgiving, 
although not all of them, particularly that of Magnus, conoenung 
whom he quotes these words addressed by him a little before his 
death to Tozseo bishop of Augsburg : '^ Do not weep, reverend 
^< prelate, because thou beholdestxne labouring in so many storms 
'< of worldly troubles; because I believe in the mercy of God, 
^< that my soul shaJl rejoice in the. freedom of immortality. Yei 
** I beseech thee, that thou toilt not cease to help me a sinner and 
" my soul mth thy holy prayers** So far firom this passage fiivouring 
Usher's thanksgiving system, it is evidently against it ; for it is 
plain that Magnus alluded to prayers to be said for him afier his 
death. Now the prayers, which he requested,, were, as is dear 
from the import of the words, those of propitiation; and indeed it 
would be very odd were they not ; for who would presume to call 
for a thanksgiving to be made fi>r him after his death, as if he were 
absolutely certain of enjoying eternal ha^funess? As to what oc- 
curred after the death of Magnus, and the nature of the salutary 
saarifices offered for him, it is not necessary to inquire ; for, if 
Usher had produced fifty cases of sacrifices and prayers of thtmks" 
giving, they would not exclude those also oi propitiation. He al- 
k>w8, that prayers for the dead, and masses for the repose of de- 
parted souls, or, as he calls them, Requiem masses, used to be 
observed in those times ; and yet he states in a confidential, tone, 
that they had no necessary relatbn to the belief of Purgatory » 
How he quibbles, in his usual way on the name Purgatory? 
Had he said, that they had no relation to the school questions 
concerning where or how Purgatory is or is not constituted, die na- 
ture of its punishments, its duration, &c« or to the question be- ^ 
tween the Greeks and Latins as to purgatorial fire, nobody would 
quarrel with him ; but his real intention was not merely to reject 
that nanote, but likewise what it was framed to sonify, viz. astate. 
in whi<^ aome souls are detained before they are allowed to enter 
the kingfiom of heaven. How then could he liave reconciled his 
adniitiing the practice of Requiem masses, that is, Masses, in 
which, as is dear firom the prayers contained in them, the rdief 


of the deceased was actually prayed for, with his opinion that no 
such relief was wanted? The Irish had such Masses fixnn a very 
ancient period, and we find them ^ken of in the Penitential of 
Oomean, {(Uq). 14.) which was written most probably in the se- 
venth century. (See to Not, 55 Chap, xv.) In it various days are 
maiked for those Masses according as the deceased were, monks 
or lay persons. They are also in a very ancient Missal, which 
MabiUon found at Bobio, and which he published in the first vo- 
lume of his Musaeum ItaUcum, He calls it Sacrameniarium 
QaUicanuniy although he acknowledges that it differs in some re- 
spects from the old Gallican Missal as it does in many, from the 
Roman, Ambrosian, &c. He thought that it was used in the pro- 
vince, of which Besan^on was the capital, and in which was si- 
tuated St. Columbanus* monastery of Luxeu. Jhere can scarcely be 
a doubt of its having been written by an Irishman, as Dr. O'Conor 
shows (Ep, NuncupatoTf Sfc, ad Rer, Hihem, Scriptor, p, cxxx. 
9eqq*) firom the ortlu^;raphy and the form of the letters being 
exactly the same as what we find in old MSS. which are well 
known to be Irish. He thinks it was a portable Missal for the 
Irish of Luxeu and Bobbio. Be this as it may, we may be sure 
from its having been copied by an Irishman, that it was used by 
Irish priests. MabiUon pronounced it to be a thousand years old 
before his time ; and it appears very probable that it was written 
before the death of St. Columbanus, whose name does not occur 
in it, as in all appearance it would had he been theh dead. We 
find in it various prayers containing supplicaddns to God for the 
pardon of the deceased, for the remission of their sins and debts, 
indulgence towards them, &c Thus in a Mass for the dead, en- 
titled '^ Pro de/unctis" these words occur in the prayer, called 
Contestation *' Tribuos ei (fiunulo tuo defimcto) Domine delic- 
torum suorum veniam in JUo secreto receptacolo, ubi jam non est 
locus poenitentiae--~Tu autem Chrisle recipe animam ftrooli tui 
ill. quam dedisti, et demitte ejus debita magis quam ille demisit 
d^itoribus suis." And in a Mass for both the living and dead, 
Pro vivis et defunctis^ we read in the first prayer ; << Concede pro- 
fitius, uthaec sacra oblatio mortuis prosit ad veniam^ et vivis 
proficiat ad salutem. And in the Contestatio the priest asks, both 
for the dead and living, << remissionem peccatorum, indulgentiam 
quam semper optaverunt,** &c. But of this Missal see more below. 


Chap* XXXII. §, 10. Among the canons of the Synod, called of 
St. Patrick, the 12th (see Ware's Opusc, S. P. p. 34) is entitled 
Of the oblation for the 4^ad, and is thus expressed : ^^ Hear the 
^< Apostle saying, there is a. Mti unto death, I do not 9ay that for 
it any one do pray , And the Lord; Do not give the holy to 
dogs. For he, who will not deserve to receive the sacrifice 
'* during his life, how can it help him after his death ?** This 
canon most clearly shows, that the sacrifice used to be offered as 
propitiatory towards the relief of the deceased, and of all such as 
were supposed, while alive, to be worthy of being admitted to the 
holy communion. It was celebrated for the purpose of helping 
them ; but, acicording to the universal practice of the Church, it 
was not offered for those, whom it could not helpy that is, impenitent 
sinners, who were unworthy of receiving it during their lifetime. 
Usher, well knowing that this canon was directly contrary to his 
system of the sacrifice not being offered for the dead, except by way 
of thanksgiving, took care not to quote it He understood these 
matters better than poor Harris, who (Bishops, p. 26.) thought 
that it furnished an additional proof to those of Usher against 
prayers for the dead. It certainly furnishes a proof against pray- 
ing for the damned, while at the same time it supplies us witl) an 
incontrovertible one to show, that the Irish used to offer the sa- 
crifice and pray for such deceased persons as were not supposed to 
be in hell. We read in the very ancient Life of St. Ita, who lived 
in the sixth century, that she prayed during a considerable time 
for the soul of her uncle, who was suffering in the lower regions, 
while his sons were giving alms towards the same object. (See 
Chap. XI. J. 2.) Would Usher say, that these prayers and alms 
were by way of thanksgiving ? When St. Pulclierius, as is stated 
in his also ancient Life, and who died in the seventh century, used 
to pray for the repose of the soul of Ronan chieflain of Ele, and 
recommend it to the prayers of the people, although, by tlie bye, 
he was not distinguished as a holy man, (see Chap, xvii. §, 5, 
And the Life of Pidcherius, cap, 18.) will it be said that these 
were prayers of thanksgiving ? I might appeal also to a Life of St. 
Brendan, in which, as Usher lumself quotes, alluding to the re- 
lief of deceased persons from torments, it is stated that the prayer • 
of the living doth profit much the dead. As to said Life contain- 
%ig some fables, that is not the question ; atid the only inquiry 



should be; what was, whether luiiidflt fiibuloiu nairativei or wAf 
the belief and priustke of thii ancieDt Iruh widi teffurdtb offiering 
the Mtcn&ct and pnjk^ (or deoeased persons. Now, what en- 
tity oyerfunlS Usher's quibbles i«jtii regud to. reducing all such 
pra^rs to ^adtiglvmgs^ we hate a canon of an Irish syApd. prior 
to the eighth oeii^my, in which, the. 4)biatiQns^f(Mr departed souls 
are expressly distiiigobhedy' according to the dreuinstanqes.of. the 
MiilSy into dio^ 'of thanksgiving and into othens ftr «btainiiiig fiiU 
Mbnission foir tHem, or for lightening their jafferings. This canon 
nay be seen at Ml below Chap, xxxii. .$« 12. and ib* Not. IQS. 
Not wishing to enlarge more on this subject, I shall now leaye the 
leader to judge for himself. 


Succession of kings ofCaskel — Deaths of bishops of 
different sees in Ireland-^and of abbots ofHy^'^ 
Emulph and* BuOf Irishmen, distinguish them- 
selves by their zeat Jbr religion in Iceland -^Se^ 
veral religious houses devastated and plundered 
by the DlineS'^Cormac Mac Cuilinan king and 
bishop Gf Cashel^-'Cashel not an episcopal sac be- 
Jbrethe'timeqftlnsprelote'^FlaJiertach abbot of 
Imscdihy-i-^Cormac' s chapel at Cashelr-^SUccession 
of the bishops xfEmly still kept up i^er Cashel 
had bcQome a bishojfs see-^Several illustrious 
IHskmen in the Continent—Sealbhach secretary to 
Cormac Mac Cuilionan-^Su^cession of Irish mO'^ 
narchs-^^Deaths of several 'bishops^ abbots, and 
leamddmen in the 10th century — Devastations 
and plunders by the Danes in Ireland in that 
centwry^-^onVersion op the Danes of Dublimlo 
Christidnity^^Foundatiofi qf th6 Abbey' of SL 
Mavy-'S^ Dublinrr^ Dmes dejfedfed in several e»» 
gAgetnents Ify^the Irish^^Dealhs ofi^ore bishops^ 
nbbotSf tind learned snen^-^Brian Bof'oimht ' kia^ 
^* Muksier^^seizes usk Mac-Giolle^Patrich^r^^ 
Jsdts^ the -Danes in: several battJes-^Hy plunderpd^ 
and Jif teen of Hie elders put to deathby^tJicJDe^es. 



COENFOELAD, bishop of Emly, and king of 
Cashel, who died in 872, (I ) was succeeded by Rud- 
gaf Mac-Fingsil, (9) whose dieatli is assigned to 

882, ahd liext after tv^hom was Concenmathair, who 
died in 887f and had for successor Eugene Mac- 
Cenfoelad, who is called prince of Emly and was 
killed in 889. (S) After him we must place Mael- 
brigid, the son of one Prolech, a holy man, tawhom 
some haive given the title of archbishop of Munster. 
His death is marked at A. D. 896. (4) He was 
SQdceeded^by Miscel, who died in 898. (5) Cormac, 
tyishop of Duleek, and abbot of Clonard, died in 

883. (6) Largis, bishop of Kildare, was killed by 
the Dalhes in 886. (?) This was most probably the 
last year of Moelcoba Mac-Crunnvail, archbishop of 
Armagh, (8) whose immediate successor was, ac- 
cdfdi^g to sotrte bf our annalists, Mocta ; but there 
is ^ttiucb better reason to believe, that his next suc- 
ce^ssor " was Maelbrigid. (9) This prelate, who is 
reckoned among the Irish sainfe, was son of Tornan 
or Dornan of the royal house of Niall, and a 
descendant of Conal Gulbamus. He Had been abbot, 
fiteplif ^ritly of Derty, and abbot nlso of Raphoe, 
tefore he was rAi&ed to the see of Armagh. (10) 
'7i' ■^reitt' riot and fight having occurred on Whit- 
SlUftday it! the year g90(M) between the Kincl- 
fid^ins, or Tyronians, and the Ulidians, or East 
Ulster men, in the cathedral of Armagh, Maelbrigid 
fed -influence enough to put a stop to it, and to in- 
duce both parties to make due compensation for the 
brittle of having profaned tlie church. It is related 
of him, that on a certain occasion he went as f^r as 
Munster for the purpose of procuring the deliverance 
df a British stranger from prison. His reputation for 
ifiet)' wA» so great, that he was called the head of re- 
igion, tliat is, the most religious person, not only of 

z 2 


all Ireland, but of the greater part of Europe. He 
held the see until his death, which occurred on the 
22d of February in, according to one account, 926, 
and^ according to another 927- (12) Thus his in- 
cumbency must have lasted about 40 years. (13) 
Alild, a scribe, abbot, and bishop of Clogher, died in 
898, (14) as did in the very last year of the century 
Dungal Mac-Baithen, abbot and bishop of Glenda- 
Joch. (15) 

(1) See Chajh xxi. J- 13. 

(2) I strongly suspect that Rudgal Mac-FiDgail was either a con- 
verted Northman or the son of t>ne. Fingail, or White foreigners 
was the well known appellative of a certain description of them, 
and is still retained in a ^ract of country possessed by them newr 
Dublin. And tlie name Rudgal is much more Northmannic than 
it is Irish. Although the bulk of the Northmen settled in Ireland 
were still pagans, yet we may rationally suppose, that some of them 
became Christians, were they no others than the sons of such as 
had been taken in battle, many of whom were most probably about 
Endy and Cashel afler the victories of Olchobar. Rudgal is the 
first person bearing a Northmannic name, whom I have met with 
as a Christian in our history. 

(3) Ware, Bishops at JSw/y. 

(4) 4 Masters ap. A A. SS. p. 387, at A. 895 (896). Ware 
has not Maelbrigid among the bishops of £mly, but Harris has 
added him to his list. The 4 Masters do not place him at Emiy, 
t^ut by styling him archbishop ofMunster they must have meant 
that see, as in those times no other Munster prelates were^ even 
by courtesy, ever honoured with that title except those of Emly. 

(5) \yare at Endy. 

(6) 4 Masters ap. AA. SS. p. 360 at A. 882 (883.) Harm 
has this bishop at Meath, p. 139. 

(7) Tr. Th. p, 659. at A. 885 (886.) The Annals of Innis- 
fallen assign his death to A. 888. 

(8) See Chap, xxi. §. 13. 

' (9) Ware observes, (Bishops at Armagh) that some Irish an- 
nalists have the following succession after Moelcoba; I. Mocta» 
who died in 889 ; 2. Moelathgen, who died in 890; 3. Kellach 


Mac-SaorguSy who died in 898, or, as others say, in 903; 4. 
Moel-Kiaran Mac-£ogain, who died in 914 or 915. He adds, 
that these are not reckoned by others among the archbishops of 
Armagh, and that they were considered only as suffragans of 
Maelbrigid. The 4 Masters (ap. Tr. Th. p. 296.) have Mocta, 
whom they calf bishop^ anchoret^ and scribe of Armagh* Colgan 
leaves the matter undecided; but O'Flaherty in a MS. note (ib,) 
asserts, that Mocta was not a bishop. This Mocta was, in all 
appearance, the person who was taken by the Danes together with 
Moelcoba Mac-Crumvail. (See Chap.xxu J. 1?. They have also 
Moelathgen as bishc^ of Armagh, and assign his death to 890 
(891 ). Yet they had just before spoken of Maelbrigid as bishop 
and comorbaA of St. Patrick in 889 (890) and hence Co%an con- 
cludes that Moelathgen was only a sufiragan or coadjutor of his. 
O'FIaherty {MS, note) holds that Moelathgen was a real bishop 
of Armagh, and that he was the immediate predecessor of Mael- 
brigid, placing his death in 891. The 4 Masters next have Kel- 
lach Mac-Saorgus, but not Moel-Kiaran, and afterwards treat of 
Maelbrigid. Amidst this confusion the best rule to follow is the 
catalogue from the Psalter of Cashel, which places Maelbrigid 
immediately afler Maelcoba. Colgan himself prefers its autho- 
rity to that of the annalists, particularly where he treats of Mael- 
brigid or St. Maelbrigid, A A. SS. ad 22 Februar. 

(10) The 4 Masters call Maelbrigid comorbatiy (u e successor) 
of saints Patrick, Columba, and Adamnan. As to his being a 
successcNT (^Columba, XI!olgan, at his Acts^ refers it to Derry,and, 
I think, with good reason. For it cannot be supposed tliat he Was - 
at any time abbot of Hy. We have seen {Chap. xxi. ^. 1 4*.) that 
the successor of Kellach at Ily was Feradach, who lived until 
880, aHer whom the Annals of Ulster, which are very particular 
as to the succession at Hy, make mention of Flan Mac-Maoledrin* 
who was abbot there until 891. Now in this year Maelbrigid was 
already archbishop of Armagh, and being in that rank could not be 
invested with the government of Hy, which was always reserved to 
a priest. Nor do the said annals exhibit Maelbrigid as having been 
there, notvrithstanding their also making him a comorban of Co- 
lumba. It may be said that Maelbrigid, although he had not been 
abbot of Hy, was a successor of Columba, not at Derry but at 
Durrow, (King's county) the other chief monastery of that saint in 


Ireland. Yet amndering that Maelbrigid- was also at Raphoe, it 
is much taore probable^ coDsiderinf its being wit fax from -Derff, 
that this was the p]aoe> of whid^ he .had been abbot It is odd 
that Co]gan» in his account of the abbots and other distinguished 
persons of Hy, reckons ( 2V. Th, p,. 509^) Maelforigid among dhera, 
notwithstanding what he says of him in his Acts. He does not 
indeed call him tf66o#of Hy ; but he should not have placed him 
there at all. * Yet he has been followed by Smith, Append, to Life 
of St^ C p* 167. Maelbrigid's being cdQed successor also of 
Adanman is relative to his having been abb<H of Raphoe, of whose 
monastery Adamnan had been the founder and was the patron 
saint. Harris had no right to make him bishop of Raphoe {Bishops 
at Armaghy p, 46. and at Raphoe p. 270) on the supposition that 
its monastery had been already raised to an episcopal see by St. 
Eunaii. For this he had no authority whatsoever ; nor does any 
one know at what time St. Eunan lived; (Compare with Not. 59* 
to CAop. XVII I.) 

(11) Four Master ap. Tr. Th. p. 290. at A. 889 (890). 6'Fla* 
herty(MiS. no/f t£.) assigns it to 892. I suspect that his only 
reason for this date was, that the placing of the riot in 890 would 
not agree with his h3rpothesis of making Moelathgen archbishop 
of Armagh predi^cessor of Maelbrigid. (See Not. 9.) _ 

(12) The 4f Masters (ib.) have 925 (926) ; and the Ulster An- 
nals (ap. Ware at Armagh) 9i6 (927). 

(13) Colgan, (Acts 22 Febr.) gives him exactly 40 years, which 
he reckoned from 885 (886) to 925 (926). But in tlie Cashel ca- 
talogue for his administration we 6nd marked only -29 years. Harris 
(Bishops 2X Maelbrigid) conjectures, that there is an erratum in 
the XXIX of said catalogue, > and that, instead of i, we ^ould read 
X, thus making the whole xxxx. This is certainly a probable cor- 

(14) Ware (at Clogher) fr<Mn the annals of Ulster. Yet Colgan 
A A. SS. p. 742.) places, as if from the 4 Masters, Alild*s death 
at 867 (868). There seems to be some mistake in in his printed 
text ; for after Alild we find the death (^ one Moran, abbot of 
Oogher, affixed to A. 841 (842). . 

(15) Four M^8ters'(fl;^. A A. SS. p. 257.) at A. 899 (900) ; and' 
Harris (Bishops at Glendahch).' 


§ 1 II. The abbot of Hy Feradach^ saa of Cdxip«c^ 
who, as we have seen, (16) died in 880, .was 9uc-: 
ceeded by Flan Mac^^MaoUecirin, who died in .89 i • 
(17) He was. a descendant of Cona^ Qulbanius^ 
the ancestor of 'St.'Cdutnbd^ and his . memory was 
revered on the 24th of Ajh*!!. (l8)i After flan I 
find mentioned not as abbot, but as cos^ator of the. 
abbot of Hy, Aengus, son of Murchertach, who is 
styled a choice ancnoret, and who died in 936 ; afler 
whom occurs in the list Caincomrach, who is ex- 
pressly called abbot of Hy, and whose death is as- 
signed to 946k (19) 

In, as it is said, the latter end of the iiinth cen- 
tury, that is, after 874, when the Norwegians wei*e 
in possession of Iceland, (20) two Irishmen, Ernulph 
and fiuo, distinguished themselves in that island bf 
their zeal for religion, (si) It is not knowta wh^ 
ther they were clergymen or not, and it is probable 
that they had been taken to Iceland as captives by 
some Norwegian pirates. All that I find stated con- 
cerning them ik as follows : " Helgo, surnamed 
Bioh, a descendant of NorvVegian barons, who 
dwelt in the' province of Kialam^ was? not favoiir- 
** able to the pagan religion ; for he received into 
his neighbourhood an Irish christian an exile,* 
named Ernulph, together with his families, and 
not only received him but allowed hiin to erect a 
church under the name of St. Columbus (Colum* 
ba) in the village of Esiuberg. Buo, i yonng man 
also of the same province^ burned a famous fane 
of human VTCtims and all its gods/* (22) . 
Three Irishmen, or Scots of Ireland, are parti- 
cularly noticed by various English annaKdts as having 
set out from Ireland in 89 J or 89$ in a leathern^ 
boat without a sail or any eqdipmentv ta;king with 
them a week's provision, and as providenttally ar» 
riving, after seven days, in Corn wallV whence they 
proceeded to pay a visit to king Alfrfedj by whom* 
they were most graciously received. 'Hicir names 





were Dufflan^ MacTieathath and Magthmmeriy who 
is represented as a man of extraordinary merit, and 
a celebrated master of the Spots or Irish. (23) Af- 
terwards they went to Rome, intending to proceed 
thence to Jerusalem. One of them died during their 
excursions, and some miracles are mentioned as hav- 
ing been wrought in consequence of his death. (84) 

(16) Chap. XXI. $.14. 
,- (17) ADnals of Ulster in Johnstqie's Extracts. The 4 Ma&- 
tCTB, who call him son of Malduin, assign (op. 2V. Tk, p. 500) his 
death to A. 887 (888). 
. (18) Tr.Tk. p. 481. 

(19) lb. p. 500. I have added a year to the dates. Could 
Caincomrach have been the immediate successor of Flan ? If so, 
he must have governed Hy for 55 years from 891 to 946. " Or was 
there between them an abbot, whose name has not reached us, 
and for whom Aengus acted as coadjutor? Smith (App. to Life 
of St. C. p. 167.) makes mention of Dubhard, comorban of Co- 
lumbkill and Adamnan, who died in 937. But his being called 
comorban of Columbkill, does not prove, that he was abbot of 
Hy, no more than it does that of Maolbrigid, archbishop of Ar- 
magh, had been such ; and we meet with, at a later period, a Ma« 
redach, likewise called comorban of Columbkill, and Adamnan, 
who was certainly not abbot of Hy. By that title was meant, I 
believe, one who was abbot both of Deny and Raphoe. In the 
Annals of Ulster the real abbots of Hy are always named as such. 
The 4 Masters have not Dubhard among them. 

(20) See NoU 32 to Chap. xx. 

(21) Colgan treats of Emulph at the 2d, and of Buo at the 5th 
of Februaiy. His reason for treating of the former at the 2d was 
not, that he knew on what day he died, or whether his name was 
in any calendar or not, but because a St. Erlulph, martyr, bishop 
of Verdun,. whom he thought a native of Ireland, is marked in a 
German calendar at that day. Accordingly, on account of the 
similarity of the name, he has Emulph, as well as. Erlulph at 2d 
Febr. As to Erlulph having been an Irishman, there is no suffix 
dent proof, although Crantz says that he was either a Scot or an 
Englishman. He was killed by the Northmen at Ebbeckstorp, not 


far from Hamburgh, in, it is said, the year 856. The accounts 
given of him are rather obscure, and unsupported by and^it do- 
cuments. (See the Bollandists at 2 February,) With regard to 
Emulph, were we to judge from the name, it might seem that he 
was not an Irishman ; but he is expressly so called, and probably 
his real name was Emuf or Emubh^ which, conformably to 
a Northern termination, was changed into Emulph in the same 
manner as MaUduf, or MaUdubhy was changed into Maildulph, 
(See Not. 62 to Chap, xviii.) Why Buo should be maiked at 5 
February or styled a saint, Colgan gives us no other authority than 
that of Camerarius on a Scotch martyrology and of Dempster. 

(22) Acts of Emulph and Buo from Amgrim Jonas.. Although 
Colgan, with others makes Buo an Irishman, yet Amgrim's words, 
also of the same province^ may be conjectured to refer not to 
Ireland but to the Icelandic province of Kialam. But the stress 
intimated by a&o, quoque^ leads us to think, that the author's 
meaning was to point out Buo as a countryman of Emulph. It 
is going rather too far to call Emulph and Buo the Apostles of 
Iceland. The little that is known of them does not authorize us 
to give them that title, which was bestowed on them by the above- 
mentioned Scotch writers, who, in spite of Amgrim, pretended 
that they were Scotchmen. We have seen {Chap. xx. ^. 4.) that 
there were Christians and Irish missionaries in Iceland a long time 
before either of them was bora. And as to the re -establishment 
of Cliristianity in Iceland ailer its occupation by the Norwegians^ 
Ara states, (ScAeo^e, Sfc. ch. 7.) that it was introduced during the 
reign of Olaus Tryggvon, king of Norway, a great grandson of 
Harold Harfagre, by persons, among whom he makes no men- 
tion either of Emulph or of Buo. Glaus was killed in battle A. D. 
1000. Whether Colgan and those whom he followed were right 
in making the times of Emulph, Buo, and Helgo Biola as eariy 
as about 890 it is not worth while to inquire. The Bollandists (at 
2 Febr.) omit Emulph, and observe (t5. p. 267.) that some more 
certain information, relative to him, was requisite th^ that sup- 
plied hy Dempster and Colgan. And (at 5 Febr. p, 593.) speaking 
of Buo, whom also they omit, they say that there is as little 
clear or authentic known concerning him as there is about 
Kmulph. Dempster, with his usual imposture, makes Buo author 
of Hom'diae ad Islandos. ( See Harris, Writers at Buo.) 


< ^2d>'it k ihua tbejr 4re metitioiled bj Fabius l^thelwerd, 
(Ckramad Ai Sdl^ orQ9S) who-says of MagilmuneD that he wa»: 
" ariihu'^tcndenStlittera doctuSy magister insignis ScoUorumJ' 
Vldr&BiteiciWohBttm{atA,992.) calls them Dushldn, Mahbethy 
taAMaimulm. -fie sfty^lhat they left Irdand for the purpose 
of.leadaig'»life.ofpi]^;iiiniige. Peirhap$ they were obliged to fly 
by tbe 'iKort&niea ; and hmkoe we may neGoant for their going m 
a. soitylMiQi witteiit proper equipment. Mattheivf of Westminster 
assigDSi their dqwtiire to A* 891 « E^eiwerd speaking, in his bad 
Latiti, of .their visit to Alfi^ed, says ; *" Adfredum adeunt .regent^ 
in quorum mkiectum cum rege pariter sinditus ovatJ* Ledwich> 
whose .hiLtaredjofihebld Irish has made hiin advance 'so much non- 
senise, .pretends {Antiq, p* 180.) that the names of these three 
Irishmen I ibtinrat^B Danish or • No^egian extraction. Now, if 
there ever were true Iiish'fiames, surely theirs were such. Can- 
any name b^ more Irish than Di^an, Black Flan? Or does the 
Mac of the^kther nam08, or A^a^An/A, &c. indicate a Danish ori^ 
gi;i ? Did;the Doctor ever look into ^ Danish dictionary ? , 

(2i).i hfl«se>^ildeavbured tapidc out what is said of this death 
from-th^'barbarouslB^e of 'Ethelward; but I ani not sure of Irnv- 
ittg hit vegon his real meaning. 

§. iri. The troubles caused by the Northmen still 
continued. In %M they plundered Kildare, and 
carried off to their ships the prior Suibhne, son of 
Duibhdabhaireann, besfdes 280 other persons. (25) 
In 887 they laid waste and pillaged Ardbraccan in 
Meath ; («6) and in the following year, as some say, 
or, as others, in 886 a greaf battle was fought be- 
tween Flan, king of Ireland, and the Danes of Dub- 
liil, who, it is said, gained a bloody victory, while 
there fell on the part of the Irish, Aedh, son of 
Conor, ting of Connaught, Largis, or Leargus, bi- 
shop of Kildare, and Donogh son of Maolduin, 
prince of Krll-Dealga. (S?) . Kildare was again de- 
vastated by the Danes iti 888 ; and in the_ following 
year Clonard. (28) According to one account, the 
Danes o? Dnfeliri, prqcecded in 851 to Armagh, 
and, having plundered the city and destroyed various 

CI9AP; Ittll. OF IRELAND. 347 

sacred buUdings, took with them 7I0 captives ;'but 
another account assigns this transaction to A. 2); 
895. (99) It is added that it was pillaged again in 
894 by Northmen, who came from Lough-fpyle; 
yet it is more probablci that this happenea in 898. 
(30) In the year 896 the Northmen of Tircotinel 
suffered a dreadful defeat, in which two df their 
chiefs, Auliflfe soti of Ivar, and Gluiithidna son of 
Gluniaran, besides 800 of their followers, were 
killed by the Irish commanded by Aiteid son df 
Laghan. (31) The power of these marauders Was 
gradually diminishing, and would have declined stilj 
faster, were not the Irish quarreling aitiong them- 
selves. In 902 they were slaughtered by the people 
of Leinster, and the whole of them were driven out 
of Ireland. (32) Those of Dublin were expelled by 
the men of Bregh, headed by Maol-Finia (or Pin- 
nian) son of Flanagan, who had been killed in 896, 
(33) and by the inhabitants of Leinster commanded 
by Carrol. (34) It was, in all probability, after this 
exploit that Maol-Fintiian became a monk and abbot 
of Inis-Patrict (Holmpatrick), where he die^l in 
great reputation of sanctity, A. D. 903, (35) on the 
6th of February, at which day his name occurs in 
various calendars both Irish and foreign. 1[36) 

(25) Four Masters, ap. Tr. Th.p. 629. at 883 (884-). 

(26) lb. p. 663 and Ind. Chron. at A. 886 (887). 

(27) Annals of Innisfallen at A. 888. They are followed by 
Ware, (Antiq. cap 24?). The 4 Masters (ap. Tr. Th. p. 629) 
assign this battle to 885 (886). Largis has been mentioned above 
§. 1. 

(28) Four Masters (ib.) A. 887 (888). and in A A. SS.p. 407. at 
A. 888 (889). 

(29) The 4 Masters {ib. p. 296.) have A. 890 (891) while the 
Annals of Ulster have A. 894* (895), and are followed by Ware, 
{loc. ci^.)who, however, tells us elsewhere (Bishops of Armagh at 
Maetbrigid) that Armagh was plundered by the Danes in 890. 
But he took this from what be found in Colgan firom the 4? Masters, 


to whose date I should prefer those of the Ulster Annals. As to 
the 710 ci^)tives, who, according to the 4 Masters, were taken at 
Arm8^» the Annals of Ulster do not mention this circumstancey 
but state that in the year 895 (896) Gluniam, a Northman chieC 
gained a victoiy, but where we are not tdd, in which he made 
710 prisoners. 

(30) The 4 Masters, ib. have A. 893 (891'). Neither in the 
Annals .of Ulster, nor in Ware, (y4»^2^.) is this devastation men- 
tioned, although (at Bishops loc. cU.) following Colgan as before, 
he says that the Danes plundered Armagh also in 893. That 
some Northmen, who came from Lough-foyle, sacked Armagh 
cannot be denied ; but, considering that this occurred after the 
plundering by the Dublin Danes, which, in all probability, was in^ 
895, it must be placed later than raaiked by the 4 Masters ; and,, 
in fact^ the Annals of Innisfallen assign Jt to A. 898. 

(31) Annals of Innisfallen at A. 896. This victory is men- 
tioned also in the Ulster Annals, which have at 895 (896) ; ^ The 
Gals defeated by the men of Tirconnel under Mac-Laigur (for 
son of Laghan)y who killed AuMe son of Ivar." At said year 
these annals state, that Flanagan, king of Bregh (the country 
stretching from Dublin to Drogheda) was killed by the North- 

(32) Annals of Innisfallen A. 902, and of Ulster at A. 901 

(33) See Not. 31. (34) Annals of Ulster, id. 

(35) 16. at ^. 902 (903). 

(36) Colgan touching on him (A A. SS. at 6 Febr. ;;. 268.) 
calls him St. Finnlan or Moelfinnian, who, from prince of Bregh 
became a monk, &c The 4 Masters, whom iie quotes assign 
his deatli to 898 (899) ; but this cannot agree with his having 
fbugkt against the Danes in 902. It is odd that the dates of the 
4 Masters are usually earlier by some years than those of the an- 
nals both of Ulster and Innis^en. To the many instances we 
have met with I may here add that for the death of Bressa], a lec- 
turer of Armagh, which (ap. Tr. Th. p. 296.) they assign to A. 
894 (895) ; whereas, according to the Ulster Annals {ap. Usher, 
Pr. p. 861.) he died in 898 (899). 

§. IV. By far the most celebrnted man of these 


times in Ireland was Cormac Mac-Culinan, who was 
not only bishop of Cashel, but likewise king there, 
that is, of all Munster, of which that city was the 
capital. He was not the first who united the scepter 
of that province with the episcopacy ; for, as we have 
seen, Olchobar and Coenfoelad, bishops of Emly, had 
heen also kings of Cashel or of Munster. Little is 
known concerning the earlier part of Cormac's life. 
I find that he was bom in 837 ; (37) and it is al- 
lowed on all hands, that he was of the Eugenian 
branch of the royal house of Munster. That he 
was educated for the ecclesiastical state is evident 
from his having been possessed of great learning, for 
the acquisition of which he must have spent a great 
part of his time amidst the tranquillity of college or 
religious establishments. It is said that he had been 
instructed by Snegdus a learned and pious abbot of 
Castledermot ; (38) and it is certain that he was a 
bishop before he became a king. But how or where 
he was raised to the mitre it is not easy to under- 
istand. Before his time Cashel was not an episcopal 
see, having been, notwithstanding some idle conjec- 
tures to the contrary, still comprized in the diocese 
of Emly. How then did Cormac become bishop of 
Cashel? The see of Emly continued to exist, as 
usual, and had its bishops, distinct from those of 
Cashel, in his time and for centuries later. There 
was iio quarrel or schism between Emly and Cashel, 
and Cormac, while bishop and king, was on the best 
terms with the bishop of Emly. I think it probable, 
that he was bishop of Lismore before he removed to 
Cashel. For a Cormac, son of Culinan, is stated to 
have been bishop there in those times ; and I do not 
find any sufficient reason for supposing, that we are 
to admit two bishops Cormac, both sons of Culinans, 
and contemporaries, one at Cashel and the other at 
Lismore. (39) It may be, however, that he was 
originally made bishop at Cashel on account of his 
extraordinary merit, according to the Irish system of 


rai^iog disMngiiis^^d penons to the . episcopal vmk 

7heD^ iQ )spw4qu^tfliC0 of the great respect in wbicii 
his . a^pfory . iiim held» Ca$hel probably became a 
piEHiltifll^t mhd^ tjsgp^ see ; and there is good jreason 
pf t\»9lk i!^t, a»the0^j<4l of Munster, its foUow<' 
iog bisiiopis gradually acquired^ even before it be- 
came'^ really metropolitical see, the ascendancy 
wh^f^h; had been formerly Enjoyed by the churcKof 

(37) Annals of Innisfallen, at A. 837. 

(38) See O'Conor's Dissertations^ sect* ,17. and the 4 Masters 
at jL 885, and below Not. 56. 

(39) Co]gBai{AA. SS. p. 360.) has, from the 4 Masters, as di^ 
ferent persons Cormac Mac-Culinan king and bishop of Cashel, 
' whose dteath they assign to 903 (904*), and Connac Mao-Culiosiiy 

bishop of Lismore, whom they call prince of the Desies^ fq[i4 who, 
they s^y, died in 918 (919) /If these diMies were correct, it would 
follow that there were two distinct Cormacs Mac-Culinan. Bnt^dt 
least, the former (me is not ; for the Cormac of Ca^el died^ ia 
908 ; and as to 918 for ihe one of Lismore it. is perbaps a ^nns- 
take for 908. The 4* Masters, when searching in old^aanals^snd 
docum^ts, might haVe £[)und Connac Mc.CuHnan call^ioLSoxue 
i>ishpp of Lismor^i apd in others of Cashel^ and thence; supposed 
'that they were different Their calling Coi?nac of Usmore^^cr 
oftheDesies does, n^t furnish an ailment against his buying 
been the same as Cohnac of Cashel; whereas, in coi^eqoenQejof 
hmxig bishop of that great see, situated in the Desies cQuntiy, he 
might while there have got that title, in the same manner;* 
«li(^8;0f £mly, ex. c. Etigene Mac-Cenfoelad^ (see above §*!') were 
atyled princes of Enil^. I suspect that the epithet Theasakscopy 
which has been .applied. to Cormac (iVc)^. ^r^c.) before be became 
loDg.of Cashel, alludes to a see more southerly tbm) Ca8be}>md^ 
as Lismore is. Per^ps it was usual to distiaguisb J4«^<ire by c#* 
ing-it'tbe souther)) pl^^ or cstibli^ment much in the sam^ W9J 
M Alcuip ^ke of it in his letter io Colcu. (See Not, 4i5- to Ch(^* 



^. V. The greatest part of what is known con- 
oer&iiig the transactions of Cormac hj i^J^five tnofe 
jlo t})9 civil than, to the ecclesiastical hi^tjory of : Jre- 
laixif The occasion of his beins raised tathe thi*one 
^iWt that Kinngeagan, who ha4^t popi^^iqiirof it 

ill 89^ (40) was dethrone^ in, 9Q), iand, jC<>i^^^i^ 
wafi called to tt by his opponents* (41) Yet^i^fone 
time (^lapsed before he was; pe^eably seated on it-; 
and it is stated^ that Fionngaine, who is called som 
of Gorman king of Cashel, was killed in. 902 dw- 
ing the contest by his own people.. (42) It ;^^ ifi 
903 that Corpiac became king/without opposition. 
.(48) While he was governing^ his kingdom in 
peace, Flann, surnamed iS'/oTma, king of all IrelaQd, 
and Cearbhaly son of Muregan,t king of Leii|Siter» 
marched. with an army toWjEtrds Munster, and kid 
waste the whole country between Gowran and Lmm^ 
rick. (44) But in the following year Corma(;» ac* 
companied by Flathcrtach Mac-Iqnmunain'. abbot of 
Inniiscatthy, a man of a very military disposition, spt 
out with the forces of Munster, and, arriving in the 
plains of Magh-leana in the now King'^ county, gav^ 
battle to Flann and his confederates of Leath-Cuinn 
(the northern half of Ireland) and defeated them 
with great loss, particularly of the Nialk, among 
whom Maolchraobha son of Cathalan. king of Kinel- 
£ogain (Tyrone) was killed. Elann being fenced 
W^subtnit and give liostages to Ccmnac, the Mimstet 
army, advanced to Maighe-muCeurradh. (a|^xarefitly 
Ae Kierrigia of Roscommon) and there; compelled 
tihe, Cooacianaand some of the Nialk to give hos* 
teges,. after which they plundered the islands of 
J[wough-rae and a fleet that lay there; $md tha:i.Ijeathi« 
<ittiiin became tributary to an ecclesiaslic. (45) Flauti 
and his adherents did not long submit to this de^ 
gipadation, but, together with Cearbhal of Leinst^r, 
tho^ princes of Leath*cuinn, Cathal son of Conor 
king of Connaught, &c« raised a great ^rmy, which 
was met, in 908, at Beallach Mughna (Ballypoopn 


in Idrone, county of Carlow) by Corniac at the head 
of the forces of Munster and Ossory under their va- 
rious chiefs 'and many of their principal nobility. 
A desperate battle then took place, in which 
Cormac was killed by one Fiacha, and along with 
him several other princes and nobles, besides 
about 6000 of their followers. (46) This battle 
is said to have been fought on the l^th of August ; 
(47) and some writers place the scene of it at Moy- 
albe or the White Jield. This, however, does not 
imply any difference of situation ; for Moyalbe was 
near Beallach-Mughna, being in the vicinity of Old 
Leighlin. (48) It has been foolishly said, that Gor- 
mac was killed not in this battle but by the Danes, a 
story quite in opposition to the most respectable au- 
thorities and to the then state of Ireland. (49) 
Others tell us, that his death was occasioned by a 
fail from his horse during the heat of the battle ; 
and, according to another account, he did not engage 
in the battle at all, but was praying apart for the 
success of his army, when a herdsman coming up put 
him to death (50) 

(40) Annals of Innisfkllen, as ap. Harris. 

(41) lb. at A. 891 (Mr. O'Reillys copy). 

(42) 16. ad. A. 902. Colgan says, {Tr. Th. p. 186.) that 
Fionngaine was son of Kinngeagan ; but how will this agree with 
his being called in the Innisfallen annals son of Gorman f O'Fla- 
herty {MS. not. ib.) asserts that Fionngaine was the same as Kinn- 
geagan. ~ If so, it is odd that in the course of two or three lines 
the same persons should be called in those annals first Kinn* 
geagan and next Fionngaine. I do not presume to judge on a 
matter of this kind, which I have touched upon merely to s1m>w, 
that there was a contest for the throne of Cashel after the nomi- 
nation of Cormac. 

(4S) Annals of Innisfallen at A. 8*03. The 4 Masters have 
earlier dates for these transactions ; but tlieir Authority i&not equal> 
particularly with regacrd-to the a&in of Munster. 

(44) lb. ad A. 906. (45) Ib. ad 4- 907. 

CHAP. XXir. , OF IREIiAND. 353 

(46) lb. ad A^ 908« I cannot guess what reason Dr. M3ner 
had {Tour in Ireland^ Letter 14.) for suspecting, in direct 
opposition to our Annals, that Cormac lived at a much later 

(47) Ware, Antiq* cap. 21. and Archbishops of Cashd^ at 

(48) See N(a. 36. to Chap. xv. 

(49) The &ble of Cormac having been killed by tlie Danes is not 
to be found in any Irish annals or document that I know of. It 
is in the chronicle of Caradoc of Lhancarvan, who calls Cormac 
<< Carmoty the son of Cukemanj king and bishop of Ireland." The 
mighty antiquary Ledwich \Antiq. Sfc p. 148.) follows Caradoc ; 
for, in &ct, he prefers eveiy authority to that of Irish histoiy, 
which indeed is not to be wondered at, as he knows so little about 
it. Speaking of Cormac, he says that << Irish romantic history 
tells us that he was descended from OlioU Olum king of Munster 
of the Eugenian race, &c." The reader will please to observe, 
that he calls the Irish history of even the tenth century romantic 
Then to show his learning he says that OlioU Olum was of the 
Eugenian race. Fray how could that be ? For Eugenius, from 
whom that race was denominated, and from whom the Mac 
Carthys, &c. descend, was a son of OlioU Olum, who was the 
ancestor also of the Dalcassian princes, to whom the 0*Briens, &c. 
belonged. If the Doctor had looked only into Keating's pedi- 
grees, he would not have insulted the pubUc with such blunders. 
Our antiquary adds ;^" 1 rely more on the testimony of Caradoc 
of Lhancarvan for his (Cormac*s) existence than the plausible jic" 
tions of national writers ; and I think what this Welsh chronicler 
relates of his being slain by the Danes most likely ; for at 
this time they were ravaging every part of the kingdom." The in- 
solence of this ignorant man is reaUy intolerable. To represent 
what our annalists, historians, and the constant tradition of aU 
Ireland have concerning the existence of Cormac as plausible Jic' 
tions shows such a perverse carelessness of truth with regard to Irish 
history, that the proposer of such nonsense is not worth aiguing 
against. What object could our national writers have had in in- 
venting aa account of Cormac's existence ? But see what this sage 
critic reUes on for it. The testimony of Caradoc ! a testimony 

vol- III. A A 


which would be unintelligible had not Cormac really existed. For 
who otherwise could discover, who was Carmot son of Cukeman^ 
Ac ? As to his following Caradoc on Connac's having been' killed 
by the Danes, it would have been more to the honour of Ireland 
and c^ its cleigy had such been the case ; nor would our annalists 
have attributed the death of a king and bishop^ so highly esteemed, 
to his owii countrymen, or have so particularly mentioned their 
names, if they had not been the authors of it. But the feet is, 
that Cormac could not have been killed at that time by the Danes ; 
for, although .neither Caradoc nor his humble follower the Doctor 
knew it, there were no Danes then in Ireland, against whom Cor- 
mac could have fought. F6r, as we have seen (above §% 3.) they 
had been driven out in 902, and, although they returned after- 
wards, yet they did not come back, at least in any considenJ)le 
force, until some years later than 908, the year in which Cormac 
was killed. ' 

(50) For these various statements see Keating B. 2. where he 
treats largely of Cormac, and Ware and Harris, Archbishops qfi 
Cashel, at Cormac. 

§• VI. Cormac was accompanied in this unfortu- 
nate expedition by several ecclesiastics, some of 
whom actually fought in the battle. Among the 
slain are reckoned ulioU Mac-Eogan^ abbot of Cork, 
and Colman, abbot of Kinnity. (51) The chief 
fomenter of it and encourager of ' Cormac to meet 
the enem^ out of his own country, in opposition to 
his wish to compromise matters, as he loved peace 
and is said to have had a foreknowledge of his death 
in case of an engagement taking place, is stated to 
have been the furious Flathertach abbot of Innis- 
Cathy, who was one of the principal commanders in 
the battle. (52) This martial spirit, which unluckily 
insinuated itself among the Irish clergy, and which 
was so contrary to the feelings and principles of their 
predecessors, (5'3) originated in the contests against 
the pagan Northmen, in which they were much in- 
volved, and some of them almost forced to take up 
arms to defend themselves and their establishments 


against tho^l^arbarous and savage invaders. But, 
whatever apology may be made for the churchmen 
who fought against them, or for Cormac whoj as a 
king, was bound to protect his subjects, whosoever 
the enemies might be, none can be found for such 
conduct as that of Flathertach, if what is said of him 
be true. Tiobruide, bishop of Emly, and who is 
called the religious successor of Ailbe^ also accom- 
panied Cormac ; (54) but whether he mixed in the 
battle or not I do not find recorded. Previous to the 
engagement Cormac made his confession to Comhgall 
his confessor, and made his will, in whjch he be- 
queathed various sacked ornaments and utensils, be- 
sides gold and silver, to divers churches and religious 
places, such as of Cashel, Lismore, Emly, Armagh, 
Kildare, Glendaloch, &c. (55 ) It is said that his boidy 
was brought to Cashel and interred there ; but, ac- 
cording to. another account, it has been supposed that 
he was buried at Castle-derraot. (56) His reputa- 
tion for piety, wisdom, and learning was so great, 
that hje has been considered as the most eminent man 
of bis times in Ireland. (57) He wrote the cele- 
brated work, entitled, the Psalter of Cashel^ (58) 
in which he treated of the history and antiquities of 
Ireland. It has been considered as of the highest 
authority, and was still, extant eptire in the 17tb 
century* and is probably so somewhere at present,, 
altbough I know only of some parts of it, which are 
to be found. (51^) To him is usually attributed the 
Irish glossary or Etymological dictionary, called 
Sanasan Chrmac ; (60) and he is said to have written 
a book on the genealogies of the Irish saints. (61) 
The beautiful small church, now called Cormac's 
Chapel, on the rock of Cashel, and perhaps the oldest 
ecclesiastial building of stone now remaining in Ire- 
land, is universally allowed to have been erected by 
this king and bishop. (62) This church could not 
at any time have been the cathedral of Cashel, as 

A A 2. 



some writers have * supposed ; for it was quite too 
small for that purpose; and I can scarcely doubt 
that it was merely a royal church or chapel annexed 
to the king's palace or castle, which was situated on 
the summit of the rock. (63) 

(51) For Olioll see Annals of Innisfallen at A. 908, and for 
Cplman, Keating. Kinnity is in that part of the King's county, 
which formerly belonged to Munster. 

(52) Keating, ib. {5^) See Chap. xx. J. 9. 
(54) Keating, ib. (55) Keating, ib. 

(56) According to Ware (/oc. cit.) he was buried at Cashel ; 
but Keating (i^.) asserts that he ordered to have his remains de* 
posited in doyne, where St. Colman son of Lenir had been 
buried, or if that -could not be done, ifl Disert Dermod (Casde- 
dermot), where he had resided for some years in his youth, and 
received his« education, *oh. I suppose, under the abbot Snegdus. 
But I do not find that Keating makes him be actually interred at 

(57) In th^ Annals of Innisfalleii (bXA. 908.) Cormacis styled 
the most Ipamed in knotoledge and science^ and the most holy and 
pious in his time in Ireland. The 4 Masters (ap. AA. SS. p. 
360,) call him king^ bishop^ anchoret a toise man^ and tioriter. 

(58) It is usually supposed that thjs work was called Psaiier 
on account of its having been written in verse, in the same man- 
ner as thare was the Psalter of Tara, and as to one or two worics 
of Aengus Cele-de was given the name of Psalter'-na''rann. (See 
Chap. XX. §. 10.) But my deceased worthy fnend General Val* 
lancey informed me that thlsr was a mistake^ as the original title of 
the work was SaUair, which, he said, signifies chronicle ; and so 
he has stated in his Prospectus of a dictionary of the ancient Irish 
at l^aireac. Yet Saltair signifies also Psalter^ and the Psalter 
or Saltair-na-^ann was not a chronicle. 

(59) Ware makes mention of it (Antiq. cap. 2L and Arch" 
bishops of Cashel at Cormac) as extant in his* time and in great 
esteem. He says that he had some collections out of it. Keating 
had a copy of it, which he often quotes, and speaks of it more 
than once in his Pk^eface as a work to be seen in his da3r8. Col- 
gan also touches on it (A A. SS. p. 5.) as actually existing; and 


Lhuyd (Archaeologiay caialogue of Irish MSS.) Nicholson 
(Irish Hisier. Library^ ch, 2) and Dr. O'Conor {Ep* Nuncup. 
Sf^c, p. 65.) t^ls us, that there is a part of it in an old MS. of 
the Bodleian library at Oxford. Some writers pretend that Cor- 
mac was not the author of it, and that it was compiled after hi$ 
times. In &ct, there are some circumstances meiitioned as taken 
from it, which belong to a later period ; for instance, the latter part 
of the catalogues of the archbishops of Armagh (ap» Tr. Th. p* 
292.) which OHnes.down to the latter end of the eleventh cen- 
tury. But this proves nothing more than that some additions have 
been made to the original work of Cormac, as has been- the case 
with r^;ard to numbers of historical works, particularly those 
written in the middle ages.. The mighty Ledwich, not content 
with denying (Antiq. 8fC, p, 15^.) that Cormac was the author of 
it, makes some puny efforts to undermine the author's veracity. 
In his great reading he found, that Stiilingfleet {Antiq. of the 
British churches^ ch* 5.) quoted and remarked on some silly old 
stories related by Peter Walsh (Prospect of Ireland) from the 
Psalter of Cashel. Walsh had copied them from Keating, ta whom 
he refers ; but Stiilingfleet either had not Keating's work, or could 
not understand it, as it was then only in Irish. Is it, however, 
because sudi stories were found in the Psalter, to be concluded 
that the author was n^Iectful of truth, as the Doctor, distorting 
StiUingfleet's meaning, insinuates? Who will say that Keating 
himself was a liar, because he has given many foolish things, which 
he did not wish the reader to believe, from certain old documents ? 
Or will the Doctor question the veracity of Usher, in whose 
Pritnordia we meet with heaps of fables ? In like manner why 
bring such a charge against the author of the Psalter for having 
copied matters not wortliy of belief? Surely no historian was ever 
judged in this manner, unless he professed to make us consider as 
true every thing inserted in his work. As for a real want of vera- 
city, the reader will find an instance in the Doctor s said page, 
where he says that Stiilingfleet affirms the Psalter of Cashel to be 
a collection of poetical fictions, and that it was compiled in the 
ISth centuiy. Now Stiilingfleet has not affirmed nor even hinted 
at such things, nor has he denied that Cormac was the author of the 

(60) See Harris, Writers at Cormac Mac Culinan. Dr. Led- 


wich has (loc. cU.) some grumbling also about thn Glossary. He 
could not deny that such a work exists ; for Gaieial Yallanoey 
had a copy of it, whidi he often quotes under the name of Cormac 
Mac Culinan, and Lhuyd had one, which he copied from an 
old Irish MS. O'Brien makes mention of it in his Dictionary at 
BeaUinney where he calls it sim{dy an M glossiary obpied by Mr. 
Lhuyd. I believe there are at present many copies <^ it to be 
found. Mr. CReilty has one. (See the Prospectus to his Die* 
tionary of the Irish language.) The Doctor says ; << Su^qposing 
the glossaiy genuine, would it now be intelligible ?'* Strange 
that a man, who set up as an Irish antiquary, should ask 
such a question, as if the Irish of the 9th or 10th centuiy couki 
not be understood by our Irish scholars at present. Suidy, al- 
though the Doctor could not understand it, he must have known 
that those, who are really versed in the language, find scarcely any 
diflSculty in translating Irish documents still more ancient than the 
ninth centuiy, as may be seen in Colgan's worics, &c* But I am 
going out of my way, and shall €ualy add, that I wish some genuine 
Irish scholar and antiquary would give the Doctor a bit of good 
advice as to his meddling with matters, which he knows nothing 

I (61 ) Colgan, A A. SS.p. 5. Nicholson fell into a great nustake(/r. 
Hist, Libr. Append. No. 1.) in ascribing to Cannae Mac Culinan 
a political tract, which is said to have been composed by Cormac 
Ulfada a king of Ireland in the third century. He strangely con- 
founded this king, who lived in pagan times, with the bishop and 
king of Cashel. This mistake, which has been remarked upon by 
Harris, (Writers, ch, 1.) shows, that Nicholson was very poorly ac- 
quainted with Irish history. 

(62) Here again we meet with Ledwich. He allows that this 
church or chapel is a veiy curious fabric, but strives to make us 
believe, that it was built after Cormac's times. This he was not 
able to prove from the style of its architecture, which, he says, {p. 
152) was prior to the introduction of the Nopnan or Gothic styles. 
He has some bungling about a Saxon style, and tells us that Cor- 
mac's chapel bears a great " resemblance to the churdiof St. Peter 
at Oxford, which is supposed to be the oldest stone churdi in 
England, and said to be built by Grymbald about the end of the 
9th century.** As I have often seen this chapel, I may add that 
the Doctor is right as to its style being antecedent to that vulgarly 


eaHed Gothic^ and that it is similar to the low Roman or Italian 
style, which i^ypears in some churches in Italy, particularly at Pavia, 
that were erected in the 7th, 8th, or 9th century. But, waving 
architecture, let us see how he endeavours to show that it was 
built after Connac's times. He lays down, {p, 150.) merely 
from his own head^ that it was erected for the purpose of re- 
ceiving Cormac-s remains. Then he says that, if it was built 
by Cormac himself, he must have foreknown that he was to be 

cannonized and dubbed the patron saint of Cashel. This is trufy 
ridiculous nonsense. In the first place, evca supposing that. Cor. 
mac wished to be buried in it, might he not have erected it with- 
out presuming to think, that he would become a patron saint ? 
How many hundreds of powerful persons have erected, churches or 
chapels, in which their remains should be deposited, who, how- 
ever, never imagined that they should be canonized ? Did Fitz- 
Adelm de Burgo, when founding the religious house of Athassell 
near Cashel, in which he was afterwards buried, expect to be 
called saint ? Next we have seen, that doubts have been enter- 
tained concerning the place of Cormac's interment, which could 
not have existed, had the chapel been built for the purpose men- 
tioned by the Doctor. But who told him, that Cormac has been 
dubbed the patron of Cashel ? I have some right to know more 
about that city than he can, and I am able to tell him that its in- 
habitants, 30 far from considering him as their patron, do not give 
kim even the title of saint, always, speaking of lum by the simple 
name of Cormac Mac Culinan ; nor do they ever invoke him, or ce- 
lebrate his memory in any manner whatsoever as usual with re- 
gard to persons reputed saints. 

I have said that Cormac's cliapel is periiaps the oldest ecclesi- 
astical stone building in Ireland. Yet I will not contend that 
some of the ruins of tliose of Glendaloch and the small church of 
St. Doulach in the barony of Coolock in the district pf Fingal, 
county, of Dublin, or at least a part of it, may not be of equal 
antiquity. By the bye, the Doctor had no right to rob the 
Irish nation of St. Doulach, and to give him to the Danes, 
as he does p, 147, where he says that Doulach is a corruption 
of St. Olave, and thence concludes, that St. Doulach's church 
could not have been built before the 11th century. But St. 
Doulach, or rather Dulech, was an Irishman, son of Amalgad 
the son of Sinell, &c. and his memory was revered on the 17th of 



November in the very spot, anciently called Ctochar, on which 
the church is situated. (See A A. SS. p. 598.) The Doctor nqigbt 
have learned this much even from Ardidall (at St, Dtmhugh) 
without introducing his favourite Danes, and on inquiry he could 
have found, that St. Doulach must have lived a veiy long time 
before St. Olave was bom. He refers to Harris, {History of 
Dublin^ p. 86) who says that there was a St. Olave's diurch, at 
the end of Fishamble-street, vulgarly called St. Tulloch% or he 
adds, St, DoclacK^, But Harris makes no mention of St« Dou- 
lach's in Fingal, .with which place the vulgarly named St. Tul- 
lock's had nothing to do. 

(63) Ware speaks of it (Antiq. cap, 29.) in such a manner as 
to seem to state, that it was at some time the cathedral of Cashel, 
and the same is hinted by Harris (at Archbishops of Cashd), 
But who can imagine that a chapel, tile' nave of which is only 50 
feet in length and 18 in breadth, could have been a cathedral, par- 
ticularly of a city which was the capital of Munster ? Cashel was 
certainly as populous in Cormac's time as it was about 260 years 
after his death, when a new cathedral was erected on its rode ad< 
joining Cormac's chapel, and which it was found necessary^ to make, 
at least, ten times larger than the cliapel. The old cathedral must 
have been somewhere in the city at the foot of the rock, on which 
was the king's palace or castle during the period that kings re- 
sided at Cashel. It was there that Failbhe Hand had his habita- 
tion and court. (See the Life of St, Pidcheriusy cap, 21. and 
above Chap, xvii. §, 5.) The rock was not originally applied to 
a religious Christian purpose, however it might have been an- 
ciently to a Pagan one, although Dr. Ledwich makes us laugh 
with telling us, (^Ant. p, 150.) that Cashel (meaning the rock) 
was an ancient Mandra, that is, as he should have explained to 
his readers, inhabited by monks. Hear how he proves it; " There 
is a wall surrounding the summit of the rock ; therefore noonks 
dwelt there." He might as well maintain, that eveiy old garden 
with a wall around it was a Mandra. The wall surrounding the 
. summit of that rock is far from being ancient, and, supposing it to 
be ever so old, is it an3nvise strange, that a spot, on which was 
the king's castle, should be environed by a wall ? It is, however, 
true that there was, as expressly mentioned, a wall around it in 
ancient times, whereas the royal residence was ako a fortress. 
(See Life of St, Pukherius, loc, cit.J Another argument is, that 


the rock is elevated, and that the monastic spirit prevailed in Ire* 
land ; therefore the rock of Cashel was a Mandra. What pro- 
digious antiquarian penetration ! To follow up his theory, he ought 
to have added, that every high place, every mountain and hill, in 
Ireland was a Mandra. As he has made use of that Greek word, 
whence has come the title of Archimandrite^ which we find given 
to some superiors of monks, he ought to have previously under- 
stood its ecclesiastical meaning. For it was not on account of sur- 


rounding walls, or inclosures of ground, as he suf^iosed, that cer- 
tain communities of monks got the name of Mandra. There were 
no such walls in the deserts of Egypt, and yet they contained 
Mandras and Archimandrites. But this is not the place to enter 
into these disquisitions. 

§. VII. It is uattally supposed that henceforth 
Cashel became a regular episcopal see \ but the 
names of his successors are not known until about 
180 years after the death of Cormac. The succes* 
sion at £mly was still kept up, and Miscel, who died 
in 898, (64) was succeeded by Flan Mac-Conail, 
whose death is assigned to 903, after whom was 
TiobruidCy or Tibraid Mac-Moelfin, who had accom- 
panied Cormac in his last expedition, and whom we 
find called prince of Emly. He died in 912, and 
next after him is" mentioned Edchada Mac-Scan- 
lain, who lived until 941. (65) Cormac, bishop of 
Saigir, died in 908. (66) In the same year a sacri- 
legius transaction occurred at Armagh. One Ker- 
nachan, son of Dulgen, dragged a captive out of the 
cathedral, where he bad taken refuge, and drowned 
him in Lough Kirr near the city to the West. But 
he was soon punished by Niell Glundubh, then king 
of Ulster, and afterwards of all Ireland, who seized 
upon Kernachan and drowned him in the same 
lough (67) 

About these times the body of St. Maimbodus, who 
19 called martyr, because he was killed by robbers, 
was removed by order of Berengarius bishop of 
Besan9on, to Monbelliard. (68) He was a native 


of Ireland, (69) t>f a distinguished and wealthy fa- 
mily, and bellonged to the clerical order. Having 
left his country for the sake of pilgrimage, he vi- 
sited holy places^ and led a very austere life» Ar* 
riving in burgundy, he was ent^tained for some 
time by a nobleman, who conceiving a great esteem 
for him, on aeepunt of his sanctity, pressed lutn to 
accept of some presents. But Maimbodus refused 
to take any thii^, except a pair of gloves in me- 
mory of him, and blessing him and his &mily took 
his leave. He stopped to pray in a church called St. 
Peter's, in the villageofDomnipetra, eight miles dis- 
tant from Besan9on, where some robbers, observing 
that he wore gloves, thought thathe had money about 
him, and waylaid him outside the village. They 
attacked him, and striving to extort money, which 
in fact he had not, beat and wounded him in such a 
manner that he died on the^ spot. His body being 
found by some faithful was buried in the above men- 
tioned church, whence after some time it was re- 
moved to Monbelliard, and the bishop Berengarius 
decreed that the memory of St. Maimbodus should 
be celebrated in the diocese of Besan9on on the 23d 
of January, the anniversary of his death, as it has 
been since that time. Several miracles are said to 
have been wrought at the tomb of this saint. (70) 
Another Irish saint, still more revered in that dio- 
cese, but whose times are more uncertain, was Ana^- 
tolius (7 1 ) That he was a Scot is constantly asserted 
by the many writers, who have touched upon his 
history ; and th^t he was an Irish one appears from 
his being described as a ^ countryman of St. Colum- 
banus of Luxeu, St. Deicolus, &c. ij^) He was 
a bishop before he left Ireland. (73) Of his trans- 
actions, until a short time before his death, I find no^ 
thing more recorded than that returning from Kome 
he stopped at a mountain or rock over the valley and 
city of Salinae (Salins), in the diocese of Besan9on9 
on which he prayed, in an oratory called from St. 



Symphoiian, martyr of Autun ; that he liked the 
place, determined on remaining there, and died a 
few days after. (74) As to the time of his death I 
find nothing, that can enable us even to guess at itj 
except that his riatalisj or the anniicersary of it, was 
kept on the third of February. (75) . Although St. 
Anatolius was a bishop, he was not attached to any 
see in France, nor does he appear to haVe even 
exercised episcopal functions in that country, (76) 
His tfiemory is very famous for miracles said to have 
been wrought at his tomb, and has been greatly cele^^ 
brated in the diocese of Besan9on, particularly at 
Salins. (77) Besides his festival on the third of 
February, another is kept on the first of September, 
in commemoration of a translation of his remains. 

(64) Above, $.1. {65) Ware, Bishops at Endy* 

(66) A A. SS. p. 473 ad A. 907 (908). Owing to an erratum, 
we there find 997 instead of 907, by which Ware was led astray 
80 as to place (Bishops of Ossory) Cormac's death in 997 ; but 
this mistake has been corrected by Harris* 

(67) Tr. Th. p. 296. at A. 907 (908J, and Harris, Arch" 
bishops of Armagh at Madbrigid* 

(68) BoUandus has published (at 23 January) the Acts of St 
Maimbodus from Chifflet and a* MS. of the church of fiesan^oo. 
They have been republished by Colgan at said day. The time 
in which the saint hved is not mentioned, andean only be guessed 
at by its seeming, that it was not long before his remains were 
removed by order of Berengarius, who, as BoUandus and others 
state, lived about A. D. 900. 

(69) This is dear fix>m the Scotia^ whence the Ac^s bring him, 
being represented as that, which was the oountiy of St. Colum- 
banus, St. Deicolus, and St. Columbinus, who had diitinguished 
themselves in Burgundy. Colgan remazks that, instead of Mosm- 
hodus^ some have called him MaingoluSy and that Maingol was a 
conunon name among the ancient Irish. 

(70) See the Acts and the notes to them. . 

(71) Colgan treats of St. Anatolius at 3d Fdmiary, as do the 


BoUandists much more diffuady. They have, besidet their own 
observationsy a short old Life by an anonymous aulhor, and a 
sketch of one drawn up by Father Chiifiet^ 

(72) In the Acts of St* Maimbodus after St. Columbanus and 
other saints fit)m Scc^ (Ireland), who had illustrated Burgundy, 
is mentioned Anatolius irom the Scotia. '< Post hos vero cele* 
berrimum confessorem praedicamus AnatoUum ex Scotia itidem 
genitum^ lumen tibi a Domino destinatum." 

(7S) In the anonymous Life (ap. BoUasd) we read of him; 
^< Fuit igitur vir iste Scoticae regionis oriundus» pofUificaU aficioy 
ut fert priorum assertio, praeditus." 

(74) lb. 

(75) According to an opinion of Chiffiet in his^ little sketch of 
the Life of Anatolius, he should have lived early in the 5th centu- 
ry ; but in that case he would have been a Greek or a Cilician. 
There was an Anatolius bishop of Adana in Cilicia, who took part 
with St John Chrysostom against Theophilus of Alexandria, and 
of whom Palladius f Dialog, de Vit. S, ChrysJ says, that it was 
reported he had withdrawn to Gaul. Chifflet took it into his heady 
that he was the Anatolius so famous at Salins. And then to ac- 
count for his having been universally called a Seotusy lie say& that 
he might been so denominated in the same manner as all foragners 
were in old times vulgarly called Scoti in France. This is a truly 
pitiful evasion ; for, in the first place Chiffiet could not liave proved 
this position ; whereas, although there were in the middle ages 
very many Irish there, yet we know from the French writers of 
those times that all foreigners were not indiscriminately called 
Scoti. Were Alcuin, Theodulf, Claudius, Frudentius, &c. 
reckoned among the Scoti by the French? But, whatever vulgar 
mode of speaking as to foreigners might have {nrevaSed after the 
sixth century, when the Irish began to be so generally known in 
France, surely it cannot be supposed that an oriental bishop, who 
lived bef<H'e St Patridc preached in Ireland, would have been 
called a Scottts by the inhabitants of Gaul. The BoUandisfas, wish- 
ing to pay a compliment to Chiffiet, state that his opinion is pro- 
bable ; yet they lay down that the other of Anatolius having been 
a Scotus, ought not to be rashly disturbed after a possession of a 
long line of centuries. Camerarius (Mend. Scot. J and Dempster 
fHist.Eccf.J have some fooleries concerning Anatolius of Salins> 


in whieh he is confounded with Anatolius bishop oF Laodiceiy vvho 
lived in the third century and wrote on the Paschal cyde^ or with 
Anatolius a patriarch of Constantinople in the fifth. It may be 
said, that Anatolius is not an Irish name. But might not this 
saint, bdng in the continent, have assumed it, as of more easy 
pronunciation, instead of his original one, which perhaps had the 
same meaning ? Or, it mi^t have been inflected by the foreigners, 
among whcmi he lived, from his real name b^inning perhaps with 
Anoy but which they could not well pronounce. We have already 
seen, that many Irishmen were known in the contanent by names, 
wliidi they did not bear in Ireland. 

(76) Molanus and Ferrarius thought that Anatolius was bishop 
of Besan^on. . Colgan and the Bollandists have shown that this is 
a mistake ; and it is dear from the anonymous Life, that he had 
no see in France. 

(77) The chief collegiate church of Salins, of which he is the 
patron saint, is called by his name, as is also one of the four parish 
diurches of that dty, on the mountain at the South aide of which 
is the hermitage of St. Anatolius. 

(78) In the nth century the body of St Anatolius was re« 
moved from the original tomb and placed in the prindpal church 
of Salins. About 200 years later, Nidiolas, who was bishop of 
Besan^on from A^ 1229 to I2S5, got it moved on a 1st of Sep- 
tember into an el^ant shrine in the same church. 

§ VIII. In the early part of the tenth century is 
aaid to have flourished Sealbach„ who is called secre- 
tary to Cormac Mac-Culinan. He is represented as 
a man of great piety and learning, and is said to 
have written a genealogical tract on the saints of Ire- 
land. (79) Sealbach must have survived Cormac, 
if it be true that he wrote an account of his death 
and virtues, and even for many years after, if he was 
the author of that tract, or if it has not been con- 
tinued by others* Although the Northmen, or, at 
least, the greatest part of them, had been driven out 
of Ireland in 902, (80) yet we meet with them again 
after some years. In 914 a party of them landed at 
Waterford, but were slaughtered by a prince or 



chieftain who is called of Idrona. (81) In 915 they 
plundered Cork, Lismore; and Aghaboe. (82) 

Flann Sinna, king of aJl Iteland, bd,ving died in 
91 6, (83) was succeeded by Niell Gluildubh (blacks 
kneed J son of Aidns, or Edan Finnliath. Having 
reigned scarcely three years, Niell was killed in a 
great battle near Dublin by; the Danes commanded 
by Ivar and Sitric. In this battlC' fell also Conor 
O'Maselseachlin, kingofMeath, Aodh, Aidus, or 
Hugh, son of Eochagan king of Ulster, and many 
other princes and nobles. (84) Previous to Uiis 
battle tne Danes had sorely amSicted in 916 the peo- 
ple of Leinster, and among many others killed An- 
garvj son of OlioU king of that province* (85) But 
in the same year great slaughter was made of them 
in Munster; (86) and in the following year (917) 
they were defeated at Emly. (87) T^e battle, in 
which Niell Glundubh lost his life, was fought in 
919; (88 J and he was immediately • succeeded by 
Dunchad or Donogh, son of Flann Sinna, who in 
the next year routed the Danes in so complete a man- 
ner that a greater number of them were slain than 
had been of the Irish in the former battle near Dub- 
lin. (89) Donogh was the second monarch of his 
name, and reigned 25 years until he died suddenly 
in 944. Next after him was Congelac or Congal 
II. son of Melmith a descendant of Congal, who was 
uncle to the king Cined or Kineth, that reigned in 
7^4. Congal II. was killed, fighting against the 
Danes of Dublin, in 956, after a reign of 1 2 years. 
His successor was Doinnald O'Niell, son of Murcher- 
tach and grandson of Niell Glundubh. ,He reigned 
i^4 years, died at Armagh in 980, and was suc- 
ceeded by Maelseachlin or Malachy IL a grandson of 
Dunchad or Donogh II. by his father Domnald. 
(90) This king, having reigned inore than 20 years, 
surrendered the kingdom to Brian Boroimhe, as will 
be seen hereafter. 


(79) See Colgan, A A. SS. p. 5. and Harris, Wrtters at SeU 
baiA. Colgan says^ that this work is supposed to be the excellent 
old metrical Mendogium Genealogicum consisting of 22 chaptenft; 
wtudk he olten quotes. 

(80) Above, §. 8. 

(81) Annab of Innisfallen (Mr. O'ReiUy's copy) at A. 914. 
This Idrona could scarcely have been the Idione of the county of 
Carlow. There waa a district not far from Waterford, called 
Idrona or Drona, 

(82) 76. These plunderings are assigned to A. 913 (914) in the 
Chronological index to Tr. Th. 

(83) See Chap. xx. §.S. 

(84) Annals of Innisfiedlen at A, 916. See also Ware, Antiq. 
cap. 4. and O'Flaherty, Ogi/g. Part iii. cap. 93. 

(85) Annals of Innis&Uen ib. and Ware. Antiq. cap. 24. Col- 
gan (Tr. Th. p. 598) calls this prince Augurius. 

(86) Ib. 

(87) Annals of Ulster, ap. Johnstone, at A. 916 (917). 

(88) Annals of InnisMen at A. 919. Ware says, (Antiq. cap, 
24) that this battle occurred in 918 on the 15th of September. 
Yet elsewha^ {ib. cap. 4.) he assigns the death of Niell Glundubh 
to 919, as does also O'Flaherty, loc. cit. 

(89) Annals of Innisfallen at A. 920. 

(90) The Annals of Innisfallen (at A. 980) and 'Ware f Antiq. 
cap. 4*) confound this Domnald with Domnald 0*Niell, the king^ 
who preceded Maelsechlin. But the 4 Masters (ap. Tr. Th. p^ 
448) and OTlaherty (loc, cit.) distinguish them. 

§ IX. During the above mentioned devastation 
of Leinster in 916, and for some time after, Leigh- 
lin was plundered in 917« (91) Kells in Meath 
was ravaged in 919) in which year died Scanlan, a 
scribe or learned man of Roscrea. (92) In 921 
Godfrid, king of the Danes of Dublin, marched 
into Ulster, and plundered Armagh in the month of 
November. (9S) He *is said, however, to have spared 
the Churches, the Colidei (the officiating clergy of 
the cathedral) and the sick. (94) To the year 9*0 
is assigned the death of a celebrated abbot of Derry 


and Drumcliff, Kiiuied or Kineth, who was consi- 
dered as the great supporter of religion in Tircon- 
nel ; {95) and to 921 that of Paulinus or Mal- 
Paulinus, who is styled a bishop, anchoret, chief 
scribe of Leth-cuinn (the northern half of Ireland) 
and abbot of Indenen, (96) and who was, in all pro- 
bability, the Paulinus to whom Probus addressed his 
Life of St. Patrick. (97) In the same year 921 died 
Cormac Aedan or Mac-Aedan, bishop of Clonfert.(98) 
Dubliterius of Kill-slepte, or Killevey, a priest of 
Arma^, was killed in 922 by the Northmen, and 
in the same year died Maeltul, a scholastic or teacher 
of, Clonmacnois. (99) To 925 is assigned the death, 
on the 7th of February, of Colman Mac-Alild, a 
very wise doctor, who, besides being abbot of 
Clonard and Clonmacnois, was also a bishop. He 
erected a great church in the latter place, and is 
said to have been of a family of the Conals. Mur- 
themhne in the now county of Louth. (100) Next 
prior to hun I find mentioned a bishop of Clonard, 
Uumond or Rumold son of Cathasach, who also is 
praised for his wisdom or learning, and is said 
to have died in 920. (101) Among the distin- 

Suished men of this period are likewise reckoned 
iainach Mac-Siedul, abbot of Bangor, who is styled 
a most skilful writer, and Carpre Mac-Feredach 
abbot of Disert Dermod (Castledermot) to whom is 
given the title of anchoret and chief of religion in 
Leinster. The same year 9^0 is marked for the 
death of both these abbots. Another abbot of Ban-' 
gor, Kelius Dabali, who is called bishop, writer, 
preacher, and celebrated doctor, is said to have died 
at Rome in 926 or 927. (102) 

(91) Ind. Ckron. to Tr. Th, at A. 916 (917). 

(92) R. ad A. 918 (919) - • 

(93) Annals of Ulster at A 920 (921), of InnisMen at 921, 
and Ware, AnU cap. 24. The 4 Masters (ap. Tr. Th. p. 296.) 


AM^gn this devastation to A. 919 (920); but the other now quoted 
annaU form better authority. Yet Ware, in contradiction to him- 
Mel£, following the 4 Masters and Colgan, (Bishops^ Armagh^ 
MadbrigidJ places a plundering of Armagh in 91 9, meaning the 
one by Godfrid ; and Archdall (at Armagh) likewise following 
them, maiked it at the same year. A devastation of Clonenagh is 
affixed by the 4 Masters (ib. p. 6S3.J to said year 919 (920)* 

(94) 4 Masters ap. Tr. Th. p. 296. 

(95) Ib. p. 503 ad A. 919 (920). 

(96) Ib. /J. 64 ad ^. 920 (921 .) (97) See Chap. in. §. S. 

(98) Annals of Innisfallen (Harris's copy},, and Ware, Bishop* 
at Clonfert. 

(99) Four Masters, {ap. Tr. Th. p. 296. and 632.) at A. 921 

(100) A A. SS. p. 407. at A. 924 (925) and Ware, Bishops 
at Meath and Clonmacnois. 

(101) Four Masters ap. AA. SS.p. 107. at 919 (920). It is 
odd, that Calgan has not this bishop at p. 407. where he expressly ^ 
gives a list of the prelates and other distinguished ecclesiastics of 
Clonaod. Ware, not finding him in said list, has omitted him (at 
Meath) ; but Harris has added him to it. 

(102) U. p. 107. at A. 919 (920). and for Kelius, ib. Nu. 18* 

S* X. SL Maelbrigid of Armagh, wbo died in 9^6, 
or more probfibly in 927, (iOd) was succeeded by 
Joseph^ atykd prince qf Armagh^ a man of great 
learning, who having held th^ -see for nine years» 
died in 936. (104) In the Irish annals he is repre- 
sented aa a se^ibet anchoret, and' very wise man* His 
successor Patrick, or Moelpatrick, a son. of Maoltule, 
and who aUo is called prince of Arm^i and a. wise 
maDi died in the same year after . an incumbency of 
only five months (105) Nest after Patrick was Ca« 
thasach the second, son of bne Dulgan of -Drumtor- 
Wgf who governed the see for 20 years and died in 
957. (10&) In these times^ I find three bishops of 
Derry, notwithstanding its being usually supposed 
that there was no regular and permanent see in that 
city until some time in the 1 2th century, . This, 



however, does not prevent there having been some 
biishops there oocasionally, as was the case in many 
places^ which never became regular sees. Those 
three were, 1 . Cainchomrac Mac Maeluidhir, bishop 
and abbot, who died in 998 ; 3. Finnachta Mac-Kel- 
lach, bishop and abbot, a man deeply skilled in Irish 
antiquities, whose death is assigned to 938 ; and 3. 
Moelfinnian, who is simply called bishop and died 
in 949. (107) Kenfail, son of Lorcan, who died in 
990, is called coniorban of Clones and Clogher, and 
hence ought to be reckoned among the bishops of 
those, places. (108) In the same year 9SO died 
Crunnmoel, bishop of Kildare, whose memory was 
revered on the 11th of December. (109) Laidgnen, 
who is called comorban of Ferns and Tallaght, was, 
I dare say, a bishop, and, at least, of Ferns. He 
died in 938, (110) and is the only person on record, 
who may with some degree of certainty be considered 
as bishop of Ferns between Killen, who died in 714, 
and Diermit Hiia-Rodachan,wholived in the eleventh 
century. Yet it can scarcely be supposed, that the 
episcopal succession was not kept up m that see, not- 
withstanding all that it suffered from the North- 
oiannic devastations. Femls was not in those times 
the chief see, that is, in an honorary degree, of Lein- 
ster, whereas that rank had been transferred to Kil- 
dare^ asearly, at least, as the beginning of thenindi 
century, and die time in which Cogitosus lived ; (111) 
nor does it seem to have ever been restored to Ferns. 

(112) About these times died Malduin Mae-Kinn^ 
ftlaid, bishop of Raphoe, and the first of whom I 
find any clear mention made as really bicliop of that 
see \ and after him I meet with another there, Aengus 
Hua Lapainj whose death is assigned to 957 (d^^)* 

(113) Condla Mac-Dnnecan, who is cdl^ bishop 
atid prince of Leighlin, died in 945, as did in 9^ 
Maelbrigid a comoilian of St. Macnesse, that is bishop 
of Connor. (1 14) Besides some scribes, or men of 
letters, alrMdy mentioned, several otbei^s^reilafmiied 

CaiAF* XXII. OF XBfiLAND. 371 

as belonging to this period, ex. c. Mbelmoedoc of 
Gleannussen (King's county), who died in 916; 
Joseph of Armagh, in 937 ; Moelmoehta of CIo« 
nard, in 941 ; Dubtach of said place, in 943, as also 
Angal in 952 ; Cathasach of Armagh, in 946 ; Dun- 
gal of Clonmacnois in 949 ; Moelpatrick Mac-Coscan 
of Armagh, in 952 ; and Moelnach, likewise of Ar- 
magh, in 955. (115) To these we may add Coe- 
nachair, or Probus, the author of the Life of St. 
Patrick, who had been chief master of the school of 
Slane, and was burned to death by the Danes in 949 
or perhaps 950. (116) A holy abbess of Kildare, 
Muirionn, or Murenna died in 917 on the 26th of 
May, or, according to another account, of April. 

(103) Above $.1. 

(104) Hie catalogue from the Psalter of Cashel allows 9 years 
for Joseph, aftd not only the 4 Masters but likewise the Annals 
of Ulster {dace his death b 985 (9S6). Hence it appears that 
his accession to the see was in 927. 

(105) Tt. Th. p. 296. and Ware; Bishops at Armagh. 

(106) Ware, H. Ckilgan M (Tn Tk. p. 297.) into a great mi»- 
ftake concerning this Cathasach. Having found a Cathasach, bishop 
of Kinel-eogan (Tjroae)^ idiose death is marked at 946, he con- 
founded him with Cathasach of Armagh, and then strove to eiqpkin 
why he was called bishop of Kinel-^eogan. Next he strangely tdOs us, 
that the 20 years, allowed by the Cashel catak^e for Cathasach of 
Armagh elapsed exactly between 9S6, in which Patridc died, and 
946; as if a duld did not know that this was an interval of only 
teb years. Bot^ $m 0*Fl$herty remarks (AfS. Not, ib.) Colgan 
overiooked tbereal Cathasach of Annagh, who died, according to 
the 4 MaatttSy in 957^ and accordin^y committed not only this 
Uoiider, but iikewae others with r^gar4 to the following succes- 
akm and dates*' Ware was so judidoiia as to pass by what ColgaA 
has about Cathasadt of Kinel-eogan ; but Harris picked it up, and 
although he places, with Ware, thedeath of Cathasach of Armagh 
in 957) f^ he ocmfounds him with the. one of Kind-eogan, and 
tlieo Atbwa.Colgatt in the sUy reason to show how he could be 

B B 2 



called bishop of that district. Tet Harris had no right to intro^ 
duce the 4 Masters as maJdog the two Cathasachs one and the 
same person (a mistake to be left at Colgan's door), and stating 
that he, that is, the one of Kinel-eogain died in 956, whereas their 
date for his death is 946. 

(107) 4 Masters, ap. Tr. Th. ;i*,503/ I have added a year to 
their dates. See also Ware, Bishops at Derr^* 

(108) He b mentioned by the 4 Masters^ (a/7. AA. SS. p. 742) 
at A. 929 (930). Ware has him among the bishops of Clogher. 
Gdni^ of which also he was bishop, had sometimes prelates <^its 
own, and was at other times united with Clogher. We have seen 
{Chap. IX. $. 2.) that as far back as the early part of the sixth 
•centuiySt. Tigemach was bishop of both Ijiese sees; and thus 
Kenfail was his. comor&an or successor* 

(109) Tr. Th. p. 630. at A. 929(030). 

(110) A A. SS. p. 22S ad A.9S7 (938) and Harris, Bishops Bt 
Ferns. Ware has omitted Laidgnen, because he did not find him 
expressly styled bishop ; but i think that^the- title comorban is 
]^one sufficient to show that he was, and that it was used to indi- 
cate xhat he was in every respect a successor of St« Moedoc. Had 
he been only abbot of Ferns, why not designate him as such in the 
same manner as many others before and after him are in polgan's 
list Cib.J from the 4 Masters? Wheth^ Laidgnen were bishop 
also of Tallaght is not equally prebaUe, because it was not a 
regular see, :and he might have been m^^ely abbot of its mor 

(111) See Not. 18. to Chap. viii. 

(112) The sort of ecclesiastical primacy observed in Leinster 
was first, attached to the see of Sletty, whence it was removed to 
Ferns upon the ordination of St. Moedoc about the latter end of 
the sixth century. Next, but at what precise lime cannot be afr- 
certained, it was granted to Kildare. Clolgan thought ( Tr. Th. 
p. 308. and A A. SS. p. 218.) that it had been at Kfldare eariier 
than at Ferns ; biit his only reason for this opinion was his eno- 
neous sui^sition that Cogitosus, in whose tnne it was ceitatnly at 
Kildare, flourished before A. D. 590. According to his system 
it would have been moved ftom Sletty to Kildare, then to Fans, 
jlAfl afterwards back again to Kildare. But, as Ccgitosus lived a 
toig ti«ie after St. Moedoc, Colgan's Ijypotheiisfidls to the ground. 


That said primacy returned at any time from KUdare to Ferns 
theiie is ho authority whatever to proYe# It was still at Kildare ia 
the latter end of the eleventh century. But of this more else* 

(IIS) TV. Tkrfi. 509. Ware and Harris, Bishops atEaphoci 

(114) Ware, ib. Bi Leigklin for Conala; and for Madbri^d 
see AA. SS. p. S87 at A. 954 (955) and Harris, Bishops 9t 
Connor, • 

(115) Tr. Th. p. 6S2. I have added ayear to each date. 

(116) See Chap. iii. §. S. and compare with below Not. I4(X 

(117) Colgan's text {ib. p. 630.) has Murenna's death at 919^ 
as If Ivom the4 Mastens. But this must be an erratum ; fov 
O'flahefty {MS^ net. t6.>8ay8, that they assign it to 916 (917). 
The day maiked by them ier May 26 ; but he observes, that the 
book of Cknmacnois has tlie 26th of April.- According to 
Keating, she was i^bes of Kildare at the time of Cormaa Mao^ 
Culiiian's death in 906. If so, there is a mistake, (H. p. 629.) 
where Cdgftn places before her the abbess Cobflatia as dying in^. 
914 (915). 

§» %u The Northmen still continue to plunder 
and destroy various religious establishments. ln> 
926 Kildare was despoiled first by those of Water* 
ford, and afterwards by those of Dublin. (1 18) This* 
town was a great object of their cupidity ; for it 
was plundered again in 9^7 hy the Danes of Water- 
ford commanded by a son of Godfred, and after-- 
wards in 928 on St. Brigid's day by Godfred him- 
self. (119) Leinster was not as well defended as* 
some other parts of Ireland. Aulifie, a son of God* 
fredy I suppose the same as the one just mentioned^ 
was defeated in 9^6 by Murtogh Mac-Neill (a son 
of the king Neill Glundubh) and his Ulster men, who 
killed 800 Northmen, among whom were three of I 
their chiefs Abdean, Aufer, and Harold. (ISO) Yet> 
they afterwards penetrated into that province, and , 
the same Aulifie, assisted by the Northmen of Lochp' 
euain (Strangford-lough) plundered . Armagh about 
St. Martin's festival 932. (121) A party »of them 


fMllaged Clonmacnois in 935 ; and in the same year 
they burned the monastery of Mungret. In 9S7 
they plundered the church of KilcuUen, and in the 
following year burned the monastery of Killachad 
and rai^ged Clonenagh. (122) In 940 they pil- 
laced the church of Inis-mochta, (123) and in 941 
laid waste Ardbraccaji, at which year is marked also 
a plundering of Down and a conflagration of Clon- 
macnois. (124) In the same year the celebrated 
prince Ceallachan or Callaghan Cashel, at the head 
of the forces of Munster, defeated the North- 
men in two battles, one in the Desies country 
and the other in Ossory, in which 2000 of their 
trocms were killed. (125) In 942 Down, Clonard, 
Kildare, imd the adjacent districts, were overrun by 
sereral of their armies ; ( 1 26) and in. 943 those of 
Limerick laid waste a jpart of Ossory. (127) In the 
sainie year the gallant Murtc^h or Murchertach, son 
of Niall Glunndubh, and prince of Ailea^hy was 
killed on the 26th of March fighting at Athfera 
against the Northman king Blaear, a son of Godfred 
and brother of Auliffe, and consequently on the 
following day the Northmen plundered Armagh. 
(H8) In 944 Congall II. king of all Ireland, at 
the head of the people of Bregh (now Fingal, ftc.), 
and assisted by firan Mac-Maolmordha and his La- 
genians, took Dublin » plundered and exterminated 
the Danish inhabitants, and burning the town ear* 
ried off much booty and treasure. (1S9) In the 
fdllowing year Ceallachan Cashel presented to the 
see and monastery of Clonfert plunder, which he 
had taken from the Northmen, and Blacar, having 
got some reinforcements, recovered Dublin, .which 
he repaired, (130) In 946 Jomhar or Ivar, a North- 
nlau chieftain, arrived at Limerick, and, proceeding 
on the Shannon with his followers, set fire to the es- 
tablishments of Muicinis, Iniskeltrain Lougfa-derg^- 
Clonmacnois, and those of the islands of Lough-ree, 
&e. and thehce marching into Meath devastated a 


great tract of country. ( I S 1 ) In 947 some North- 
men, probably those of Dublin, plundered the 
church of Slane } ( 1 32) and it was perhaps on this . 
occasion that they were in said year attacked and 
routed by Cougail IL (133) This king defeated 
them in another battle, the following year 948, in 
which their king Blacar and 1000 of his men lost 

their lives. {IH) 

," * 

(118) Annals of Innisfallep at A 926. The 4 Masten (ap. 
Tr. Th. p. 6S0.) assign this devastation to 924 (925). 

(119) 4 Masters, i6. at 926 (927) and 927 (928) 

(120) Annals of Innisfallen at A. 926. and Ware, Antiq, 
cap. 24. 

(121) Four Masters, ap. Tr. Th. /?. 296, at A. 931 (932). 

(122) Ind. Chron. to Tr. Th. I have added a year to the 
dates. The Annals of Innisfallen assign this devastation of Kil- 
lachad and Clonena^, together «with that of Meath in general 
firom its southern parts to as fiur as Clonard, to the year 689. 
They charge with it not only the Northmen, but likewise the ft- 
mous Ceallachan or CaUa^^ian Cashel, who, they state, was as- 
sisted by the Danes. The KiUachad here, mentioned could not 
have been that of the now county of Cavan, as laid down by 
Archdall (at Kittachad)y because this Killachad ky far to the 
North of Clonard. It was the Killachad-dromfoda, now Killf»gh 
in the King's county, which had been founded by St. Sinell or 
Senchell. (See Chap. ix. §. 3.) 

(123) Tr. Th. ib. at 939 (940). ArchdaU places Inis-mochta 
hi the county of Louth for no other reason, I suppose, than that 
St. Mochteus or Mochta lived in that oountiy. But it is more 
probable* that it was the place now caUed Inismouthy, a vicarage 
in the barony of Slane, co. Meath. (See Seward ad loc.) 

(124) Tr. Th. ib. at 940 (941). 

( 125) Annals of Innisfallen at 4. 941 • 

(126) Ware, AfUiq^ cap. 24. 

(127) Annals of Innifallen at A. 943. 

( 128) Ih. at A. 943. and 4 Masters (ap. Tr. Th. p. 296.; who 
assign this battle to 941 (942). Ware says, (AtU. cap. 24- at ^4. 
943.> that Murtoch was killed on the 26th of February. His 


Eog^ translator has lendeied his wovds in soch a tnaniier as tcr 
make him seem to say, that Miiitog^ was killed not by the Danes 
but hy the people of Dlster. Aileach, whence that brave prince 
had his title, was a castle of the Nialls three miks N. of Deny* 
As to Ath-ftrdy it must have been i^ot ftr fifom Armagh, whidi 
was entered by the N<»thmen on th^ day after the battle. 

(129) Annals of Innisfidlen at A. 9M. 

(180) lb. at A. 945. and Ware, Ant. cap. 24. 

(131) 15. at A. 946. Co]gm has (Tr. Th. jr. 633.) from the 
4 Master at A. 944 (945) a devastation of Ckmmacnois, whidi, 
we may be sure, was the same as that now moitioned, althou^ 
they place it a year earlier. At the same date they have a plun-» 
dering, by Northmen, of the church of Kilcullen^ 

(132) Tr. Th. Ind. Chron. ad A. 946 (947> 

(133) See Ware> Antiq. cap. 24. at A. 947. 

(134) Annals of Innisiallen at A. 948. 

$. XII. These disasters of the Danes of Dublin 
probably contributed in some degree to their conver- 
sion to the Christian religion, which, it is said, oc^ 
curred in the same year 948. (185) They were the 
first of their nation in Ireland,, who, at least in any 
large body, received the divine doctrines of the 
Gospel, which, however, did not prevent thcfm from 
aflerivards practising ravages in the same manner as 
their predecessors had done* It has been conjec- 
tured, that Godfrid, who after the death of Blacar 
became head or king of the Irish Northmen, (136) 
was himself a Christian. He was the son of Sitric, 
who, according to this conjecture, was the Sitric 
king of Northumberland, to whom Athelstan king 
of England, gave his sister Editha in marriage on 
condition of his embracing the Christian faith. 
Tliis Sitric had three sons, Reginald, Anlaf, or 
Auliffe, and Godfrid, the two latter of whom are 
allowed to have been born of a former marriage. 
Yet it has been thought probable, that Godfrid, in 
imitation of his father, also became a Christian. 
(137) Be this as it may, I find no reason to doubt 


that the Danish inhabitants of Dublin received chris-' 

• tianity at this time^ but| generally speaking, not 
earlier ; (138) yet it is not to be supposed, that the 
abbey of St. Mary, which is said to have been ori- 
ginally of the Benedictine order, was founded as 
early as the very first year of their conversion* (1 59) 
These new converts did not imbibe the meekness 
prescribed by the Gospel ; for in 950 the Danes of 
Dublin plundered and burned Slane, so that many 
persons assembled in its belfrey, perished in the 
flames. (140) In the same year Godfrid was de« 
feated at a place, called Muine^Brecainf by Ru- 
raidhe or Roderic O'Ginnanain, prince of Lethcuinn 
(the northern l^alf of Ireland) and, having lost 1000 
men, was forced to fly ; but Roderick was killed in 
this battle. (I4l) To said year is assigned a de* 
vastation of Clonfert by the Northmen ; ( 1 42) and 
also an expedition of Godfrid in the southern parts 
of Munster as far as Ross, in which he was assisted 
by a considerable fleet. (143) In 951 Godfrid took 
Dublin, ravaged Kells and Domnach«Patrick about 
four miles distant from it, Ardbraccan, Tullen, Kill- 
skire, and some other religious places in Meath; 
but on his return he and his army were surprized by 
the Irish, routed, and obliged to leave their plun- 

• der behind. This was the last year of Godfrid's 
depredations ; for, having proceeded to the Desies, 
he was killed, together with 500 of his followers 

^ (chiefly, I suppose, the Danes of Waterford,) by the 
united Munstermen, both Eugenians and Dalcas- 
sians. (144) Other Northmen still continued to 
plunder religious establishments. They pillaged 
Clonmacnois in 952, at which year is marked also a 
devastation of Inisdamle. (145) 

(135) Ih* where they have; ^' This year the Danes of Dublin 
received the Christian religion and were baptized." Instead of 
DubUn, Ware (loc. cU. at A. 9480 ha& IrdamL But this is a ^ 
mistakei and H is dear, finom the subsequent history of Ireland, 


tlla^tlle ooiivefiion of the Danes iras fiur liom beiag general until 
a later period; nor would the annalift hare amfin^ the conyer- 
sion in 9^ to thoae of Dublin, had the Daned in other parts of 
Iidand become Chrifltians at the flame time. 

(1S6) Ware fib.) speaks of Godind as king, of the Danes of 
Dublin ; but I tfnnk he oiigfat rather to be called king of those of 
idllrdand. For w^ shall see him fighting. in Ulster and m Mun- 
ster, in which province he was killed. Such drcumstaocea do not 
agree widi h]s havmg been king only of Dublin. 

(137) See J. P^ Murray, De cobmiis Scandkis in insults Bri- 
tannicis, et maxime in H^ermOf §. 14. 15. in Nov. Comment. 
Soc. R4 GoetHng. VoLS* 

\1S8) Keder (Num* in Hibemia'Cusorum Indagaiioy /?. 7*) 
and Murray fhxu dU) were wrong in making Ware attribute a 
coin of a christian king Anbf to Anlaf king of Dublin, who died 
in 941. Ware merdy calls it (Andq, cap. ^5.) " the silver coin 
of Aulaf or Anlaf long of Dublin," without stating which of the 
Anlaft he meant. For there were other Anlafs, at a later time, 
kings of Dublin ; nor could Ware have alluded to the Anlaf, who 
died in 941» whereas he does ndt mention any conversion cf the 
Danes previous to 948. The figure of the cross in two or three 
parts of it shows» that it was struck by order of an Anlaf a Chris- 
tian. There was an Ankf, king of Dublin, who retired to Hy in 
the year 980, and di^.there. He was the fiither of Sitric, king 
of Dublin, whose son' Anlaf became king there in 1029. To either 
of these Anlaft that coin may be referred, without rectmring, as 
some have done, to an Aniaf of Northumberland. For it is suf- 
€dently clear, that it was struck in Dublin, as the name of the 
monetarius or mint-man marked on it is Farman or Faereman, 
which we find also on a coin (with the cron) of Sitric mth the 
addition Dtgfiin. This Sitric was undoubtedly the one, who be- 
came king of Dublin in 989, and who was the son of one Anlaf, 
and fiither of another. It is remarkable that there is also a covet 
cf £thefared> king of England, with the same adilition and the name 
of the said moitetorfotw, having on one side Aeddred Rex Anglo, 
and, on the reverse, Foereman Mo Dyifii. HadEthelrednomint 
of his own, and accordingly was obliged to get money coined in 
Dublin ? (See Simon on Iriih coins, p. 6, 7. and 9.) There is a 
com, I3cewi80 with a cross, which Simon fib. p. 6^J supposes to 


be of a long Ivar, and whom he makes Ihe same as Ivar, who died 
in 872. This is a downr^ht mistake ; for this hmtf who had come 
from Norway in 853 with his brothers Anlaf or Amlaf and Shric, 
was not a Christian. The coin is so worn, that h is almost impoa- 
sible to explain it* Simon thought that it has the letters ii. Xfiii^ 
which he interprets Rex Dfiflin. I cannot perceive them in ddi 
order. In what he calls Yfiii I see no I., but something like / 
three times; and, instead of F the letter is G« (Compare;with 
Coin 7. Tab. 4. in Camden's Britan. coU cxcv. Gtbson's ecLJ 
The whole word might have been Largy^ the old name of Waleiy 
ford. Even the name Ivar is not suffidently plain, excepting the 
two first letters / JP. Thero was an Ivar king of Watertbtdi who 
died m 1000. ( Waro, ib. cap. 24.) Should it be insisted thai this 
coin bek>nged to Dublin, we find an Ivar governor or yieeroy of 
the Danes rf Dublin in 1038, (Annals of Innisftllen) to whtmit 
may be fiiirly referred. Ware does not mention this Ivar ; but who 
will be seen elsewhere. {Behw Not. 130 to CAo^. xxiii;) I^ed^ 
wich {Jntiq. ^c.p. 126.) makes mention of thia coin freiki Simdni 
and with strange confidence speaks pf it, as if the woids, Jykrm^ 
re Dyjlin^ were {dainly discernible on it. Now even his oivrii 
figure of it proves, that this is not the case. He follows Simon in 
attributing it to the Ivar, who came to Ireland in 858, and thence 
concludes that, as the cross appears dn it, the Danes were then 
Christians, and that Ware was wrong in dating their conversion a 
hunired years later. But did he know that Ware was not the aa« 
thor of that date, which he took from the Annals of Innisfidlen ? 
(See above Noi. 155.) Perhaps he did not; fbr Ware, accolrdiBg 
to a practice, in which he indulged too much, did not refer to his 
authority ; and on the other hand the mighty antiquary did not 
trouble liimself about Irish annals. He considered thia as a most 
important discoveiy, and founded on it a heap of rubbish, idiich 
he has often here and there about St. Patrick having been bnw^t 
to Armagh by the Danes or Ostmen in the 9th century, their m- 
trodudng reliques m the 9th centuiy, erecting stone chapels in the 
9th centuiy, and so on. Now, independently of the positive tes* 
timony of the quoted annals, we find the Ostmen ^f Irdand still 
called gentiles or pagans after the death of Ledwich's pretended* 
Christian king Ivar. Thus the Ulster annals have ; <' Anno 878- 
(879) Maelcobm JiUus Crumvaili antUiu Armachanus, et Mqc- 


iheUi iMoTi cdpti nad a GMS&us. {Vshery Pr. p. 860. and InJ. 
Chtm. ad A. 879. 

(1S9) Ware tMfB of this abbey, Antiq. cap. 2 k a(t A. ms, 
and aqf. 26. bat in a itetber unsadsfiicCoiy manner. He has a stofjr 
dMUtita havil^ beefr founded bfidngMaehpeachlinL who died lA 
862. But the hub of those dayn had na Benedictines. Nor 
was it icMided tm eaify as 948 ; fbr, as Ware states, its fourth 
abbot did not die until Apifl, A. D. IISI ; and it cannot be sup- 
posed that four M}€/Ut eould have filled up the long interval' he- 
tween this y^eai' and 948« In 11S9 the monks (^this^haittse adopted 
the reform of the Cistefdan institution. 

(140) Ware, t^. cap^ 24. This was undoubtedly the confia- 
gnttkm Hutfked by Cdgan from the 4 Masters (op. Tr. Th.'p. 
219. and Ind. Chrm.) at i#^ 948 (949), in which he s^rs, tha^ 
Cocnadiair, or IVobus, abore mentioned (see Chap. in. (. 2.) 
ttnd many othen were btitoed to death in a tower. Ware men« 
tioDS that they were burned in the dturch; but he should have 
said in the hdftey. Coenadiaif is called by him Cinaus, and re- 
piesented as a learned man and chief lecturo* of Slane, by which 
tide the 4 Masters designate Coenachair. Ware's date for this 
oonfiifjntion is more cofrect than Colgan's ; whereas the Annals 
of Ulster, quoted by Dr. O'Conor (Rer. Hib. Scripttfres, I Proleg. 
p. S2.) assign it to A. 949 u e. 950. He observes also, that the 
4 Masters mark it at the same year, so that there is a mistake in 
Cdgan's reference to them. Instead of t<noer he ought to have 
said bd/re^y for the word used by the 4 Masters and in the Ulster 
annals is Cloideach, which literally means hell-house. Colgan's 
Unoer mlg^t lead one to believe, that it was an edifice of stone, 
whidi it codd not have been ; for it was burned itself^ and ac- 
cofdini^ was of wood. According to both Annals it was in said 
Cloicteadi that Coenadiair and his companions were burned to 

(141) Annak of Innisfollen at A. 950. The 4 Mastere fap. 
Tr. Th. p. 449.) assign this battle to 948 (949). Th^ sweDthe 
jmmber of the Northmen, that fell, to 6000, too great a multi- 
tude, I think, for the battles of those times. Where Muine Bre- 
cainewis situated I wish that either they or Cdgan had informed 


(142) Jr. Th.Ind. Ckrom. 0dA.9^9 (950). 


(148) Annals of Inni8fi|llen at A. 950. 

(144) lb. at A. 951. 

(145) See.Tr. Th. Ind. Chron. ad 951 (952). For Iniadamle 
flee Not 1. to Chap. xxx. 

§. 13. Edchada Mac-Scanlaioi bishop of Emly, 
who died in 941, (146) was succeeded by Huarach, 
who held the see until 9^3, and after him we find 
Mael-Kellach, who lived until 957. (147) Mael- 
finan, bishop of Kildare, died in 949 or 950. (148) 
A succession of bishops was still kept up at Louth, 
as appears from there being assigned to A.D. 949 
the death of Finnacta Mac-Ectigern, who is styled 
bishop, scribe, and abbot of Louth, and the chief 
procurator of the church of Armagh in the southern 
parts ; and before him is mentioned another bishop 
there, Moelpatric Mac-Bran, who died in 937. (149; 
One Cathmogan is named as bishop of Cork in these 
times, and he is said to have died in 961. (150) 
A Cormac, bishop of Tallaght, died in 963 ; but a 
more celebrated prelate of this period was Cormac 
Hua Killene, bishop and abbot of Clonmacilois, 
abbot also of Tomgrany (in Clare) and of Roscom- 
mon, who erected a church and steeple at Tom-« 
grany, and, having lived to a very great age, died 
in 965. (151) St. Adhland, abbot of Deny, is 
greatly praised for his charity and liberality to the 
poor. He was a descendant of Conall Gulbanius and 
died in 95] . (15S) As abbot of Derry, he has been 
called a comorban of Columb-kille, and hence it has 
been erroneously supposed that he was abbot of Hy. 
(153) After Caincomrach, who died in 94^, (154) 
the next, whom I find strictly called abbot of Hy, is 
FSachra Hua-Hartaguin, who lived until 977* (155) 
A bishop of Hy, who must not be confounded with the 
abbot, named Fingin, and from his sanctity styled 
anchoret, died in 965, and his memory was revered 
on the 5th of March. (156) Kelius, an anchoret of 
Armagh, died in 951, to which year is assigned also 
the death of a celebrated Irish chronographer Flann 


Hua Becain, archdeaeon of Dmuhfflfe ; mA ia 9SS 
Colga likewise aa and^ret of Amagh. (l57) I 
dbaa close this series of distinguished ecciesinstics 
frkfa the holy Alild Mac^Moenach bishop of Swords 
and Lusk, who died in 966, and Mureuach O'Con- 
Bdr^ bi$hop and abbot of Clonenagh, who died in 
97 1» ptior to whom I find two other bidiops there, 
Tiprsd and Kellach, whose deaths fell within said 
centnry in 910 and 941. (158) Henceforth and 
down to the beginning of the twelfth century the 
accounts of the succession to the see of Armagh are 
greatly confus^ and very obscure. It had already 
got into the possession of one powerful family, the 
members of which held it for about 200 years, rec^ 
komnji from the death of St. Maelbrtgid, who died 
in 920, or 927, until the actession of the great St. 
Makchy. (159) This family was most probably that 
of; the dynasts of the district, of Armagh, whose an*- 
eest^if Daire had granted to St. Patrick the ground, 
on vfh\ch the church and other religious buildings, 
jkc. c^ that city had been erected. (160) And it is 
remarkable, that the two first bishops of this long 
succession, viz. Joseph and Moelpatrick are styled 
princes qf Armagh; (161) a title, which strongly 
indicates, that they were really chiefiains as well as 
bishops of that city.. (162) After thiem cate was 
Ukeu thist the see should not be conferred e^ccept on 
members of that ruling family. This pernicious 
f^fist^m gradqally produced horrid abuses, insomuch 
80, that during t$is usurpaddn eight married men, 
who, although not illiterate, were not in holy orders, 
assuniied the title, rank, and prerogatives of the axch*- 
InsObop of Armagh; and thus, although there were 
at times no clergymen beloqmig to that family, yet 
itig^veto the see persons cfdled bishops. (16S) h 
ssiems, however, that thessliay usurpers retain^ Te- 
gular bishops to act for them as suffragans, while 
they enjoyed the church livings ; and hence we £nd 
in the subsequent period several persons called by 


some writers bishops of Armagh and omitted by 
others; whereby it becomes very difficult diid» I 
niay say^ impossible to arrai^ the succession^ ia a 
correct manner ; to which must be added the diver- 
sity of dates', that occur in our old writers as to the 
duration of the incumbencies of said bishops, whether 
real (mes or not. (l64) ' 

(146) Above f. 7. (U7) Ware Bishops at Endi^. 

(148) Idem sA KOdare. 

(149) 4 Masters ap. A A. SS. p. 736. I have added a year t0 
their dates. 

(150) Ware, Bishops at Cork. . 

(151) 4 Masters ap. A A. SS.p. 360, at A. 962 (963), and A. 
964 (965> Ware and Harris have Cormac Hua KiQeme at Bi- 
shops at Clonmacnois. He is called comorban of Kieran and 
Coman, alluding to Clonmacnois and Roscommon, and also of 
Cronan, whence Harris deduced that he seems to have been 
Akiot likewise of Roiscrea. But I believe that he was so styled 
relatively to Tomgrany, of which he is expressly called abbot, 
without any mention of Roscrea. And hence we may infer, that 
Tomgrany, the origin of which has been hitherto obscure, was 
founded by St Cronan. For we know, (see Chap. xvii. f . 2.) 
that this samt had been on the West side of the Shannon, and 
had formed some religious establishments, before he had settled 
at Roscrea. Harris was wrong in saying, that Cormac was the 
founder of the Church of Tomgrany. There was a churcii there 
irery long fsfe&xee his time, and all he did was to buifd a new one. 

•<152) Tr. Th. p. 480 and 503: A A. SS. p. 107. at A. 950 

(153) Colgan speaks of him (Tr. Th. p. 480.) as abbot oi Hy, 
bde ebewhere etSk him abbot only of Deny. 

(154) Above, J. 2. 

CL35) 4Ma«ters(a^. Tr. Th.p. 500.) at -rf- 976. (977). The 
Annals of Ulster have at 958 (959) Dubhduin a comorban of Co- 
itxinUdll; but from this title iMoes not fdlow, that he was abbot 
of " Hy. He was probably abbot of Deny and the immediate suc- 
ceissof bf 'St. Adhland. 

(I5e^' rr. 7%. t«. at if. 964 (965). 


(157) li* Ind. Chron* adding a year to the datea. 

(158) For Aind see ib. and p. .509. at /4. 965 (966). Accord- 
ing to someacooimts we should admit six bishops of Lusk, in the 
9di and 10th centuries^ prior to Alild. Archdall has their navies 
at LttsL I find nothing about them in Colgan's works. For the 
bishops at Ck>nena§^ see A A, SS. p^ 356. 

(159) See above §. 10. St. Banard says m the Life of St 
Malachy Ccap* 7. a/. 10.) that said family retained the see for 
about 200 yean, after having observed that there were about 15 
generations of them. If this is to be undei8t«od^ as seems most 
probable^ of natural generations, each of them must be ohh- 
puted as consisting of only 14 years. Some have supposed his 
meaning to be, that there were 15 successive bishops, or persons 
calfing themselves bishops, of that family. Colgan has endea- 
voured fTn Th.p, S02*J to make out a catak>gue of 15 bishops; 
but his list does not exactly agi^ee with the catalogue from the 
Psalter of Cashel, as one of those^ whom he mentions, is omitted 
in It. 

(160) I agree with Colgan, fib, p. 303.) that this is the most 
probable opinion, and that the chieftains of that tract seem to have 
daimed a right to the see as if an advowson of their &mily. He 
observes that said family of usurpers could opt have been that of 
the Neills, or Mac Mahons, or Maguires, or 0*Hanlons, aa some 
had conjectured, whereas St* Bernard, who severely inveighs 
l^nst it, states fVit, S, Mal.fap. S.J that it wa^ extinct jit .the 
ijme be was writingi 

(161) Above j 10. 

(162) A predecessor of Jose^, Cathasach Mac-Robartach is 
also called Prince of Armagh, (See Chap, xxi. §, Id.) Ware 
thought, that this title was given to him merely as bishop. But 
jf that were the reason of it, why was it not given likewise to 
every other bishop of that see? Or if it was given to indicate^ as 
Mac Mahon states^ (Jus Prim, Armac.§, 386.) the primatial pre- 
rogpitive, why has it been confined to no more than threj^ prelates 
of Armagh? I think it much more probable, that it meant, aa« 
cording to its obvious sigiyfication, a person invested with civil 
authority, and that Cathasach, &c, were really chieftains of Ar- 
magh. Peter Talbot of Dublin, against whom Mac Mahon was 
arguing, says that the title of prince was given to t|iose bishops in 
consequence of the usurpation of 15 generations, as St. Bernard 


calls it But this is a mistidce ; for Calhasach, who was pot a 
usurper, and between whom 2sA Joseph there were, Jit least, two 
bishops of Armagh, is marked by the same title. Nor can Jo- 
seph, the first bishop of that uninterrupted line and the successor 
of St. Maelbrigiid, who was of a quite different family, (above $. 
1.) be called a usurper, if we consider how highly he is praised in 
the Irish aiinals. Perhaps Maelpatrick deserves that appellation. 
I may here observe, that two bishops of Emly, Eugene Mac-Can* 
feolad and Tiobnude, who are styled pmices of Endy^ (above § . 
1 and 7.) were probably so called for a similar reason, ue. as they 
m%ht have been temporal lords of that district 

(163) St Bernard writes; (id. cap, 7. al. 10.) " Et eo usque 
finnavenit sibi' jus pravum, imo omni morte pum'endam injuriam, . 
generatio mala et adultera, ut, etsi interdum defedssent clerid 
de sanguine, illo, sed episcopi nunquam. Dcnique jam octo ex- 
titerant ante Celsum viri uxorati et absque ordinibusy literati 
tamen." The archliar Toland, having quoted this passage (AV 
xarenu^y Letter 2. $. 12.) adds, that the Irish clergy derived 
ordination from those lay, so called, archbishops. This he knew to 
be fiilse. And as they had no orders themselves, how could they 
have conferred than on others. 

(164) With r^ard to the points now alluded to the 4 Masters 
often differ fixHn the catalogue of the Psalter of Cashel, and Colgan 
himself is very obscur^, Tr. Th, p. 297* seqq. Nor do the Ulster 
annals sufficiently agree with' that catalogue, which is nearly folr 
lowed by Ware, yet with some variations. OTlaherty in a long 
MS note (opposite to /?. SI9. TV. Th.) has a catalogue of the 
bishops of Armagh taken from his unpublished and, I am afraid, 
lost work Ogygia Christiana, As to the series of tlie usurping 
bishops it is almost the same as that of Ware. According as we 
proceed, I shall touch upon some of these differences, without 
entering deeply into them, partly because they are scarcely wortli 
the trouble of doing so, and partly because, as far as I can judge, 
not one of said catalogues is on the whole correct. 

§ . XIV. The great abuse of mere laymen calling 
themselves archbishops of Armagh did not begin in 
the early part of the usurpation, nor is there any ap- 
pearance of it until the commencement of the ele- 

VOL. III. c c 


tenth century. Cathasaeh the second, who died in 
957, (165) was a real bishop, and so was his successor 
Mur6dach Mac- Fergus, who is said to have hdd the 
see for nine years ; after which he was deposed in 
966. (166) After him was Dubdalethe the second^ 
who died on (he 2d of June, A. D. 998. in the 83d 
year of his age, and thirty-third of hia cowsecration. 

(167) It is very remarkable, that Dubdalcthe was 
elected in 989, by the Columbians both of Ireland 
and North Britain supi-eme ruler of all their monas- 
teries ; and hence he has been called comorban not 
only of St. Patrick but likewise of St. Columba. 

(168) Hence it appears, that the Columbiana must 
have by this time departed from, or at least dispensed 
with, tlieir prhnitive and long observed system of 
riot allowing any one, except a priest,- to be abbot of 
Hy or cliief superior of the order. And in fact I 
find mentioned after Fiachra Hua Hartagain, who 
died in 977, a doctor and bishop Mugron, who, un- 
less there be son^e mistake ih the matter, is cieitled 
abbot of Hy^ and whose death is assigned to A. D. 
979- (1695 But neither among the former abbots, 
ftor among those who lived after Dubdalethe, is there 
one to be found, who as long as he remained abbot 
wasr also a bishop. 

St. Moelfinnian Mac Huactain was i>ishop of 
Kells in the latter half of this century. He is 
called also comorban of St. Ultan and of St. Car- 
nech ; and his death is assigned to 968. (170) Tua- 
thal, bishop and abbot of Clonmacnois, died in 9QQ* 
Q7I) as did also Daniel, bishop of Leigblin, and 
liUgene Mac-Cleirig, who is called bishop of Con- 
ftaught, and hence supposed to have been of Tuam. 
(172) Becan Mac Lachtnan,wha died in 972, is styled 
comqrban of St. Finnian of Clonard ; but whether he 
wais such as bishop or only as abbot, I shall not pre- 
tend to decide. (173) Mael-Kellach, bishop of 
Emly, having died in 1A57, was succeeded by Foelan, 
son of Cellaid, who lived until 98 1 ; and after him 


we find Cetilada, who died in 990. (174). The 
blessed Anmchad, bishop of KiidAre» died at an 
advanced age in 98 1» and his successor Muredach 
Mac-Flann in 986. (175) Coluraba Mac-Ciaracain, 
bishop of Corkf and perhaps the immediate successor 
of Cathmogani who died in 961, lived until 990* 
(176) Prior to these prelates, I find at length, a 
biriiop of Droiftore, Maolbrigid Mac-Cathasagh, who 
died in 973. (177) Among the many ecclesiastics,, 
who were killed in the course of this century by the 
Noithmen, are mentioned, besides some already 
spokeA of, the names of Bran Mac-Colman, abbot of 
Roscrea in 93(5 ; Ardmed, abbot of Coleraine, in 
931 ; Suibhne Mac-Conbrettan, abbot of Slane, m 
939; Tanud Mac- Uder,^ abbot of Bangor, in 957; 
Mured Mac-Foilan of the royal house of Leinster, 
and abbot of Kildare, in 966 ; Ferdalac, abbot of 
the island of Raghlin, in 974* ; and Maelkieran 
O'Maigne, abbot of Derry, who was cruelly put 
to death in 936 by the garrison consisting of Danes 
from Dublm. (178) 

(165) Abov€;, (. 10. 

(166) The Cashel catalogue, which is followed by Ware, allows 
9 years for Muredach, and thus his incumbency would have 
iasted until 966. But OTlaherty says in the quoted MS, cata^ 
logue, tliat he resigned the see ailer seven years, and accordingly 
in 964, adding tliat he died in the 9th year of his consecration. 

(167) Ware at DuhdaUthe II. Here again OTlaherty, in con- 
sequence of wliiat he has about Muredach, differs from Ware, and 
assigns (ib.) the accession of Dubdalethe to 964^, yet placing his 
death in 993 by allowing him 33 complete years of incumbency. 
The Cashel catalogue maiks fpr him the numbci^ xxxiii ; but its 
numbers are not always oxnplete. The 4? Masters (ap. Tr. Th, 
p. 297.) liave in tliese times two Dubdalethes^ one, who is named 
at A, 988 (989), and appears as succeeded by two bishops, after 
wliom comes also a Dubdalethe, whose death is assigned to 998. 
But from a circumstance which they mention of both Dubdaletfaes 
being called comorbans of Columbkill it is clear, tliat they were 

c c 2 





not different (persons. CTFlaheity has made seme MS. notes on 
these confused statemmits ; but it is not worth while to touble the 
reader with any thmg further about thenu 

(168) See Tr. Th. ib. and p. 503. at A. 988 (989), 

(169) lb. p, SOO ad A. 978 (979). I stron^y suspect, that 
there is a mistake in-caHing Mugron abbot of Hy. The title 
given to him in SihitlTs catalogue (Append, to Life of St, Col.) 
is Coarb (comorban) of Columbkill in Ireland and Scotland, He 
might have been abbot of l>erry, and thus like some othere, st^ied 
oomoi^ii of Columbkill ; besides whidi place he might have 
governed a Cohnnbian house in the mainland of Scotland. The title 
Comorban of St, Coluntba has been more than once misunderstood 
as meaning abbot of Hy, when in faet it applied merely to abbots 
of Perry, as, for instance, in the cases of Sl Maelbt^d and St 
Adhland. (See above Notes 10 and 155.) If Mugron was abbot 
of Deny, we shall have, as he was likewise a bishop, one more 
to add to the three bishops, wh6m we have met with there in the 
century we are now-treating of. (See above f . 10.) 

(170) lb. p. 508 ad A. 967 (968). As to his bemg comorban 
of St. Ultan, this must^efer to his having prerided^also over Ard- 
braccan either as bishop or abbot ; and his being called comorban 
of St. Camach shows, that he was abbot of Tulen, where a St. 
Camech founded a monastexy in the 5th or 6th century. (AA- 
SS. p, 783.) Hairis has not this mcmastery ; but it certainly ex- 
isted and to a late period. Archdall, calling it Tuileim, (where 
he found this name I cannot tell) places it in the King's county. 
But it is clear from the Annals of Innisfallen, that it was some* 
where not far distant from Kells. At A. 951. they reckon among 
other religious places,- which .Godfrid, son of Sitric, plundered, be- 
sides Kells, &c. Tullen as in that range of country ; (see above 
$.12.) and at A, 1170 they make mention of it as plundered and 
burned, together with Kells, Slane, &c. by Mac-Murrogfa and 
Strongbow. If I am not mistaken, it was the place now called 
Duleene or Dulane in the barony of Kells, and lying not far 
from the town of Kells on one side, nor from Killdcyre on the 

(171) Colgan, AA, SS, p. 106. from the Annals of Clonmac- 
nois, and Ware, Bishops at Clonmacnois, 

(172) Ware at LeiMin and Tuam. 


(173) See the 4 Masters ap AA. SS. p. 407. ad A. 971 (972). 
Ware (at Meath) reckons Becan amoog the bishops of Gooard in 
CMisequence of his being called comorban of Finnian. This der 
duction should be admitted, were* it certain^ as Ware supposed, 
that Fianiaa had been a bishop. But we have seen, (Chap, x. 
§, 5.) that this^is rather a doubtful matter. 

(174) Wareat Emly. 

( 1 75 ) Tr. Th. p. 630. at A. 980 (981 ) and 985 (986). Ware 
(at KikUireJ has changed the date 980 into 981» but for what fear 
son I know npt^ retained 985.^ 

(176) Wure at Cork. 

(177K^i4. SS.p. 387. at A. 972 (973.) Ware (at DYtmore) 
lias not this bishop ; but Harris makes mention of him. 
(178) AA,SS,p. 107. I haveadded a year toeach date. 

^. XV* Ta the said century belonged a very dis^^ 
tinguished saint, Dunchad O^Braoin. (179) He 
was of an illnstrious family of the Nialls, and bom 
in the district called Breghmuine (now barony of 
Brawny) in Westmeath. He embraced themonasfcie 
$tate at Clonmacnois, where he made wonderful pro^ 
gress in piety and learning. Being very fond of re- 
tirement, and wishing to shun the applauses of raen^ 
he secreted himself as much as he could, leading the 
life of an anchoret. But on the death, in 969) of 
Tuathal, who had been both abbot and bishop of 
Clonmacnois,. Dunchad was fixed upon as his suc- 
cessor to the abbacy, and being dn^ged from his 
retreat, wa$ forced to accept of it. He was not, 
however, raised to the episcopacy, (180) but go^- 
verned the monasteiy for some time merely as abbot, 
until, longing for a more retired state, he withdnew 
from the management of it, and, to be out of the 
way of the persons, by whom he wa» much admired 
in that part of Ireland, repaired to Armagh in the 
year 974'there to remain sequestered and unnoticed. 
^ but his reputation was soon spread throughout that 
city, and so much respect was paid to him that he 
determined on leaving it. His intention being dis- 


covered, the principal inhabitants deputed some ve^ 
nerable persons to request of him that he would stay 
with them for due year longer. He complied with 
theii' wish ; but when at the end of the year be was 
bent on departing, a similar request was made» and 
so on annually, until ^t length he died th^re on the 
16th of January, A. D. 987. It is said that through 
his prayers the Almighty restored to life an infant 
son of a woman, who, having left the dead child at 
the entrance of the saint's cdl, retired apart so as 
not to be seen, hoping that he would pray for the 
infant's i^suscitation, as in fact it is stated that he 
did. (181) 

Several lecturers of various schools are named in 
the Irish annals as having died in the second half of 
this century, for instance, Colman of Kildare in 
563 } Ctonmail of I'&Uaght in 965 ; Conchovar of 
Kildare in 966 ; Flann of Oonmacnois in 978 ; (182) 
Muredach Hua Flannagain of Armagh in 984; 
(183) Fogartach of Devenish in 985 ; Longseefa d* 
Clonmacnois in 989; Diermitof Kildare in 992; 
Dunchad O'Hnactain of Kells in 993 ; and Odraa 
of Clonmacnois in 995* (184) Hence, and from 
what we hav/e seen heretofore, it is dear that learn* 
ing continued to be cultivated during this whole pe- 
riod, notwithstanding, its having been dreadfiiDy 
troubled by almost constant wars between the Irish 
and the Danes, or between the Irish themselves. 
Amidst this havock divas Feligious estaUishments 
were plundet^d by tjie Danes, and some even by the 
Irish whiie devastating the places whetre they were 
situated. The monastery of Devenish was piUaged 
by the Northmen or Danes in SOS ; (185) and either 
in the following year or in 964 those of Dublin ra- 
vaged Kildare unmercifiiUy, making a greati number 
of ecclesiastics and others captives, of whom very 
many were ransomed by Neill Oherluibh (1 86) In 
^8 and again in 909 Kells was plundered by the 
Leinster men and Danes united. (187) la 979the 


people of Oflsory burned Lismore, aud plundered 
Cloyne and Leighlin. (188) . They iiera punished 
not long after for these proceedings. Bri.w Boo 
roimhe, then king of Munster, eintered Ossory in 
980, seized upon tbie prince M^-giolU-Patrick 
(Fitzpatrick), and compelled all the chleftainaofthat 
country to give him hostages* (189) Bri^n. had 
succeeded in 976 his gallant brother Mahon» who 
after having, together with Brian, defeated the 
Danes of Lioierick, Cork, and Waterford . on many 
occasions, particularly in the gr^at battle of Sukhoid 
not far frooi Limerick A. D. 968, was murdered in 
said year 976 by some dynasts of the now county pf 
Cork, although he was under the protection of Co-^^ 
lumba Mac-Ciaracain, bishop of Cork, who accord- 
ingly issued a malediction against all those, that were 
concerned in bringing <about the king's death. ,(1|90) 
Another instancy of tlie devastation of I'eJigious 
places was that of Hy by Nort^li^mCT: on Chrktma^ 
eve in 986, on whieh occasion the abb(^, whose 
name is not recorded^ and fifteen of -thi^ elders were 
put to death. But in the following year tho^ North* 
men paid dearly for t^ir atrocities, as 360 of them 
were Killed, by wham« howeve>i', we are nqt parti- 
cularly infbmned. (l$^l) In j^O some Niortmn<m 
plundered Dejtry, and again in !>97, in whkh year 
the Danes of Dublin ^pillaged Kells, andtn 999 Ms4) 
Kildare. (192) Other instances of similar depre- 
dations might be adduced^ but these are sufficient 
to show, with what calamities Ireland was afflicted. 

(179) Colgan ha»the Acts of this saint at 16 January from a 
short Life in the possession of Mac-Carthy Riabhach and fiom a 
still shorter one in the chronicle of ClohmacnoiB. 

(180) Harris f Bishops at ClonmacnoisJ thought that Dun- 
chad w^ also bishop there For this opinion there is no founda- 
tion whatsoever, and some words, which he quotes from Colgan, 
prove nothii^ more than that Duhchad was placed over the mo- 
nastery as abbot. Throughout his Acts, or wherever else he is 


ipoken of, Dunchad is never called bishop, but merdy abbot and 
andioiet. At Clcniiiiacnois, as wdl as in some other great mooasdc 
institutioDSy the abbots were not always bishopsi nor vice vena 
were the bishops regularly abbots. ^Thus Moeldar and his socees- 
sor St. Corpreus^ bishop of Cknimacn(»s, (see Chap. xxi. §. 15.) 
do not aippear to have been abbots there ; and ArchdaUy mis- 
quoting Colgan, was wrong in giving them that title, while he 
omitted their real ones. 

(181) This mirade is alluded to by T%emach, author of the 
Annals of Clomnacnois, who lived in the eleventh century. He 
says, that Dunchad was until his time the last of the Iiish saints^ 
through whose intercesson God restored a dead person to life. 
(See Dunchad's Acts.) 

(182) Tr. Tk. p. 632. adding a year to the dates. 

(183) n. p. 297. at A. 983. (984). 

(184) lb, p. 632. and Ind. Ckron. adding a year, as usual. 

(185) lb. Ind. Chron. ad A. 961 (962). 

(186) lb. p. 630. ad A. 962 (963) The Annals of Innisfal- 
len assign this devastation to A. 964. 

(187) lb. p. 508. at A. 967 (968) and 968 (969). 
ri88) Annals of Innis^en at A. 978. 

(199) /*. at A. 980. 

(190) lb. at A. 976. For the battle of Sulchoid see ib. at A. 
968, where it is stated, that three thousand of the Danes were 
kiDed, and Limerick afterwards burned and pillaged. 

(191) See the 4 Masters (ap. Tr. Th.p. 501) at A. 985 (986) 
and 986 (987). 

(192) lb. p. 503, 508, and 630. adding a year to the dates. 

- V 



chap: XX hi. 

Irish support their character Jbr piety and leamingp 
notwithstanding the troubks occasioned by ffie 
Danes-^'^t the same time a priest could not he 
found in England capable of writing or translate' 
ing a Latin letter^^For the restoration of learn-' 
ing in England some erudite Irishmen formed a 
community at Glastonbury — St. Dunstan edu^ 
cated by t/ienh-^St. Maccallin^ an Irishman, in 
France— St. Cadroe, a British Scot, in France 
— Columbanus, an Irish abbot, dies in the monas^ 
tery qf Ghent — Duncan, an Irish bishop, distht" 
guished in France— St. Maccallin founder of the 
monastery of Wakiqdorus — St. Forunn, who had 
been archbishop of Armagh, became fourth abbot 
qf TVakiodorus and continued so till his death on 
30th April, A.D. 982. — Several illustrious Irish^ 
men who Jlourished on the Continent at thatpe- 
riod — St. Fingen abbot qf St. FeUx at Metz—^ 
died in the year lOO^-^succeeded by his disciple 
Richard, dean of the diocese qf Rheims — St. 
Gerard, an Irishman, bishop of Toul, gave in 
985 a retreat in his diocese to some Greeks, who, 
mixed with Irishmen, performed ihe Church ser^ 
vice in their omi language — Succession of bishops 
in Ireland, particularly those qf Armagh, Ernly, 
and Cork^^Deaths qf several remarkable persons 
in Ireland — the Danes defeated in several 
battles by Brian Boroimhe — Brian compels the 
Lagenians to give him hostages-^Mael^aghUn 
plunders the Dalcassians-^Brian.marches against 
him, and forces him to acknowledge his sove^ 
reignty over Leath Mhogha — After several bat^ 
ties with various success Maelseaghlain is de^ 
throned and Brian becomes monarch qf Ireland 
in the year lOOl^^SeveraL acts qf Brmn— Total 
overthrow of the Danes, and death of Brian at 



the battle of Clontarf in }0l4f— Interment of 
Brian in Armagh^^^dispute between the Eugenian 
and Dalcassian tribes — Maelseachlain restored to 
the Monarchy-^ Interregnum under the gKrvem- 
ment ^ Cum O* heocho^n the poet, and Corcran 
aclergjfman — Christian reUgian gradualhf spread 
wer the remaining Danes iff Iretand^^Mael- 
mmr^ Mach'Eochad, archbishop of Armagh, suc- 
ceeded by Amaigaid, 'who was said to be a lay- 
man — Amalgcnd^s ivisitaiion qf Munster — Dub- 
daktbe III. succeeds Amalgaid^^Deaths of se- 
lueral bishops^^Several learned men who flou- 
rished in Ireland during this period — Deaths of 
several illtcstriqus per;sons who had been disUn' 
gtdshed for tiieir leammgf piety, Jigc.-^Some 
Danes stiU continue to commit depredations on 
religious establishments in Ireland — Donatusjirst 
bishop of Dublin — Church of ike Holy Trinity, 
DubBn, built^-^nd endowed by JSikic, Danish 
Icing ofDubli^'^No proqfthat Donatus was con- 
secrated by hanfranfi archbishop of Canterbury^ 
as sometimes stated^^^See of Dublin confined to 
the cityi until the Synod qf Kells under cardinal 
. Papiror^Death if St. Gormgalf abbot of Ard- 

SW5T. I. 

While the Irldi were struggling at iiome against 
the impeediments, which the misfortunes of the 
times ojiposed to Uie cultivation of piety and 1eai*n- 
ing, awl while they upheld their character in these 
vespects evBu during that century, which is usually 
ealted obscure^ and indeed justly so^ if we look to 
the oomintion'Of morals and ecelesiasttcal disei[jine9 
and the diain^&il ignorance by which said century 
has been xendered inf jnous in some other parts of 
Europe, nai^ qf the ti highly distinguished them- 
aelves in foreign countries by their sanctity, Chris- 


tian zeal, and knowledge^ both flocred aad lileoraiy. 
In that age we find numbers of them teaching in 
England^ where after the death of Allred dowi^ to 
the times of St. Dunstan, learning had so declmedU 
owing, it seems, to the troubles eansed by die 
Danes, that at length a piiest ooiuld not be found 
capable of either writing or tiunshting a Latin letter. 
(1) The monastic institutions^ which Al&ed had 
endeavoured partly to restore, having ceased to 
exist, there were no public scfaook eitoblisfaed in 
their stead, and hence it is not to he wondered at 
that ignorance became so universal. Som^e time ho* 
fore 940 it happened providentially iw the restora^ 
tion of learning, and coiisequently of reliffioiis tm* 
provement, thiat several Irishmen, fcaiarkabfy iskillcMl 
in every department of seience and erudition sacred 
and profane, retired to GJastenbury, and there 
formed a community. For the purpose of opntri- 
bttdng towards their support they received y()wig 
noblcmien under their cane, whom they instructed in 
the liberal stadies, and among otbens Dmsstan the 
most celebrated of their pupils.^ With the help of 
these masters he acquired a great degr<ee not only of 
classical and philosophical knowledge, but likewise of 
ecclesiastical learnin-g, and remained with them 
until being well accomplished even in the fine arts^ 
such as music, painting, &c. he was introduced by 
his uncle Athelm, orchtHshop of Cwterbury, to thie 
king Ethelstan. (S) The exertions of thk ^eat 
and holy man were afterwards of most essential «9r- 
vice to religion and learning in England. 

(1) MibiSton, AmiaL Bened, at A. 9iO. from Spelman. 

(2) Osbem, Life of SU Dunstan^ ap, Wharton, An^ia Suera^ 
VcL ii,p. 91. Having observed that at said period the flienastie 

observances were scarcely heard of* in England, Oihem adds ^at^ 
if any one wished to lead a Hfe of mortification, he used to go to 
some foreign country. He then tdces occaaon to state that it had 
been and was in his time quite usual and, as it were, iiaturai for 


the LMi lo g0 dn pi^maages in fiiie^ parts, aodtheatvBat^of 
dKwe who woe settled at Olastonbuty^ &e* As tbe passage is 
curious, I shaU Jiere qaote a* much of it as is oonnected with the 
present subject; ** Hkque mos cum plcrosque: turn vehemeider 
adhuc manet Hibemot ; quay quod aim bona voiuntas in somve^ 
iudhum^ hoc iUu contuetudo vertii in naturant^ Quorum mulH 
atque ilhuires mriy drakus ac seeular^us Uteris nobiHter eruditif 
dum rdicUt Hibemia in terra Anglorum peregrinaturi 'oenissentf 
locum habitatiKmit suae GUskmiam defegerunt, propterea guod 
euet.a dfoUi muUitudine s&guestratuSf ei kumams ueibus accbni' 
modus^ et (quod maxime. q^edabant peregrini) Patricii religiosa 
nseneratione ^Uniosus^-^Cum ergo- hi tales viri talibus de causis 
Crlestoniam venissent, nee tamen quicqmid sibi necessarium erat 
si^fidentissime in loco reperissenty suacipivjtt JUios nobUium.U^ 
beralibus studiis imbuendos ; uty quod minus ad usum loci u^er* 
tas exhUteret^ eorum quos docebant liberaiitate redundaret, Adest 
ergo nobilissimus in Christo puer Dunstanusy inter aiios tmusy 
ivmo prae aliis sohUf ubipauUo dUgentius quam imbeciUa aetas 
firre posset literarum studio intentus" &c. Their he tells us how 
Dunstanfeil sick, &c This, by the bye, was not the first, time, 
in which there were distinguished fri^men at Glastoidi^uiy ; tnany 
ol them had been there long belbre. 

(S) See Mr. Lingard's Anglo-Saxon churchy cb. 12. 

§«. II. St. Maccallin, or, aa some call himj Mac-^ 
caUaUf Malcallifh ^^ Malcallany aa IrishmaD^ was in 
France, together with St. Cadr oc aod sonoe others, 
in, it seems, 9^^ or 946 (4) His history is much 
connected with that of. St. C^roe, on which accord* 
ingly, although he was not an Iiish but a British 
Scot, I mu4t say a few words. (5) Cadroe was of 
the royal ho^se of the Scots of North Britain, and 
was placed at an early age under the direction of a 
very piousi relative, named Bean, who instructed him 
in reli^on and watched over his morals. When 
grown up, it was thought adviseable to give him what 
would be now called a university education j ind, 
as there were then no schools in Scotland, in which 
it could be acquiredi Bean sent him to Armagh. (6) 


There he applied himself to the classical and philo* 
sophical studies, including natural history, astrono- 
my, &c. and, as he was gifted with a fine genius, be- 
came a great proficient in them. Having finished his 
literary and scientific course he recrossed the sea, (7) 
and returned to his cousin Bean. • Being full of zeal 
for the instruction of his countrymen, he set about 
teaching them so as to form school-masters for every 
part of Scotland^ all of whom were indebted to him 
for their knowledge. (8) While Cadroe was thus 
employed in teaching what are called the liberal arts, 
without thinking of retiring from the world, it is 
said that both he and Bean had visions, in which it 
was announced that he should quit his native country, 
remove to foreign parts, and exercise himself in mo- 
nastic discipline, as it was the will of God that he 
should become the spiritual father of others. He 
determined on obeying the summons, and was pre- 
paring to set out, when the people of every condition, 
and even the king Constantiue (9) requested him 
not to leave his country, remonstrating with him on 
the injury which his departure would cause to all 
Scotland, where he was doing so much good. These 
expostulations made such an impression on him, that 
he delayed for some time ; but afterwards returning 
to his former determination he opposed all their ex- 
ertions to detain him, until at length it was agreed 
upon to let him go abroad and even to supply him 
with money, clotnes, horses, and every thing ne- 
i^essaiy for his journey. Having passed the frontiers 
of the then Scottish kingdom, he entered the 
British one of Cumbria lying to the south of the 
Clyde, ( 10) where' he was veiy kindly received by 
its king Dovenald, (11) a relation of his, who, 
having kept him for some time at his court, con- 
ducted him to the city of Loida, situated at the 
boundary of the Cumbrians and Normans, where 
Cadroe was received by Gunderic, a nobleman, who 
accompanied him to York and introduced him to 


the king Erie, whone wife waa r^ted to him. (12) 
Theace he wrat to Lwdo»t and proceeded to Wia- 
chestetf where he was treated with bonoitr by kiii^ 
£diiiiitid^ who got him eonducfeed to a harbour cidled 
Hymen. After some dehrfr there caused by bad 
w^ither^ he sent back to Scotland soma of his com- 
Miiionsy among whom was a nej^iew of his, and 
Btt^ing emfaoiiLed arrived safely at Boulogne* Tlience 
he went to St. Fursey's monastery of Peronne, 
wbere he prayed to God that he would, through 
the merits ^ St. Fursey, point out to him a plao^, 
where he should stop. On the following nightf 
the saint appeared to him in a yision ^id told him, 
that he must go to some other spot. 

(4) Colgan has made up some Acts for St Maocalin, or as he 
nsaies him^ Malcallan, at 21 January* The Bollandists treat of' 
him at said day. Thexe is an account of him also in the AcU 
Bened^ Bee. v. p. 54S. He is expressly called' an Irishman, 
noHone Hibemm in the Appendix to the chronicle of Frodoard 
at A. 978. and in the Anglican martyrology ; and that he was the 
Bollandists maintain, both at 21 January and 6 March» in their 
observations on the Life of St. Cadroe. where they state that the 
Scotch have no aigument in favour of making him their country- 
roan* Yet in the Benedictine account, either by Dachoiy or Ma- 
billon, it is said that he was rather a British than an Irish Soot, 
notwithstanding the authority of the Appendix to Frodoard there 
quoted. For this q)inion no reason is assigned, nor, I believe^ 
could there, except that MaccaHin happened to be in France to- 
together with Cadroe, who was certainly a native of N. Britam. 
But this, as will be soon seen, is far fix>m aferding any proof of it. 
As to the time of Cadroe's arrival in France^ it is universally al- 
lowed that it was about 945. 

(5) There is a rather laige Life of St. Cadroe, or Cathroe, as 
Colgan thought he ought to be called, written by one Reiman or 
Ousman, seemingly a French or German monk, not vety long 
afler the saint's death. It has been published by Colgan at 6 
March, at which day it is aliso in the collection Qf the Bollandists, 
who omitted as useless some stuff in the beginning of it relative to 

CttAP. Itilir. OF IRfitAiTD. 3^9 

ceitain migrations of the prhoitivc Soots. Thifhee k #as replib- 
fished in the Acta Bened, Sec. v. Colgan M» lost his time in en- 
d^flvotfring to shovr, that Cadroe was an Irish S<^ whereas k k 
quite clear that he was a British one ; and ^leeotfdlngly he Is eoil- 
sidered as sach by the Bbllstndists and MabitloR^ 

(6) It is remarked by Mabillony Annal. Ben. Ad A. 944.) that 
the reason, why Cadroe was sent to^ Armaghf was tfott studies 
were at that thiie neglected m Scotland. Compeate with Nt>t. 27 
to Chap. XX. 

(7) Aequore remenso. (Life, cap: 12.) Cd^ail stmg^etf fp 
explaih these words as if meaning, tihat he sailed on a Ubeor cross- 
ed the Shafinon on his return to some part of Irdand, in whidi 
as Colgan imagined, his relatives lived. But the author of the 
Life understood Latin sufficiently well not to call a lake or a river 

(8) It is observed in the Life, ^15 J by allusion to the words of 
St. Paul 1 Cor. iv. 15. that, although Scotland might have thbu- 
sands of pedagogues yet it had not many fathers, whereas Cadroe 
was the person, who b^at them ; in diici/dinis enim artium hie 
iUos genuit ; and that from the thne of his arrival (or return to his 
country) none of the wise men had crossed the sea but still lived 
in Ireland. This is mari^ed to prove, that Cadroe was then the 
only great teacher in Scotland. It is strange, that Colgan could, 
with such drcumstances before liis eyes, have persisted in making 
Cadroe an Irishman, and living and teaching in Ireland ; as if there 
had not been numberless great masters or fathers in Ireland for 
centuries before Cadroe was bom, or as if he could have been 
called the only father in Ireland, while the very persons or fathers, 
by whom he himself had been taught, at Armagh, not to mention 
so many others elsewhere, were stiH alive. 

(9) This was Constantine III. son of Ethus, who, having re- 
signed the throne in 943, became superior of the Culdees of St, 
Andrews. (Buchanan, Rer. Scot, ad Reg. 75. and Usher, Ind. 
Chron. ad A. 943.) Colgan strives to^'^^et rid of this argument in 
favour of Cadroe having been a British Scot by introducing a Con- 
stantine O'Neill, who was cliieftain of Inishowen some time in the 
tenth" century; as if Inishowen could be supposed to be a large 
kingdom, such as the author of the Life alludes to. 

(10) Compare with Not. 74* to Chap. xxi. 


(11) This Dovenakl was the long, whom old English writers 
call Dunmail, and whose coimtiy the English king Edmund made 
over to Malcolm I. king of the British Scots in 946, and accord- 
ingly after Cadroe had travelled through it. (See Usher, p. 664 
and Ind» Chron. at A* 946.) What Colgah has concerning him 
is so confused, that it is not worth remarking upon. 

(12) Life, cap* !?• In this narrative there are some pcnnts 
well worthy the attention of British antiquaries. As it is not my 
business to enlarge on them, I shall only observe that the people 
called by the author Normans were the Northumbrians, who 
were then ruled by Norman or Danish kings, of whom Eric was 

§. in. Not far distant from Peronne there lived 
a pious, wealthy, and noble matron, named Her- 
sendis, who was very kind to pilgrims. On hearing 
that some such persons had arrived in her neigh- 
bourhood, she sent to them requesting that they 
would calfl to see her. They complied with her wish, 
and on conversing with her said that all they wanted 
was a retired place, where living by their labour 
they might serve God. She then gladly showed 
them a spot in the forest called Theorascensis near 
the river Oise in the diocese of Laon and adjoining 
the frontiers of Hainault, ( 1 3) and where there was 
a church under the name of St. Michael. They 
liked the place, and Hersendis got the church en- 
larged and habitations erected for, their use. Among 
these pilgrims, who in all were thirteen, was Mac- 
callin, a man of superior goodness, (14) and whose 
name now occurs for the first time. Where he met 
with Cadroe we are not informed, nor whether he 
had travelled with him all the way from Scotland, 
although it is not iniprobable that he had. (15) For 
there was a great infercourse between the Scots of 
Ireland and those of N. Britain, so that many of 
the former were to be found in the latter country, 
and vice versa. Wheresoever these two worthy men 
first met, they and their companions being settled 



at St. Michaers, it was proposed to appoint a supe*- 
nor, and Cadroe was fixed upon for that purpose. 
But, as he could not be induced to accept of that 
office, Maccallin was then compelled to submit to it. 
Having lived for some time in this manner, assisted 
by the munificence of Hersendis, Maccallin and 
Cadroe were seized with a desire to become Bene- 
dictine monks. For the attainment of this object 
they were helped by Hersendis, who directed Mac- 
callin to Gorzia, a monastery in the diocese of Metz, 
recommending him to the abbot Agenald, and Ca- 
droe to the celebrated monastery of Fleury sur Loire, 
then governed by Erchembald a very religious man. 
When Maccallin had. received the monastic habit, 
Hersendis sent to Agenald, requesting that he would 
permit him to proceed to the place, which had been 
already intended for him. This place was Walcio- 
dorus, now Vassor, near the Meuse between Dinant 
and^Givet, where Eilbert, the husband of Hersen- 
dis, had erected a monastety about J. 945, and about 
the same time that Hei'sendis had formed the estab- 
lisjiment of St. Michael's. (16) Maccallin, on his 
return, was placed as abbot over Walciodorus, still 
retaining the raani^ement of St. Michael's. Hav- 
ing sent for Cadroe, he appointed him prior of the 
monastery. After some time Maccallin, finding 
that the direction of two establishments was too much 
for his strength, begged of Cadroe to become abbot 
of Walciodorus. With great difficulty Cadroe agreed 
to this proposal, having been pressed to do so by 
Otho, king of Germany, who was afterwards em- 
peror. This occurred about 950. (17) - Cadroe was 
afterwards abbot of the monastery of St. Clement, 
alias St. Felix at Metz, and died A. D. 915 or 976, 
afl»r the 70th year of his age and 30th of his pere- 
grination or abode in a foreign country. (18) He 
was buried in the church of, his monastery at Metz, 
and his memory was revered on the 6th of March. 



Maccallin, having returned to 3t* Michael's in the 
forest Thearjoscensis, spent the remainder of his life 
there until his death on the 21st of January in the 
year 978* He was buried in the church of St. 
Michael, and his name is mentioned with great praise 
by old writers' and in various martyrologies. (19) 

(IS) See BoHandufl at 21 January, where he treats of St. Mac* 
callin. Colgan was mistaken in assigning that place to die diocese 
of Verdnn. 

(14) Life of St. Cadroe, cap. 20. 

(15) The author of €adroe*s Life calls (ib.) ' Maccallin a com- 
panion of Cadroe*s pilgriniage. This may seem to iasinuatey that 
they had gone together from Scotland. Yet they mig^t have first 
met in England^ or perhi^ in France, where many Irishmen were 
then t& be Ibuad ; and in ^ther hypothesis Maccallin mi^t still be 
called a companion of Cadroe's pilgriiAage {per^rinatio), whidi, 
strictly speaking, did not b^in until they were settled, as pious 
foidgners, at St. Michael's. For, as far as I have been able to 
observe, the aocqitation g£ peregrination which so often occurs in 
livesof saints of those times, is not so much travdUng as living 
for pious mdtines in a Jbreign land. Fte instance in the pas- 
sage from O^bem, (above Nok 2.) the words, reUcta Hibemia 
in terra Af^gloru/in preregrinoturi venissent^ plainly meaok that the 
persons theite alluded to 1^ Irelandforth^ purpose of leading a life 
ofpeKgrkiation, that is, absence from their own country, in Eng- 
land. Our English word, pilgrimage^ does not exactly corres- 
pond with the p^egrina^io of the writers of the middle ages. 

(16 } See the BoUandists at St. Cadroe, 6 March. 

(17) lb. 

(18) Life of St. Cadvoe cap. 25. Ckmipare with Mabillon, 
Obwro. praeo* at said Life in Acta BenetL Sec. v. 

(19) We read in the AppencKx to FrodoHrd's chrenide » 
" Arnio 978^ viV 'Domini Malcallinus natione Hibemicusin vigifia 
& Vinoentii fieviliae et ihartyris vitam transit(»iam,'quatt-hahebat 
esQosam, deseruit, et cum Domino, cui indesinenter, dum adhuc 
vivei«tjr sewiverat, vivere fdiciter inchoavh. Qui praefetus abbas 
>n oorpoie humatus quiescit in ecclesia B. IV^chaelis archangeK, 
cujus abbatiam, dum corporaliter'in hocjseculo maneret, pio mo- 


denunine rexiL" The words vir Domini^ or as in the MS* inr 
dniy have been mistaken for Virduni, and hence some have said 
that Macallin was abbot of St. Michael's at Verdun, and that he 
died in that town. But there was no such monastery at Verdun. 
In a history of the foundation of Walciodorus it is mentioned, 
that he died in 990 ; but the other is the true date and is fol- 
lowed by the BoUandists and Benedictines. 

§. 4. An Irish abbot, named Columbanus, shut 
himself up and became a rechise on the 2d of Fe- 
bruary, A.D. 957, in the cemetery of the monastery 
of Ghent, and remained there until his death on the 
15th of February in 959. (20) Whether the mo- 
nastery, which he had governed, was in Ireland or 
in the continent, is not sufficiently known ; but it is 
univei*sally alloiyed that he was an Irishman. (21) 
His remains are, in St. Bavo's church at Ghent, and 
his memory is famous in Belgium, where his name 
occurs among those of other saints in a litany of the 
Belgic churches. Israel, an Irish bishop, but I know 
not of what diocese, (22) lived in the eastern part of 
France during the first half of the 10th century. 
He assisted at a synod held at Verdun in 94 7> (23) 
at which was present also the celebrated Bruno, bro- 
ther of the king, and afterwards emperor Otho, 
Bruno was then abbot, but a few years later became 
archbishop of Cologne. One of the masters of this 
great and learned prelate was Israel, concerning 
whom I do not find any further account. Duncan, 
likewise an. Irish bishop, was distinguished as a 
teacher in France some time in the said century. 
It is not known whether he was consecrated there or 
in Ireland. He taught in the monastery of St. Re- 
migius at Rheims, (24) and wrote for the use of his 
students a Commentary on the nine books of Mar- 
tianus Capella on the liberal arts, in the tit^e of which 
he is called an Irish bishop. A copy of this work 
was transcribed by one Gifardus, and was in the li- 
brary of said monastery, but is now among the royal 

D D 2 


I „ 

MSS. in the British Musenm. Duncan wrote also 
Observations on the first book of Poraponius Mela 
on the situation of the earth, which likewise are still 
extant. (25) 

St. Forannan, (26) who had been consecrated at 
Armagh bishop of a place, called Domnach-mort 
arrived at Walciodorus 23 years later than St. Mac- 
callin had become its abbot, and accordingly in i;^Oy 
reckoning from 947 the year, in which, according 
to every appearance, Maccallin, Cadroe, and some 
Irish monks began to live there. (27) It is there- 
fore a great mistake to suppose, us some vvriters have 
done, that Forannan had beai in that place before 
Maccallin, and that he ivas the founder of the mo- 
nastery. ^28) From what we liave seen above it is 
evident, tiiat Macallin was the first abbot of Walcio- 
dorus, who, on his resignation, was succeeded by 
Cadroe in about 950. On Cadroe*s removing to Metz 
in 954f or 955 he left an abbot there, whose name is 
unknown, but who is said to have permitted a re- 
laxation of discipline. After his death Forannan 
was appointed abbot, (29) Thus Forannan was, in 
fact, the fourth abbot of Walciodorus, which he 
governed until his death on the 30th of April in 
98s, (SO) having re-established the vigour of mo- 
nastic discipline, and left a great reputation for 
sanctity. ' 

(20) Colgan treats of this St. Columbanus at 2 February, and 
the Bollandists more probably at 15 of said month. 

(21) Dempster, with his usual e£Brontery, making him a Scotch- 
man and a writer, says that he always lived in Scotland, and refers 
to Mplanus, who has not a word of what that liar pretended to 
take from him. (See AA. SS. p. 238.) The Belgic writers 
agree that he was a native of Ireland. By them he is called 
abbas Hibernicisf without telling us whether in Ireland or else- 
where ; but Menard understood that appellation as meaning, that 
he had been an abbot in Ireland. 

(22j Fleury in one place fHist. EccL JL. 55. f . 35.) calls him a 



bishop of Great Britain, and in another fib. $. 43.) a Scotch 
bishop, eveque Ecossqis. But the Benedictine authors of the 
Histoire Letierairey who were better acquainted with the history 
of those times, expressly state, ( Tom. \u p, 305.) that he was an 
Irish bishop. 

(23) Reury, ib. §. 35. 

(24) Dr. Ledwich very learnedly brings fAnt.Sfcp. 165.) the 
monastery of St. Remigius to Down, and makes Duncan teach 
there. There was no monastery of St. Remigius in Ireland. But 
the Doctor^ or some one before him, had stumbled on a passage in 
Usher fPr. p. 910, or London ed. 472.) where he speaks of this 
work of Duncan, alias Dunchat, as being in the library of the 
church of Worcester witli the following title ; ** Commentum 
Dunchat pontificis Hibernieusis, quod contulit suis discipulis in mo* 
nasterio S. Reinigii douns, super astrologia Martiani Capellae 
Varronis." Usher left this title, as he found or thought he found 
it, imagining, as appears from his making d a capital letter, that 
douns. was a local or proper name. Thence it was deduced, that 
it meant Down in Ireland. But there can be no doubt, that douns 
is an erratum for docens, which I should rather ascribe to the 
copyist of said title than to Ushcr*s being mistaken in the spelling 
of the words as he met with it. 

(25) See Histoire Letteraire, Torn. vi. j3. 549. and Warton« 
History of English poetry , Vol. ii. p. 75- 

(26) The Bollandtsts have a Life of St. Forannan at 30 April, 
and from them it has been republished in the Acta Ben- Sec. v. 
p. 586 segq, 

(27) See the Bollandists, Notes at St. Fovannan^ ib. p. 819, 

(28) Among others Colgan fell into this mistake, and premised 
to prove at 30 Apri^ that Forannan had preceded Maccallin. (See 
A A. SS. p. 153 and 238.) How he could have endeavoured to 
prove it I do not know, as he did not live long enough to publish 
Forannan*s Life at said day. 

(29) See the Bollandists, ib. and p. 808. and at St. Cadroey 6 
Mart. p. 471. 

(30) This is the date marked for it by Mabillon, (Annal. Ben. 
ad A. 982.) and, as it is probably the true one, further inquiries 
may be omitted. 


§ V, About these times there was also an Irish 
monastery at Cologne. Warinus, archbishop of Co- 
logne, built or repaired a monastery of the Scots 
(Irish) in an island of the Rhine near the city, over 
which he placed Mimborin, who is said to have go- 
verned it for fifteen years. (31) Marianus Scotus 
says, that in 975 Erberger, archbishop of Cologne, 
made over to the Scots, for ever, this monastery called 
St. Martin's,' and that its first abbot was Mimborin, a 
ScotuSf who presided over it for twelve years, 
reckoning, I suppose, from the date of the perpetual 
grant made by Erberger. Accordingly Mimborin's 
death, which ocpiirred on the 18th of July, must be 
assigned either to 987, or, if the twelve years were 
not complete, tp 986. '(32) He was succeeded by 
Kilian likewise an Irishman, after whom, as it was 
an Irish establishment, we find it governed by St. 
Helias, (3*3) who had belonged to the monastery of 
Monaghan, and of whom more will be seen else- 

A very celebrated Irish abbot was Fingen, (34) 
who succeeded St. Cadroe as abbot of St, Felix, alias 
St. Clement, at Metz, in about the year 976. Be- 
sides^ the government of this monastery he was in- 
vested also with that of St. Symphorian, likewise at 
Metz, in the year 991. This old abbey was rebuilt 
by Adalbero II. then bishop of Metz, who, having 
a great esteem for Fingen, placed him over it, and, 
with the assistance of the empress dowager Adel- 
haid a protectress of Fingen and the Irish Benedic- 
tines, and grandmother of Otho III. as yet only 
king, obtained from this sovereign a confirmation of 
the rights and possessions of this establishment on 
condition, th|it the Irishman Fingen, its first abbot, 
and his successors, should not have any other than 
Irish monks as long as they could be found, but, 
in case they could not, allowing the admittance 
of monks of any other nation ; and that prayers 
should be constantly offered there for the kmg's 


CH AF« XXIII. OF lUELAif D. 407 

soul, tho^e of his parents, and of the then bishop 
and his successors. This deed was signed by tM 
king at Frankfort on the 25th of January, A. D. 
992, in the ninth year of his reign, (35) Not long 
after Fingen was sent to re-esfablish the monastery 
of St. Peter and St. Vitonus, now St. , Vannes, 
at Verdun, where he fixed some Irish monks, of 
whom seven were there under his direction, wheir 
the celebrated Richard, dean of the diocese of 
Rheims, and Frederic, who had been count of Ver- 
dun, applied to him in lUOl for permission to be- 
come members of this house. (36) As they were 
persons of high rank in the world, he was at fir^st 
loth to receive them, being afraid that they would 
not put up with the poverty and discipline of the 
monastery. At length, however, he complied ivith 
their request, (87) and instructed and trained them 
so well, that they became, especially Richard, two of 
the greatest and most useful men of their times. St. 
Fingen died in the year 1004, and was succeeded by 
his holy disciple Richard. (38) There is a short letter 
of his, still extant, in the library of St. Remigius of 
Rheims, to Fastnidis a nun, concerning a monk 
named Guilier (S9) 

To this account of Irish ecclesiastics distinguished 
in foreign countries during the tenth century, I shall 
add only a curious circumstance related of St. Ge- 
rard, bishop of Toul, who in 986 gave a retreat in 
his diocese to several Greeks, who, mixed with 
Irishmen, performed the Church service in their 
own language, and according to the Greek rite. (40) 
Hence we see, that the Irish still continued to culti- 
vate Greek literature. 

(SI) MabiUon, ib. ad A. 974. 
(32) Flarence of Worcester places it in 086. 
(S3) See MabiUon, loc. ci^.and Co^ A A. SS.p. 107. 
(34) Colgan tieaU of St. Fingen at 5 Febraary. His account of 
liim is very imperfect The BoUandists have omitted him, fbfing 


him among die Praetermusi at 5 February, and observing that 
CoJgan had not a sufficient reason for giving him the title of beaius^ 
as he had found him called only virtuosM. But the Fingen, styled 
virtuomSf was in all probability different from the one we are now 
treating of; nor did Colgan state that they were the same, al- 
though the cause of his placing St Fingen at 5 February was» 
that the name of a Fingen, the virtuous son of Odran FedMa, 
occurs at said day in some Irish calendars. Mabillon did not 
scruple to consider Fingen as a saint, and often speaks of him as 
a most religious man, ex, c. jfnnaL Ben, ad A, 1001. And the 
authors of the Histoire Letteraire expressly call him SU Fingen 
an Irishman, &c. {Tom, vi. p, 437.) where they tell us, that 
there was a large account of liim in a Life of Thierri, bishop of 
Metz, which unfortunately has been lost. 

(35) Colgan, having got a copy of this diploma from the 
archives of the church of Metz through the kindness of Meuri$> 
bishop of that see, has annexed it to the Acts of Fingen. It 
b^ins thus ; ** In nomine sanctae et individuae Trinitatis, Otto 
divina Javente dementia rex," After three or four lines it pro- 
ceeds ; " Quapropter omnium Jidelium nostrorum praesentium 50- 
licet et Juturorum naverit industria, quomodo Adalbero Meteusis 
ecclesiae venerabilis episcopus ad nos venit, dicens quod ahbettiam 
quamdam^ foras muros Metis civitatis sitam, jam lengo tempore 
destructam, pro Dei amore et sancti Symphoriani martyris nwi*' 
ier coepit reaedificare, kumiliter deprecans nostram excellentiam, 
ut eamdem abbatiam cum suu pertinentiis nostrae authoritatis 
praeceptUme conjirmemus. Nos vero ob interventum dilectae aviae 
nostrae, Adalkeidis videlicet imperairicis Augustae, piae petitioni 
Ulius benignum assensum praebenies, eidem abbatiae <S. Syntpho' 
riani omnia loca a regibus, vel imperatoribus, vel aliis religio$is 
personis antea unquam tradita, vel qua iam ipse dUectus Adalbero 
episcopus iUic modemo tempore adauxit et adhuc addere deside- 
rat, aliorumque Dei Jidelium bona voluntas adiungere studuerk, 
regia denuo nostra munificentia donamus, atque confirmamus, ea 
videlicet ratione, ut abbas primus nomine Fingenius Hiberniensis 
natione, quem ipss praelibatus episcopus nunc temporis ibi con' 
stituit, suique successores Hibemienses monachos, habeant, quant- 
• diu sic esse poterit ; et si defuerint ibi monachi de Hibemia, de 
quibuscumque nationibus semper ibi ?nonachi kaibeantur ; et nostri 



nomnisf animaeque nostrae^ parerUumque nostorumy etpraeunlk 
epucopi successorutnque " illius memoria ibi nunguam d^ficiat,** 
Then after a few words comes the signature, &e. See also Ma- 
billon, AnnaL Ben. ad A. 991. Fleury could not have seen these 
Annals at the time he was writing the history of those times ; but 
it is odd, that lie seems to have been ignorant of the now quoted 
diploma, whereas otherwise he would not (Liv. 5S, §* 60.) have 
called Fingen an Ecossois^ Scotchman. Mabillon adds, that 
Otho confirmed "also the possessions, &c. of the monasteiy of St. 

(36) Mabillon ib. and at A. 1001. 

(37) An anonymous author of a Life of Richard pretends, that 
on his and Frederic's first going to Flngen's monastery of St* 
Vannes they did not find the regular observance, which they ex- 
pected to see, and that they went to Clugni to consult St. Odilo 
on what they should do, who^ however, advised them to return 
thither, as they accordingly did. Mabillon (ib, at A^ lOOL) re* 
jects this story about the defect of r^ular observance, and shows 
that Fingen was a very holy man, who could not be deficient in 
enforcing r^ularity. And, in fact, following the story itself, 
would Odilo have counselled them to place themselves under Fin- 
gen, were his discipline not strict ? Fleury (he* cit.) picked up- 
this story among other mistakes concerning Fingen and his Irish 
monks, whom he calls Ecossois. His saying that Odilon sent 
Ridiard and Frederic bade to St« Vannes under the persuafton, 
that they would reform the establislunent, is a poor evasion ; for 
how could they expect to do so, while they remained simple 
monks? The truth is, that Richard's and Frederick's reason for 
having consulted Odilo was, that on their first going to Verdun 
they found another monastery there lately' founded by bi^op 
Wigfrid, which seemed to them more convenient^ although the 
monastic observancje was not as regular as in Fingen's of St Van- 
nes, which was small and deficient in buildings. On applying to 
Odflo to learn from him which they should prefer, he gave them 
the above mentioned advice. 

(38) Mabillon, ib. ad A. 1004^ Another mistake of Flemy, 
(he. ciU) is his stating, that Fingen died about three months after 
he had received Richard into the monastery. He should have 
said, about three y^ar^ ; for Richard's reception was in 1001. It is 


aingalar, that in the Irii^ annals the death of a Fingen, caDed 
abbot of Ro0crea, is marked at A. 1005. (AA. SB. p. 268.) The 
date oomes so near that of the deatb of St. Fiogen, that it nug^t 
be suspected Ihey were one and the same person. Might it be 
that FIngen had gone firom Roscrea to superintend the establish- 
ment of St. Felix at Metz ? The day of his death was probi^ the 
8th of October, at which he is praised in the Necroiogium of St« 
Clement of Metz, as abbot, &c. and buried in its church. 

(39) MabiUon, ib. 

(40) Histoire Lett$raire, p. 638. 

S . VI. Cenfada, bishop of Einly, who died in 990, 
(41) was succeeded by Columba Mac-Lagenan, who 
heldrthe see until 1003. After him was Serbrethae, 
who lived until 1027. (*2) From tliese times for- 
ward w;e find what ^appears to be a regular account of 
the succession in the see of Cork } and accordiqgly 
it is very probable, that Columba Mac-Ciaracain, who 
died in 990, (43) had as immediate successor Cellaeh 
HuarSealbaigh, a very wise and learned man, who, 
having lived to a great age, died, it is said, in pit* 
grimage A. D. 1026. (44) DubdaLethe II. arch- 
bishop of Armagh, who died in 998, (45) was suc- 
ceeded by Muregan, who after three years' incum- 
bency, 9r rather in the third year, resigned the see in 
100], (46) He had made a visitation of the north- 
ern parta of Ireland, and in his stead was placed 
Maelmury, that is, servant of Mary^ the son of 
^ochad, while, according to another account, the 
Maelmury, his immediate successor, was the-son of 
Scanlan (4?) Be this as it may, Maelmur, the son 
of Eochad, was certainly arcnbishop of Armagh» 
and he is usually said to have held the see for 29 
years. (48) His death, which occurred on the ^ 
of June, A* D. 1020, is supposed to have been 
paused by grief for the destruction of a great part of 
\h% city by fire in said year. (49) This prelate is 
spoken of in terms of high approbation, being styled 
the head of the clergy ^ western Europe^ the chief 



of the holy orders of the West^ and a most mse . 
Doctor. (50) Hence it is clear that he was not, as 
some have imagined, one of those lay usurpers, who 
arrogated to themselves the title of archbishop qf 
Armagh, but really in holy orders and a real bishop. 
(50) There is some reason to think, that Amal- 
gaid, who is called his successor, belonged to that 
class ; but of this more hereafter. Maelbrigid, Hua- 
Rimed, abbot of Hy, died in 1005, and was, it 
seems, suceeded by Flann-Abhra, who lived until 
1025 or 1026. (52) 

Some persons, eminent for piety or learning, are 
marked as having died in the early part of the ele- 
venth century. Aehgus abbot of Aghaboe, who had 
retired to Armagh, died there in 1004. (53) To 
the same year is assigned the death of Eochad O* Fla- 
nagan, the chief and best antiquary of Ireland j (54) 
but where he lived or died I do not find recorded. 
Aidus or Aedh, abbot of Trefot(Trevet in Meath 
not far from Tara) had also retired to Armagh. He 
is called a scholastic or lecturer, bishop, and wise 
man. Having led a very holy life ]he died in 1005, 
and was buried there with great honour. (5S) Mu- 
redach Mac-Crichan, a comorban of St. Columba 
and St. Adamnan, that is, abbot of Derry and 
Raphoe, died also at Armagh on 'the 28th of De- 
cember, A. D. 101k in the 74th year of his age. 
He was a bishop, and lecturer of theology at Ar- 
magh. Owing to his great reputation, his remains 
were deposited with great solemnity near the great 
altar in the cathedral of that city. (56) In the next 
ye^* a great pestilence broke out at Armagh, which 
raged from All-saints day until May following, and 
carried off Kennfaelad of Saball or Saiil, a bishop 
and anchoret, Maelbrigid Mac-an-Gobhann, a lecturer 
of Armagh, Scholag-Mac-Clerchen, a distinguished 
priest, and a vast number of elders and students. 
(57) ' . . 


(41) See Chap. xxii. {. 14*. 

(42) WarCi Bishops at Emli/. Harris has inserted between 
Cohimba and Serbrethae a bishop Cormac Hua-Finn, but with- 
out sufficient authority. He is caUed by the 4 Masters, who maik. 
his death at 1020, (a/;. A A. SS* p. 360.) merely tlie most erudite 
bishop of the Momonians. It does not hence follow, that he was 
bishop of Emly,^ as the words seem to mean nothing more than 
that he was a very learned man and bishop somewhere in 
Munster*. or that he was the most learned of the Momonians. 
Wave's catak^e of the prelates of Emly, which is well kept up, 
must not be departed from on slight grounds. 

(43) Chap. XXII. §. 14. 

(44) This is the date marked by Ware, Bishops at Cork. In 
Colgan's t&a (AA. SS. p. SS5.) The date is, as if from tite 4 
Masters 1036. This is probably a typographical error. At any 
rate it is wrong; for there were, other bishops of Cork between 
Cellach's death and 1036. The 4 Masters do not mention his 
djring in pilgrimage, but call him bishop, comorban of St Barry 

(45) Chap. XXII. §. 14. 

(46) The catalogue from the Psalter of Cashel allows for Mu- 
regan three, seemingly incomplete, years, not four as Harris says 
in his additions to Ware. Colgan thought /7>. Th.p. 302.) that 
Muregan was one of the lay usurpers not really bishops. (See 
Chap. XXII. §. 13.) But his aigument is -a very poor one. He 
met with a Muredacfa, prior of Armagh, who is called son of Mu- 
r^an, and who died in 962" or 983. He then supposed that this^ 
Mur^an was the same as the one styled archbishop. Might not 
there have been divers Muregans? Or why suppose, that a man^ 
who died in 982, was the son of a person, who was not called^ 
archbishop of Armagh until 998, and who, after he had resigned,, 
lived until 1006 ? Or admitting that the archbishop Muregan was 
tlie fiither of said Muredach, will it follow that he was still a lay* 
man in 998 ? The fact is, that it is impossible to identify all those 
laymen so called archbislK)ps. I believe that they were chiefly 
among those, whose names do not occur in the Cashel cata- 
logue, but who are mentioned by the 4 Masters. 

(47) The 4 Masters have both these. Maelmurs, as bishops of 



Armagh, placing the son of Scanlan before the other, (See Tr* 
Th. p. 297> 298.) In the Cashel catalogue only one Maelmur is- 
mentioned without the addition of his Other's name. Ware omits 
the son of Scanlan, as does also OTlaherty in his MS. catalogue 
(at Tr. TL p. 319.) Yet it is highly probable, that he was for 
some time in possession of the see ; and pa^haps he was one of 
the lay usurpers. The dates marked for him and fiyr some othen 
under the title of bishops of Armagh by the 4? Masters, are so 
confused, that they cannot be reconciled with those of the Cashel 
catalogue or of Ware, &c. They hare also one Hermedac, whom 
they call bishop and scribe of Armagh, and whom they assign to 
part of the time, during which, according to others, Maelmur 
son of Eochad was the actual bishop. 

(48) The Cashel catalogue marks 19 years for Mad||pr simply 
so called. The Maelmur meant in it was, in all appearance, the 
son of Eochad. If there was any other bishop, or person called 
bishop of Armagh during part of these 19 years, it might have 
overlooked them. 

(49) Ware (at Maelmur) assigns his death to 1021 ; but it must 
have been in 1020, whereas it is marked by the 4 Masters (ap. 
Tr. Th. p. 298.) at this year, as having fallen on the Friday be- 
fore Pentecost. Now in the year 1020 Pentecost or Whitsunday, 
was on the 5th of June. In said year about a month earlier that 
great fire happened, in which the cathedral and some other 
ehufcfaes, besides a great number of houses and much property, 
w^re consumed. Yet, according to the 4 Masters, it was not 
universal as Waie sa3rs ; for in one of the four quarters of the dty 
the only edifice destroyed was the library. 

' (50) 4 Masters, il. 

(51). Colgan striving (fr. Th. p. 302) to find the eight mar- 
ried laymen so called bishops among the persons mentioned in the 
Cashel catalogue, reckons as one of them, Maelmur, son of Eo- 
chad. And why ? Because Dubdalethe III. whose accession was 
in 1049, is called son of one Maelmur. But was the son of 
Eochad the only Maelmur in Ireland ? And, supposing that Dub- 
dalethe III. was the son of a man called bishopf might not his 
father have been the Maelmur son of Scanlan? (See Not^ 47.) It 
is odd, that Colgan could have supposed that the son of Eochad 


was MC in hdy orden, potyrMwtanding his having been 
gttkhed by the title o£ chief of the^ My ordersy Sfc. Ware did 
not lolbw Coigan in his hypoCfaeas caac&anDg this Maehnur 
and Dubdalethe IIL ; but Hmtis has added something rdative 
r to it* 

(55) Tr. TlLp, 501. at A. lOM (1005) and 1025 the date of 
die 4 MMteni not 1015 as appears ib. through an erratum* 
Smitfa (Ajfp* to Life of St. CotumbaJ has ooined this mistd^e. 
I am doobtfial whether 1025 ought to be changed into 1026; for 
about these times the 4 Masters begin not to differ as much as 

K ' ysud fimn the generaUy received Christian era. Thus we have 

aeen {Not. 40)tiiat thear date 1020 for the death of bishop Mael- 
mur is correct ; whereas those of a few years earlier are sometimes 
not BOf. Aciastance, that fin* the battle of Clontarf, which they 
assign to A. lOlS, although it is certain that 8£d battle was 
finight in 1014*. 
(58) lb. p. 297 ad A. 1003 (1004). 
^(54) Annals of Innisfallen at A. 1004. 

(56) Tr. Th. p. 297 ad A. 1004 (1005). ^ 

(56) lb. and p. 298 nd A. 1010 (1011). 

(57) /*.orf .4. 1011(1012). 

§. VII. Meanwhile a great political change had 
taken place in Ireland. Hitherto we have seen the 
monarchy of cU Ireland retained in the house of 
tlie Nialls of one branch or another down to Mael- 
aeachlin II. whose reign began in 980. (58) Be- 
tween this sovereign and Brian Boroimhe, who 
became king of Munister in 976, (59) varioui^ wars 
had been carried on, in which Brian was generally 
victorious. Son»etimes, however, they united against 
the Danes, or against other enemies. Brian was 
perpetually engi^ed in humbling his opponents. In 
977 ke d^eated the Danes of Limerick at Innis- 
eatthy, plundered all the islalids which they possessed 
in the Shannon, and overthrew with dreadful 
slaughter in Hy-figente (in the now county of Li- 
merick) Donovan dynast of that territory and his 
allies the Danes of Munster. In this battle Auliffe, 


king of those Danes, and Donovan wer^ killed. In 
978 the Eugeniana, who opposed hhn as being a 
Dalcassian, having joined against him under MaoK 
mhuadh together with the Munster Danes, he fought 
the great battle of Beallach-Leachta, somewhere it 
seems between Mallow and Macroom, in which the 
allies were worsted, and besides Maolmhuadh and a 
great number of the Irish, 1200 Danes lost their 
lives. Having settled matters with the Eusehiatts, 
Brian was attacked in 979 by Donall O^aolan, 
prince of the Desies, assisted by the Danes of 
Waterford. He came up with them at a place called 
Fanrnaccurra^ and puttmg them to flight pursued 
them into Waterford, where great slaughter was 
made of the Danes. On this Occasion O'Faolan 
was killed. After this exploit he got hostages from 
all the princes and chiere of Munster ; and evei*v 
part of the province submitted to his authority. (60^ 
In 980 he made Mac-Giila-Patrick prisoner, and 
compelled all the Ossorian chieftains to deliver up 
hostages to him. In said year the kin^ Maelseachlin 
II. defeated at Tara the Danes of Dublin, com- 
manded by the sons of Auliffe or Anlaf their king. 
In tliis battle there was a dreadfiil slaughter of theiii, 
and among others were killed Reginald the king^s 
eldest son, and Irlavra the governor of Dublin. 
This disaster affected Anlaf so much^ th^t he retired 
to Hy, where he died in the course of this year. (6l) 
In 981 Brian reduced the Lagenians to the neces- 
sity of giving htm hostages ; and the two kings of 
that province submitted to him. In 98S Maelseachlin 
plundered Dalgais, the heredit^y property of Brian, 
and cut down the famous tree in the plain of Adair, 
under which the Dalcassian princes used to be 
inaugurated ; and in the following year he ravaged 
Leinster then under the protection of Brian. In- 
censed by these proceedings, Brian marched against 
Maebeachlin and forced him to agree to a treaty, by 
whieii it was stipulated that Brito should be recog- 


nized king of Leath-Mogha, or the southern half of 
Ireland, the other half to be held bjr Maelseachlin, 
and that Donald Claon, king of Leinster and the 
Danes of Dublin should be subject to Brian. (Qi) 

(58) See Chap. xxii. §. 8. (59) IL §. 15. 

(60) Annals of InnifiOlen at A. 977-978-979. 

(61) lb* at ji. 980. and Ware, Antiq. cap. 24. His En^ish 
tiaiialator has greatly confused his meaning, making hka, say that 
the battle of Tara was not fought by Madseachlin, but by the mo- 
narch his predecessor. But the Annals of Innislallen, which he 
follows, eiqpressly state, that Madseadilin was the commander, 
and.when king of Ireland. For Anlaf compare with Not* 1S8 to 
Chap* 2S. 

' (62) Annals of Innis&llen at A. 981-982-983. 

§• VIII. After various battles and depredations, 
such as that of Coi^naught by Maelseachlm in 985 ; 
the defeat of the Momonians and Danes of Water- 
ford by the Connacians in 988, in which year Brian 
plundered Meath and part of Connaught ; the defeat 
of the Danes of Dublin by Maelseaehlin in 989 ; and 
some other fighting here and there, Maelseaehlin 
ravaged Connaught again in 991 » upon which Brian 
at the head of the Munster and Connaught trpops laid 
waste a great part of Meath. Yet in 994 Mael- 
seaehlin gained a victory over Brian, who retaliated 
on him in the following year by a complete one, in 
consequence of which peace was concluded between 
them in 997» and Maelseaehlin was again obliged to 
recognize Brian's title to the sovereignty of Leath- 
Mo^a. These two kings then united, and, having 
forced the Danes of various parts to give them 
hostages, marched into Connaught in 908, whence 
also they took hostages, and then attacked the Danes 
of Dublin, whom they routed with great slaughter 
and the loss of their principal chiefs, Artulac son of 
Sitric, Harold son of AulifFe, &c. &c. (63) Not- 
withstanding this defeat, the Dublin Danes asdsted 

in 999 Maritnurrj, son of Mu^char49 in«<compeHhig 
Donogh^ king of Xejnster, to resign his crown to . 
him, mid plundered Kildare ; upon which Brian 
marched to Dublin, punished them severely, burned 
noany of their houses, banished their king Sitric, 
and, having n^nained there a week, carried off much 
booty* (64) In the same year Maelseachlin com* 
mitted depredations in Leinster, and this was pro- 
bably one of the reasons why Brian determined to 
wage a serious war against him. Accordingly he 
raiaed in lOQO a very considerable army composed 
of Munstermen, southern Connacians^ Ossorians, 
Lagenians, and Dublin Danes^ with whom he marched 
towards Tara, having sent forward a corps of Danish, 
cavalry, who skirmished with the enemy. On Brian's 
coming up with his main force, Maelseachlin found it 
adviseable not to risk a battle, and yielding to Brian's 
terms promised to give him hostages. It seems that 
Maelseachlin did .not fulfil his engagements ; for 
Brian with the same army marched again in the 
following year, and arriving at Tara compelled himr 
ftot only to submit and give hostages, but likewise to 
resign the throne of Ireland to Brian, and to content 
himself with his principality of Meath. Thu§ 
Brian became king of all Ireland in the year 
lOOU (&5) 

($3) IB. from J. 984. to 998. 

(64) U, at A. 999. and Ware, Antiq, cup. 24. 

(65) Said Auoals at A. 1000*1001. The 4 Masters also (ap. 
Tr, Th. p. 448.^ assign Brian's accession to this year. They say that 
Maelseachlin had reigned 23 years; but it is to be observed that 
they place the commencement of his reign not in 980 but in 978. 

§. IX, In 1002 Brian proceeded to Connaught, 
where he received hostages, and returning through 
Meath jgot some there also from Maelseachlin. He 
then, maixhed at the head of his numerous forces, 
to whid) were now added those of Meath commanded 


4l8 AN ECCLEaiAinrieAt ms'MRT GHAr^XXIir. 

by Maelseacl)liii, as far as Dundalk^ where ]be wat 
submitted to by all the princes and chie&das of 
Ulster, who gave him hostages. Afterwards we find 
him engaged in checking some attempts. at revolt or 
disobedience particularly in the North. On one of 
these occasions he stopped for a week at Armagh hk 
the year 1CX>4, (66) and left a gold edlar, weighing 
20 ounces, on the great altar of the cathedral as aa 
offering. Thence he went with his army to Rath-mor- 
muighe, the royal seat of the Dalriedans in the now 
county of Antrim, whence he brought hostages. 
But it would be too long, and not wiuin my [MaD, 
to follow all the movements of this great king ; yet, 
as a matter belonging to our ecclesiastical history, 
I must not forget, that being in 101 i with a great 
atmy and a number of Irish princes in the now 
county of Louth, where he again received hostages 
fcom the chiefs oip Ulster, to miich he assigned two 
kings, he and the assembled princes, tec. granted 
glebe lands to the churches m Ireland, (67) thus 
repairing part of the ravages committed by the 
Northmen. A great storm was now gathering, the 
cause of which was as follows. Maelmurry Mac- 
Morogh, or the son of Mmrchart, who, as we have 
seen, usurped the crown of Leinster in 999j marched 
into Meath in 1013 at the head of a powerful army 
of Lagenians and Danes of Dublin, aiid ravaged 
some parts of it. Maelseachlin, in retaliation, set 
fire to the neighbouring districts of Leinster as fiir 
as the hill of Hoath, but being met by Maelmurry 
and Sitric king of Dublin, was defeated with con- 
siderable loss. He then called upon Brian at his 
residence, and requested assistance from him against 
the united Lagenians and Danes, who were in the 
habit of plundering his principality. Accordingly 
Brian set out with a great army, and, having on his 
way laid waste Ossory, detached his son Morogh 
with a large party towards Glendaloch, who plun- 
dered the country as he went along and brought 

CttAP. XXni. OF IRELAKO. 419 

tnany prisoners and much spoil to Brian then en- 
dimped at Kilmainham near Dublin, where he re« 
mained from the beginning of August until Christ* 
mas Without being able to bring either the Danes or 
Lagenians to battlei and consequently returned to 
Munster^ Meanwhile a new fleet of Northmen 
arrived and burned Cork ; and there was much fight* 
ing here and there between those foreigners and the 
Irwh. (68) 

(66) lb. at A* 1004?. The fame year is maiked also by the 
4 MastOB^ and must not be changed, into 1005. 

(67) li. at A. aoi 1 . (68) IB. at A. 101 3. 

S X. The Danes and Lagenians, availing them* 
selves of Brian's absence, used the utmost e^olBrtions 
to collect troops and auxiliaries from eveny quarter 
that they could* A great number of Northmen 
came to their assistance from Norway and other 
parts of Scandinavia, from Scotland, the Orkneys, 
Hebrides^ &c. and from the isle of ^fan, who 
were joined also by Britons from Cornwall and else- 
where. Brian marched to oppose them, taking with 
him Maelseachlin, who, however, intended to betray 
him. For this purpose he sent to Maelmurry, to 
inform him, that Brian had dispatched his son Do- 
nojgh, at the head of the Dalcassian troops and of a 
third part of the Eugenian forces, to ravage Leinster 
and Hy-Kinselagh, and that he himself with his 
1000 Meath-men would desert Brian on the day of 
battle* Accordingly it was determined to attack 
Brian before Donogh could come up. He was then 
encamped on the plain near Dublin with a smaller 
army than he otherwise should have had. His op- 
ponents formed themselves into three divisions ; the 
first consisting of 1000 Northmen, covered with 
coats of mail, commanded by two Norwegian princes 
Charles and Henry, and of Dublin Danes under 
Dolat and Conmaol. The second division consisted 

E E 2 


of Lagenians, aboiU: 90QO strong, commanded by 
their king Maelmurry, and under him by some mi- 
nor princes, such as Mac-Tuathal or Toole of the 
Liifey territory, the prince of Hy-falgy, &c. toge- 
ther with a large body of Danes. Tho third divi- 
sion was fonne^i of the Northmen collected from the 
islands, from Scotland, &c. and of Britons. It was 
commanded by Lodar, earl of the Orkneys, and 
Bruadair admiral of the fleet, which had brou^t 
the auxiliary Northmen, &c. to Ireland. Brian was 
not dismayed by this mighty force, and depending 
on Providence and the bravery of his troops, pre- 
pared for battle, dividing his army . likewise into 
three divisions ; one to oppose the enemy's first 
division under his son Morogh, who had along 
with him his son Turlogh and a select body of the 
brave Dalgais, besides four other sons of Brian, 
Teige, Donald, Conor, and Flann, and various 
chieftains, Donchuan, Lonargan, &c. together 
with a body of men from Conmacne-Mara, a wes- 
tern part of Connaught. To this division Mael- 
seachlin was ordered to join his followers. Over the 
division, which was to fight the second of the ene- 
my, Brian placed Cian and Donald, two princes of 
the Eugenian line, under whom were the forces of 
Desmond and other parts of the South of Ireland, 
including the now county of Kerry, tlie most of 
those of Cork and Limerick, and that of Waterford, 
headed by their respective chiefs. To this division 
belonged also O'CarroJ and his troops of Ely 
O'Carrol, and it was joined by another O'Carrol 
prince of Orgiel in Ulster and Maguire prince of 
Fermanagh. The division opposed to the third of 
their antagonists consisted chiefly of Conacians, un- 
der O'Conor as chief commander, with whom were 
O'Heyn, O'Kelly, O'Flaherty, O'Cadhla, &c. and 
their forces, assisted by various bodies of men from 
divers parts of Tipperary, Limerick, Clare, &c.- 


commanded by their chieftains, Fogartach, O'Doyle, 
Mac Donagan, Mac Dermot, &c. (69) 

(69) lb. at A, 1014. 

§. XI. I have been more minute, than perhaps my 
object being ecclesiastical would allow, merely to 
show that greater unanimity prevailed among the Irish 
on this occasion than for a long time preceding. In 
fact it was absolutely necessary for the preservation 
both of the country and of religion. Fpr the inten- 
tion of the Northmen, who were still half pagans, was 
to become masters of all Ireland. (70) Brian and 
th^ majority of the Irish princes, who, with a view 
to the encouragement of foreign trade, had very im- 
prudently permitted parties of them to continue in 
Dublin, Limerick, Waterford, Cork, &c. instead of 
driving them entirely out of the country, as they 
might have done, perceived at last, that nothing less 
would do than to crush them in such a manner as 
would prevent their being aflerwards able to disturb 
the tranquillity of Ireland. This they would, in nil 
probability, have been able to accomplish efFectually, 
,had not Maelmurfy, and the people of Leinster en- 
terred into an unnatural confederacy with those fo- 
reigners. The Northmen from the islands, &c. who 
had arrived under Bruadair at Dublin on Palm-sunday 
A. D. 1014, insisted oh the battle being fought on 
Good Friday, which fell on the 23d of April, a day 
on which, on account of its sanctity, Brian would 
have wished to avoid fighting. (7 1 ) Yet he was de- 
termined to defend himself even on that day, and 
holding the Crucifix in his left hand, and his sword 
in the right, rode with his son Morogh through 
the ranks, encouraging his army to put an end mr 
ever to the oppressions. of tho^e tyrants and usurpers, 
who had committed so many cruelties and sacrileges 
in Ireland, so that the day, on which Christ suffered 
death for oiir sake, should be the last of their po^yer 


in this conntry, and declaring that he was witling 
to lose his life in so just and honourable a cause. As 
soon as the engagement began, Maelseachlin wit^i his 
Meath men withdrew from the scene of action, and 
remained as a mere looker on. His defection did not 
disconcert Brian and the other Irish, who fought 
like heroes from sunrise until the dusk of the even- 
ing, and gained a complete victory, which has beeii 
and ever will be memorable in Irish history under 
the name of that of Clontarf. (752) According to 
one account the Northmen lost between killed, and 
drowned ISOOO men, and the Lagenians SOOO. 
V7S) The 1000 men that wore coats of mail, are 
said to have been all cut to pieces, together with their 
commanders Charles and Heniy, besides Dolat and 
Conraaol. (74) Among the slain were also Bruadair 
and two of the Danish princes of Dublin, to whom 
we have to add Maelmurry king of Leinster, the 
prince of Hy-falgy, &c. (75) But this was a dearly 
purchased victory j for, besides a great number of 
the Irish troops, Brian, his son Morogh, and his 
grandson Turlogh fell on this memorable day, (76) 
t<^ther with many chieftains of Munster and Con* 
naught. Brian was in the 88th year of his age» and 
Morogh in the 6dd. (77) Although almost con- 
stantly engaged in military expeditions, Brian was of 
a very religious disposition, (78) and is praised as 
having erected or rebuilt churches, ex. c. those of 
Killaloe and Inidkeltra, religious houses, schools, 
he He indemnified the institutions imd families, 
which had been plundered by the Northmen, with 
lands of which he dispossessed them, established a 
system of just administration, put a stop to robberies, 
rortified the royal residence of Cashel and several 
other places, and improved die internal communica- 
ti<ni throu^out his kingdom by means of roads, 
bridges, &Ci (79) 

(70) fa the dmnude of Adexnar ttiM^ Epttdhiusqf Aa- 

CHAF. XXni^ OF J^LAiJJOf ^ 423 

^mikiile (op. L^biet Nwa Biit^ ^ffiS^iiir, Tom. 2.) there is a 
curious passage (p. 177*) relative to the yiews of the Northn>en at 
Ibat time) in which it is stated that they came with an imuiense 
(fiaet, meanipg to extinguish the Irish, and to get possession of that 
mMt we^thy country, which had twelve cities, great bishoprics 
Sec ^* His temporibus Normanni ptupradicti, quod patres^eorum 
nunquam perpetrasse ausi sunt, cum innumera classe Hiberniam 
UMiukm, quae Irlanda dicitiir, ipgressi sunt una cum uxoribus, et 
libieris, et captivis Christianis, quos feceroot sibi servos, ut, Hir- 
landls exUnctis, ipsi pro ipsis inbabitarept opukntissimam terram, 
t^Uae XII civitates cum amplissimis episcopatibus et unum regem 
habet, ac propriam linguam, sed latinas literas^ quam S« Patri- 
cius Romanizs ad fidem convertit,'* &c. Ademar, as appears from 
tbasequd* alludes to the preparations far the battle of Clontarf, 
wfaichitisplainwas the one that he meant; for just after hisaiQ* 
oouat of it he qpeaks of Canute the great, and his coming to £ng- 
bAdi wittdi was about the same time. Labbe tfainki, that this 
duonide was written before 1031; if so, it. « the oldest duoii* 
nent I Imow of, ki which the'name Jrlanda^ Ireland, is to be found. 
Compaie with IMer, Fr. p. 734*. 

(71) The Mala Saga in Johnstone's AnU Ceko-.Scand. ims 
(]h 120. ^q*) a curious acoount of the.battle of Clont^rf* In it . 
ate menticned the above' cifbumstanaes, and it. is stalie4> that Brua* 
dair had been informed by a sort of pagan ocBcle, that, jdioidil 
the battle be fought on ifriday, the^ Nordnnen wondil be victo- 

(73) That this was ik i«al and great victoiy h attested in the 
Annals of Innisfidlen at A* 1014% ahd in the best Irish documents. 
Yet Ware (Ant. cap, 24.) has some doubts on ibis point, as if to* 
wards the end of it the Danes became uppermost. WitUout en- 
tering into fiirther. particulars, I shall oppose to these doubts 
the testimony of the Niala Saga, whidi represents the North- 
iMnas flying in all directions, and large parties of them totaUgr 
tetroyed. And in Ademar's •ehroniole, a^the words 4}uoted 
{Not. 10.) y it is r^esMited as even greater than it really was* 
fer it is said that M the Noithmen were lulled, and it is added 
that orowfds of tSieurwomen threw themselves into the sea. Yet it 
iS'tnie, that ofsomeof th^^visiens not a man was left alwe. 


Ademar nnkes the betde litt for diice days; but thli does aot 

agree with other accounts. 

(73) Annals of Innis&Ilen, ib. But tlioseof Ulster^ fap. John- 
stone) without mentioning the foss of the Li^iemans, state thal» 
besides many chiefib, among whom is reckoned BruadaiTi i^NNit 
6000 of the Danes were kiUed or drowned. 

(74) Annals of Innis&llen, ib. In the Niaki Saga a northern 
prince is introduced asking some time afler the battle, what had 
become of his men. The answer was that they were all killed. 
This seems to allude to the division in coats of mail. 

(75) Seeib. The .Niala Saga states that not only Brodar 
(Bruadair)but l&ewise all his pirates (the seafaring Northmen) 
were killed. 

(76) The person, who killed Brian, was BruadaiTi and anxH^ 
the various accounts of how he chanced to get the Idng intohis 
-power, the best is perhaps that of the JNiala Saga^ according to 

which Bniadair, who had fled into a wood with a party of his 61- 

*low^«, happened to see the king in a retired i^t attended by 
only 4iieW' men, and rushed upon him unawares, after which he 
was soon afler killed himself. Morogh was, say thfe Annals of 
Itfnisfallen, treacherously stabbed by the Ndrwegian Henry, who 

'was lying on the ground and in theact of bdng reBeved by Moragh. 

-This biave prince had just tone to make his oopftision and receive 

'the holy Viatkami. - 

(71) Annals of laais&IIeD at A. 1C14. 
(78) Marianus Scotus, mentkNung his death, has these wvida; 
^ Brianus rex Hiberaiae Paiasoeve Fasdue^ sexta ftria 9 Calen- 
das Maii^ manibus et mente ad Deum ini^niui necatot.^ 
^. (79) See Xeadng, Bqpk 2. . 

.. S* xii«. After the battle was over Teige, soil of 
Brian, withdrew with the remnant of the Irish army 
to the camp at Kilmainham. On the next day. Holy 
.Sati|rday, Dpi^>gh arrived, bringing with him great 
.booty from . various parts of Leinster, and on the 
same . day the inhabitants of {Swords came up and 
took the body of Brian for the purpose of having it 
interred at : Armagh, whither Donogh sent many 
rich offerings. From Swords it was brought to 


Duteek, and thence by the people of that place to 
Louth, whither Maelmur Mac-£ochad, arohbishop 
of Armagh, came with his clergy and many others, 
bearing reliques, to meet it and convey it to Ar- 
magh. (80) Along with it was carried also the body 
of Morogh, beside the head of Conaing, a nephew 
of Brian by his brother Dimchuan, and, according 
to another account, (81) that of Mothla prince of tfai 
Desies. The funeral obsequies were celebrated with 
great pomp, constant watching and, the expomire of 
the reliques of St. Patrick, dtiring tlv^lvie days and 
nights. (83) Brian's remains were deposited in. a 
stone coffin at the NoHh side of the' cathedral, those 
of Morogh, &c. being placed at the South side. (83) 
A dispute, of that kind so common between the 
Eugenian and Dalcassian lines, soon occurred in 
consequence of Brian's demise. The Eugenian 
prince eian claimed a right to the throne of Muu^ 
ster, in virtue of the old compact of alternate sucr 
cession in those branches of the royal house, alle^ 
ing also that he was older than either Donogh or 
Teige. Donogh refused to acknowledge this claim, 
and, as Cian was not able to enforce it, marched off 
quietly with his troops for Munster, meeting with 
no opposition except, when passing through Omxry^ 
a' show of opposition on the part of Fltzpatrick. 
But before the end of the same year he and his 
brother Teige quarrelled among themselves, and a 
battle was fought between them and their parties, in 
which Donogh was , defeated. (84) Meanwhile 
Maelseachlin was again saluted king of all Ireland^ a 
title which, as far as I can judge, was not recog- 
nized by the 0*Brian*s and people of Munster. 
This prince, notwithstanding his not having fought 
against the Danes at Clontarf, was stiil a deter- 
mined enemy of theirs. In 1015 he attacked the 
remnant of those of Dublin, and burned almost the 
whole city j and in 1016, after predatory an4 incen- 
diary excursions of the said Danes, combanded by 



ttteir king fi&tric, agmnst Kil^re, Glendalocfa, Cliv 
liicd, Swords, and Armaghf he defeated tbem witb 
mvKh. loss. (85) The Ls^eniaus soon found, what 
little dependance could be placed on the friendship 
of that people ; for their king Bran, son of Maef- 
murry, had his eyes put out in Dublin by Sitric in 
the year 1018« (86) Koused to a feeling of patri* 
otism, Augurius ot Ugair, son of Dunluing, and 
king of Leinster, overthrew Sitric and his Danes 
witn great slaughtfer at Delgany in 1021 or 1022« 
(87) In this year 1022 Maelseaehlin died on the 2d of 
oeptember, in the .monastery of the Island of Inis- 
aingin, after having «oine time hefore retired from 
the world to do penance for his sins and make his 
peace with God. (88) After him there was no 
king recognized as of all Ireland for many years ; 
bat his principality of Meath and, it seems, some 
adjoining districts fell, after his death, under the 
administration of Cuan O'jLeocbain, arch<»poet and 
^ief antiquary of Ireland, and of Con?ran a clergy- 
math Their power did not last long, whereas Cuan 
was killed by the Lagenians in 1 0S4» and Corcran 
is said to have become an anchoret, and to have 
4ied at lismore in 1040. (89) With regard to the 
lather parts of Ireland let it suffice to mention, jbhat 
Donogh O'Brian, son of Brian Boroimhe, became 
king of Leth-mogha (the southern half of Ireland) 
in 1026- (90) 

(SO) While the Annals of Innjs&Uen r^resent the' archbisbop 
^Maelmur, &c. as having advanced no &idier than Louth, the 4 
Masters {ap. Tr. TLp. 298.) tell us that they prqceedefl aU the 
ifsy to Swords. The other statement is, I am we, this trae ooe. 

(81) That of the 4 Masters, ib. 

'(6S) Jnis&llen and Ulster Annals at A* 1014* 

(83) Afiaak of Innisfallen, i6. (84) 16. 

<85) W. at ii- 1015. 1016. ' 

(86) i&. at J. 1018. Ware (AtUiq. cap. 24^ has added a 
year to this dat^ l^, I tliink, without leaiKni. I|3stead ef the 

tuj^r. xxui. OF imhiJ^Ok 437 

name Bran, which was the real one, and rather usual in the, 
royal house of Leinster, he has Brienus or Brennusp rendered 
Srien by his translator, thus causing a confusion with the Mun- 
ster Briens or rather Brians* 

(87) 4f Masters ap. A A. SS. p. 313. and Ware/oc. ck. 

(88) 4 Masters {ap. Tr. Th. p, 298.) and Annals of InnisfiiUen 
at J. 1022, which have Laugh-Ainin, that is, I thinks Inisain« 
gin, or the Island of All Saints, in Lough^ree. See also O'FIa- 
herty, Ogyg. Part, iiu cap. 93. Ware was wrong {Ant cap. 4<) 
in adding a year to tliis date, placing Maelseaddin'^ deatji in 102?. 

(89) See O'Flaherty, ib. .cap* 94* I very much doub^' whe« 
ther he is right in making this Corcrim the same as the apfiliarec 
and theologian of Lismore. 

(90) Annals of Innisfallen at 1026. 

§. XIII. From this detail of political occurreuces, 
which I have been forced to enter into, it appears^ 
that a real revolution took place in Ireland at this 
period. The anciently established system of sup« 
cession to the throne of the whole kingdom' was 
overturned^ and there remained no paramount power 
authorized Co controul the provincial kings or minor 
chieftains. Amidst those wars one good effect wius 
obtained) viz. the humiliation of the Northm^n» 
who» although numbers of them still remained in 
various parts of Irelandr were much weakened, and 
henceforth attempted fewer depredations than ini 
former times. But unluckily the Irish were, durinj 
« great part of this century, the eleventih» engi^ei 
here and there in wars between themselves, .md ^ 
find now and then one or other party of them M* 
suited by the Danes, as they are usually called, Mt« 
tied . in Dublin or elsewhere. The Christian jh^ 
gion became no longer confined to those of DuUiQ, 
by whom it began to be better observed, but gnida- 
ally spread among the other Danes of Ireland* 

Maelmur Mac-Eochad archbishop of .Am8£^» 
who died in 1020, (9i) was succeeded by Amftlgm, 
who is stated to We visited Muasterin.l021» (98) 


fie was present in 1 022 at the death of king Mael- 
seachKn. (93) It is said that he was one of the lay- 
men who assumed the title of Archbishops of Armagh ; 
whereas among his successors we find Maelisa 
and Domnald, who are called sons of Amalgadius. 
(94) Yet the matter is not certain ; and if it be 
true, that Amalgaid administered the sacrament of 
Extreme Unction to Maelseacblin, he must have been 
more than a layman. (95) It may also be objected, 
that his visitation of Munster implied real archiepis- 
copal power ; but it must be observed, that it was pro- 
bably relative merely to the exaction of certain diies, 
which used to be paid to the church of Armagh ac- 
cording to the regulation called the Law of SL Pa^ 
trick. Whether he was a real or nominal archbi- 
shop, he held that title 29 years until his death in 
1049. (96) During his time Moeltule, who is called 
bishop of Armagh, died in 1032 ; but it is probable, 
that he was merely a suffragan bishop ; (97) and 
hence an additional argument may be deduced to 
suppose, that Amalgaid was not a real bishop, but 
that Moeltule officiated in his stead. On the very 
day of Amalgaid's death Dubdalethe III. son of one 
Maelmur, (98) and professor of theology at Ar- 
m^h, was appointed his successor. (99) 

(91) Above §.6. 

(92) 4 Masters ap. Tn Th p/298. (93) lb. 

(94) Colgan ( Tr, Th. p. 302.) insists upon this drcumstance 
aft a proof that the Amalgaid was an unordained so called arch- 
bishop. But supposing that he was the same as the Amalgaid, 
father of Maelisa and Domnald, might they not have been bom 
before he got that title ? Ware has (at Jmalgaid} a passage, 
.which seems to favour Colgan's -opinion. It is taken from the 
Annals c^the Prioi^ of the island of .All Saints at ^. 1049, and 
runs thus; ^* Amalgaid, comorban of St. Patrick, having spent 
29 years in iIm prittcipaliti/j rested penitendally in Christ." The 
word, principaUtify seems to allude to his having been rather a 
prince than a real bishop. The title comorban ^ofSU Pairick, is 


not sufficient to show, tliat Amalgaid was in hdj orders, ftr, aft 
will be seen more. M\j elsewhere, in the later times of the Irish . 
church, and perhap^ from die period we are now treating off the ' 
name comorban was sometimes given to teynen, who kept pos- 
session of the church lands bdonging to sees andmcttiasteries. 

(95) To this Cdglm replies, that MaelseadMin was indeed 
anointed, while in the hands or arms of Amalgaid; but that it'i^ 
not stated^ that the ceremony was performed by him. 

(96) This is the date marked not only by the 4 mastess (ojk 
Tr, Th. p. 298.) but likewise hy the abore quoted Annab (Nat* 
9i. ) and O'Flaherty in his MS^ catal<^e ; and acccxdingly, . a» k 
maxked in said authorities, the incumbency of Amalgaid lasted 
29 years. Yet the Cashel catalogue allows for it thirty, whi^ 
must be understood of his having died in the 90tb year ; for in 
said catalogue incomplete years are reckoned as complete. 

(97) See Tr. Th.p. 298. and Waie, Bishops at Amalgaid* 
^Moeltule's name is not in the Cashel catalogue. 

(98) See above ^ot,5\. (99) Tr. Th.p. 298. 

§ . XIV. With regard to the other sees of Ireland, 
I shall here give the names of such bishops, whose 
deaths I find marked before about A. D. lOJO. 
Carmacan O'Muilcashel, bishop of Killaloe,, the 
first of that place/ whom I meet with after St. flan- 
nan, died in 1019. (100) Neil O'Malduibh, of 
Cork, the successor of Ceallach Hua-Sealbaigh, (101 ) 
died in 1027, and after him Airtri Sairt in 1028, suc- 
ceeded by Cathal, whose death is assigned to 1034. 
(102) O'Mail-Sluaig, bishop of Lismore, died in 
1025, as did his successor, Moriertach O'Selbach 
in 1034. (103) Tuathal O'Dunluing, bishop of 
Clonard, died in 1028 or 1029- (104) The 
death of Maelmartin, of Kildare, was, according 
to one account, in 1028, and according to another, 
in 1030. (105) His successor Maelbrigid lived 
until 1042. (106) Murchad 0*Nioc, bishop of 
Tuam, died in 1033. (IO7) Maelfinan of Ijnly, 
most probably the immediate successor of Saerbreth- 
ach, (108) died in 1040, as did after him O'Flan- 
chuain in 1047, and Clothna Muimnech in 1049. 


(I09J FUieitaeh) bishop of Down, died in 104S| 
and ModliiiMttt of Louth in 104^4. (110) Cleirie 
(yMmaiti faiaifaop of LeighHn, iSitd in 1048, and 
to die 9kaiff year ii sfissiraed tlio death of Ceili, bi- 
ahop of AxAimh* (m/ In the same year some 
phiie the deim of Diennit O^Rodadmn^ bishc^ of 
iWns^ whidbi odiers affix to 1050. (il2) It can 
scarcely be doubted that Dunchad O'Eeledhnir, 
who is called ccmorbmi of St. Kieran of Siaigir, who 
dHed hk I04f8f was bishop of that place. (1 13) From 
these instencra it may be inferred, that the episcopal 
succistioA wis kept yp, as regularly as the state of 
the times \^0uld dlow, in the now mentioned sees, 
and it is very probable that it was maintained also 
in other old sees, sdthough the names of their pre- 
lates are very seldom to be met with. For example 
Dungal, a bishop of Ross (in the county of Cork) 
is marked as the 27th in succession <^er St. Facht- 
nan, the founder of that see, (114) who lived in the 
sUth century. As to bishops appointed occasionally 
in pkceiS, which were not permanent sees, we may 
be certain that there were, as usual, some of this de- 
(Msription In the first half of the century we are now 
treating of. Thus we find a bishop at Ssvords Ma- 
rian O Gritietf who is called a wise man, and whose 
defath is assigned to 10@5* (115) 

(100) 'Vt^are, Bishops at KtUidoe. (101 ) Above §. 6- 

(102) Ware at Cork. (103) Idem at Lismore. 

(104f) liiem at Meath. See Harris* addition. 

(IS5) Ware (at KUdare) has 1028; the 4 Mast^ fap. tt. 
7*. p. 680.) have 1030. 

(106) /*. Ih. (107) Ware at Tuam. 

(10») See alwve §. 6. (109) Ware at Emly. 

(TIO) For PlaJiertach, see Ware at Doxan. He ^^ the first 

bishop of that see whom Ware met with from the times of St 

Fergus, who died in the sixth century. (See Chap. xii. §. 1.) 

'lEiut Hfatrfs; referring to the 4 Masters, adds that a Fingen, bishop 

tSt>ovifn, is mentioned as having died in 962. For Modmocte 


(111) Wm 9ALeigUin and Anhgh. . t 

(11&) Wwe at Femt. the 4 A^asten (op. AA- SS* fi fiMO 
haw A 105a 

(113) S«e ilil. SS. p. 47d. Wait has onsMd kind at OMijr ; 
bat he^ 10 marked by Harris. 

(114) See HarriB^ Biiftopiat Ross. 

(115) Tr.Th.ff.S09. 

§« XV. Learning continued to be itill cul* 
titrated, and many distinguished sdholaatios or 
doctors are mentioned as having belonged t# 
this period. Dunehadt sdholastic of CK^ninac 
noia died in 1005 and C<>enchomrac of Gleann- 
uasen in 1015. Flann O'Tegain of Dutrow 
(King's county,) a man, celebrated for his know* 
Jtec^, died in 1022, as did also Catbasach^ a 
sdiolastic or teacher at Clonmacnois ; and Chria- 
tiaiil of Devenish in 1025.(116) Eocbad Maot 
Cethenin, who is called comorban of St. Tig^'f 
nach, and the wisest doctor in Ireland, died at Ar« 
inaeh in 1030. (ll?) Moelodar, Scholastic 6f KiU 
lachad, died in 1032 ; and Aengus of Clonmacnois 
in 1034 ; and Macnias O'Huactain of KelU in 
1035.(118) Flanagan, scholastic of Kildare, Cvox^ 
den of Connor, and Alill of Durrow, died in I03&. 
(Ii9) Thei death of Corcran, an anchoret aiid a 
very eminent and pious theologian of Lismore, and 
of Dunchad O'Hanchanige, a celebrated leetarev 
of Armi^h, is assigned to 1040 ; and that of Mael*^ 
petrus O'Hailecham, likewise a lecturer there and 
chief director of the students, to 1043. (1^) 
Longsech, scholastic of Clonard, and Eocbagsm, 
archaeacon of Slane, lecturer at Swords, and a 
chronographer, died in 1042. (121) Three scho- 
lastics of KeUs are mentioned as having died not 
long after each other ; Maelmartin in 1045 ; Cudui 
Mac-Gaithen in 1047 ; and Moelan in 1050. (122) 
At the year 1046 is marked the death of a very dis* 
tinguished and holy man Moelpatrick O'Beloige, the 


chief lecturer and director of the schoiris of Ar- 
tn^. (123) > O'Ballen, ift^holastie of Roacrea, and 
GiUa-inolaisse of Louth died in 1047. (124) .There 
were undoubtedly in these times mahy other lec- 
^ turers and teachers in the other establishments and 
' schools of Ireland ; and to this period ar& assigned 
the deaths of two eminent antiquaries. . One . was 
Mac-Liag, who is called an Ollamli, that is a Doc- 
tor and man of letters, and who wrote some works, 
among which was a Life of Brian. Boroimhe. He 
died in 101 6« (1^) The other was. Macbeth, son 
of Anmire, and chief antiquary of Armagh, who 
died in 1041. (126) A pious prineei, Cathald, son* 
of Roderic, and chieftain of West /Connaught, 
who had retired to Aimagh in 1037, for the 
purpose of leading the life of a pilgrim, died there 
111 104S. (127) The' spirit ol' pilgrimage spread 
itself among the Danes of Dublin, and Sitric- theiif 
king set out for Rome with a view to that object, 
but diM on his way in 10^9- (128) His son Anllaf, 
or Aulifie, also king of Dublin, undertook. a pil- 
grimage to Rome in 1035, but was killed in Eng- 
laud. (129) He was succeeded by "another Sitric, 
his son, who went beyond sea, probably ta Rome, 
in 1036, and left tl\e government of Dublin in 
tlie handa of one Eachmharcach, after wiMxm we finid 
an I var governor of Dublin in 1038. (130) Sitric 
returned to Ireland and died in 1041 or .1042. 

(116) lb. Ind. Chron. . ' 

. (117) IL p. 298. The title comorban of St. Tigemacfh i& ex- 
plained by Colgan 'as meaning abbot of Clones. But, if the St. 
Tigemach) whose comorban Eochad was, were the one of Clooes* 
I should think that Eochad was rather a bishop ; for St. Tiger* 
nach had been bishop of Clones as well as of Clogher. 

(118). lb. Ind. Ckron. ( 1 19) lb. p. 632. 

(120) See A A. SS. p. 206. and Tr. Th. p. 298. 

(121) Tr. Th. bid. Chron. and p. 509, 

CHAP. XXUl. ^p iftEtANl). *« 

<122)./6.p,508. (123) /«.;>. .298. 

(124) /^. /iirf. Chron. 

(125) See Annals of Innisfallen at A. 1016. and Harris, 
• fVri^tat MaC'Liag. 

(126) Tr. TA. ;,. 298. (127) IL 

(128) Ware, ArUiq. cap. 24.. ' Yet die Annals of Innisfiillen, 
after: mentioning his departure for Home in 1028, state that he 
returned to Ireland, and exhibit him as plundering Ardbraccan 
in lOSh 

(129) W^re, i6. The Annals of Innisfallen, instead of 10S5» 
have 1084'. I suspect that Ware has added a year to dates at 
tiioes when he should not have done so. 

. (ISO) Annals of Inni^allen at A. 1036 and 1038. Ware 
snakes no mention of the absence of Sitric, nor of Eachmharcach 
or iTar. This is the Ivar, governor of the Danes of Dublin, to 
wham I alluded in a part of NoL 138. to Chap. xxii. Ware's 
iedlence concermng those persons and circumstances forms no ar- 
gument ag&inst the statement of tlie Annals. 
(131) Ware ib. 

§. xvii Notwithstanding a certain progress made 
by the Danes in piety and religious practices, yet 
we find them now and then, even during this period, 
committing depredations in religious places. Besides 
some already alluded to, (132) they» plundered Kells 
in 1018, and Duleek in 1023 and again in 1037, 
(133) besides Ardbraccan in 1031, whence they 
brought much booty and many prisoners. (134) But 
on the whole it appears, that their manners became 
gradually much softened, of which we have a very 
strong proof in the memorable fact of a bishop being 
for the first time appointed for the Danes of Dublin 
about the year 1040. This bishop, whose real name 
seems to have been DunaUf or perhaps Donagh^ 
although it has been latinized into Donatus, {1 35) 
was, judging from the name, most probably an Irish- 
man. Sitric, king of Dublin, had already returned 
f^om his tour, or perhaps pilgrimage, during which 
he had probably planned the erection of this new see. 


4a* AM EccLESiA$l'tCAli litfiTORT Chap, xxiir. 

In the Black book of the church of the Hdly Trinity, 
commonly called Christ-church in Dublin, there is a 
document, which mils thus ; " Sitricus king of Dub- 
lin, sonof Ableb (Anlaf) earl of Dublin, gave to 
the Holy Trinity, and to Donate first bishop of 
Dublin, a place, where the arch^ or vaults were 
founded, to bitild the church of the Holy Trinity 
on, together with the following lands ; viz. Beah 
dulekj Recherij Portrahem^ with their villains, cat- 
tle, and com. He also contributed gold and silver 
enough, wherewith to build the church and the whole 
court thereof/' (136) This must have occurred 
about lOtO (187) before th^ death o( Sitric, and 
about the time that Donatus was named ^ to this see. 
It has been said, that Donatus was consecrated by 
the archbishop of Canterbury ; but of this I meet 
with no proof whatsoever, unless it should be con- 
sidered as such, that some of his successors were con- 
secrated in that city. Now this system, according to 
which the bishops of Dublin acknowledged them- 
selves subject to the see of Canterbury, did not, as 
far as I can discover, begin until the time of the 
archbishop Lanfranc, who came over to England 
during the reign of William the Conqueror many 
years after the appointment of Donatus ; and which 
systein was introduced for two reasons ; first, because 
William and his Normans, being masters of England 
from the year 1066, were considered by the Irish 
Danes as their countrymen ; and second, because 
Lanfranc's reputation was so great, that, when the 
Dublin Danes found it necessary that their bishop 
should be subject to some metropolitan, they made 
choice of him for that purpose. (138) This new see 
was confined to the city, and did not extend beyond 
its walls, until later than the synod* of Kells under 
Cardinal Paparo, held in 1152, as will be seen in its 
proper place. Donatus having built the church, 
erected also an episcopal palace adjoining it, on the 
site, where the late Four Courts stood, and a chapel. 


which was called St. MicliaePs. He lived until 
A. D. 1074. (139) I shall conclude this chapter 
with just mentioning 'the death of a veiy holy abbot, 
who belonged to the period, of which we have been 
now treating. St. Gormgal, abbot of Ardoilen, one 
of the A rran islands, who was considered the chief 
spiritual director of all Ireland, and who died in 
lOlTonthe 5th of August, the anniversary of which 
was sacred to his memory. 040) ^ 

(153) Coneeniing those of the year 1016 see abovej. 12. 

(183) Tr. Th. Ind. Chron. 

(1S4) Annals of Innisftllen at A. lOSl. 

(185) Usher quotes {Not. ad Ep- 25. SyUogCy <^c.) a passage 
ffom the Annals c^ Dublin, in which he is called Durlan. This 
k a Mrell known Irish name, and certainly not Danish. It is 
highly probable, that the Danes had as yet scarcely any cleigy- 
men of tlieir nation in Ireland. 

(136) See Wm«, Bishops at Dublin, and Anfiq. cap, 24. and 
^. Bealduiek, Rechen, and Portrahem' were, I suppose, the 
places now called Baldoyle, Ratheny, and Portrane, all lying at 
l^e North side of Dublin, where the Danes possessed lands. 

(187) Ware says, about 1038; but it is probable, that Sitric 
had not yet returned to Ireland in said year, in whicli we hAve 
seen that Ivar'was governor of Dublin. Camden was mistaken 
fcoi. 1868) in referring the erection of the church, &c. as related 
by Ware, to about 1012. There was indeed a Sitric son of An- 
laf at that time ; but, as Donatus held the see until 10t4, is it to 
be supposed that he was a bishop since 1012 ? Nor, if that deed 
be genuine, can it be attributed to a Sitric later than the one, that 
died in 1041 or 1042 ; for there was not after him any other Si- 
tric king of Dublin during the life time of Donatus. 

(188) Usher and Ware, who are the best authorities on the sub- 
ject of Donatus, have not a word concerning his having been con- 
secrated by an archbishop of CaMirtiury ; nor indeed could they, 
as not even an allusion is to be found relative to such a circum- 
stance. And it will be seen lower down, that Patrick, the imme- 
diate successor of Donatus, was the first bishop of Dublin, who was 
<?on8ecnfted by an archbishop of that see, or who, at least from th^ 

r F'2 

436 AiY 'Ecclesiastical histort chap, xxiii. 

tiQie of his af^iDtmeDt, had promised canonical obedi^ice to 
him. To me it seems more than [ffobable, that Donatus was a 
bishopy perhaps of some monastery, before he was placed over 
Dublin. Usher {Ducaurse on the Rdigiouy Sfc. ch, 8.) states, that 
the Ostmen or Danes of Ireland did not begin to have any con- 
nexion with Canterbury until afier William the conqueror became 
possessed of England, that is, until after 1066. He is thare re< 
marking on a most ignorant assertion of Campion, which, however^ 
has been followed by other English writers, viz. that persons ap- 
pointed to sees in Ireland used to be directed to the archbishop of 
Canterbury^ to be consecrated by him. On this Usher observes 
that it is wrongly extended by him to the bishops of all Ireland, 
whereas it was peculiar ^ to the Ostmann strangers, that possessed 
** the three cities of Dublin, Waterford, and lamerick. For these 
** being a colony of the Norwegians and Livonians, and so country- 
<^ men to the Normans, x»hen they had seen England subdued by 
*' the ConqueroTy and Normans advanced to the chief arch' 
^* bishopric there, 'would needs now assume to themselves the name 
^* of Normans also, and cause their bishops to receive their conse^ 
" crationjrom no other metropolitan but the archbishop of Can» 
*< terbury. And forasmuch as they were confined within the 
** walls of their own dties, the bishops, which they made, had 
** no othor diocess to exercise their jurisdiction in, bat only the 
" bare circuit of those cities,''&c. And in the same chapter he 
attributes the forbeanmce, for some time, of the frish hierarchy 
with regard to the bish<^ of the Danish towns being connected 
with Canterbury, to the esteem they had for Lanfranc and Ansdm, 
" with whom they themselves were desirous to hold all good cor- 
veqpondenoe f yet, he adds, they could not well brook this sys- 
tem, which they considered derogatory to the dignity.of their own 
primate. But of this more elsewhere. Meanwhile it is plain 
diat Usher knew nothing about any dependance of the see of 
Dublin on Canterbury until the times of Lanfranc, as m reality 
there was not. 

(139) Ware, Bishops of DaiUm. See also Harris's additions. 

(140) A A. SS, p. 141. and 715. 





Variom distinguished^ Irishmen still continue to visit 
foreign countnes-^-'^^lman and others leavt Ire- 
land with intent to visit Jerusalem^'^taken up as a 
spy and put to death — honoured as a marti/r^ and 
his body deposited with great pomp in Hie church- 
yard of Stoekereau in Austriu-^Marianus Scotus^ 
Helios^ Anmchad and several other learned and 
pious Irishmen in t/te Coniinent^^Dubhdakithe 
III. archbishop of Armagh^ said to have been a lay- 
man^-^as a learned man and wrote annals of IrC'- 
Umd^ and an account of the archbishops of Armagh 
down to his own time-^Kight married bishops 
qf Armagh-^Succession ^nd deaths of bishops in 
several sees in Ireland — Ferdomnach called 
bishop qf Leinster^^Donmald O* Heine bishop qf 
Cashel — DeathqfDonatbishopqfDubiin^^Clergy 
and people ^qf^ Dublin elect Jbr Im successor 
Fatrick^ a Priest^ and send him to Lanfranc arch-^ 

. bishop qf Canterbury to be consecrated — Letter qf 

. the clergy and people of Dublin to hanfranc^^ 

. Patrick prqfesses obedience to Lanfranc^ and is 
consecrated by him — this pr^essimi a new prac- 

. tice-^Practice of giving the holy Eucharist to in* 
fonts qfier baptism — Archbishops qf Canterbury 
never possessed a metropolitan power over the 
Irish church^^Ireland not included in the grant 
qf Legatine jurisdiction granted by the pope to 
Augustine^-^Donogh son of Brian Boroimhe^ 
king' qf Leth^Mogha^ dethroned by Ms nephew 
Torhgh-^oes to .Rome and there . dies a great 

, penitent — Torlogh proclaimed kingr-ea;tends hiA 
kingdom^ Pope Gregif^ VI L writes to Tor^ 
logh — Lanfranc*s letter to Torlogh-yChorepiS" 
copi consecrated by a single bishop — Baptizing^ 
without chrism— Patrick^ bishop qf Dublin^ ship* 

. . wrecked and drowned-^succeeded by Donogh 


0-Haingly, V)ho was elected hy Torlogh and the 
people qf Dublin^ and consecrated by Lanfranc 
'^Death qf Torlogh — succeeded by his son Mor* 
togh — Mortogh de^roned^ and his brother Der* 
mod placed dver Munster in his stead^^Mortogh 
took holy orders^ and died in the Monastery qf 
Derry-^Distinguished ecclesktstics at the dose 
^ the Wih centwry^-^Moeliosa O' Brokham'^ 
Tigemack O^Braoin^ the annaUst^^Ireland still 
famous for leaming-^-^EngUsh resort to Ireland 
Jhr edueatimt'^Several religious estaUishments 
plundered and destroyed both by Irish and 


Various distingimhed Irishroen fftill coDtihued 
to visit , foreign countries. Coi^mari, or as usually 
called by continental writers, Coloman, who is 
styled patron of Austria, (1) left Ireland eariy in 
the eleventh century, (2) together with some other 

{persons, for the purpose of a pious visit to Jerusa- 
em. (S) He arrived A.D. 1022. in the eastern 
part of Norica, now Lower Austria. Its inhabi* 
tants were then at variance with the neighbouring 
nations of Boliemians, Moravians, &c. On Col* 
man's stopping at the small town of Stockeran he 
was seized as a spy sent by the enemies of Austria, 
and thrown into prison. On the next day he was 
strictly examined, but although he told the plain 
truth, would not be believed. He was then most 
cmelly to^ured, and at length, on his persisting in 
declaring his innocence, was hung from an <dd tree 
together with two robbers. White his body re- 
mained suspended frott^?iiis gibbet,'^ it continued 
sound and entire ; and it is said that his hair and 
nails continued to grow. The hay or twig rope, by 
by whicb bis head was fastened, and even the old 
tree/ are stated to have bloomed and revived. These 

CHAP* XXtr* OfF lUXX^iM D. A3$ 

extraorditiary phenometiiEt ' e&eitod great attention;; 
which' was much enhanced by the circumstance o£ 
Mood flowing from hi^ body on <MKJ^asion of a part of 
his flesh having been cift off for the purfKme i)f 
being iisecj in efffecting a certain cure, it was noiit 
concTdded, that Colman was a truly holy mwi, and 
that he had been unjustly put to death. Accord- 
ingly he was honored as a martyr, and his body waa 
taken down and deposited with great pomp in the 
churchyard of Stockeniu. Several miracles are said 
to have attested his sanctity, and Henry, marqutsof 
Austria, was so moved by them, that h^ had the 
body removed to his residence Medlicura, alias 
Medlica, or Mellica, now Melck. (4) On its* 
removal it was found entire, and was placed in St. 
Peter's dhnrch of that town on the 7th of October 
A. Z). 1015, three years after Colman had been 
murdered. A' Benedictine monastery was soon es- 
tablishfed there in honour of this saint, which has 
become very famous and stilt exists in great splendor. 
Erchihfrid, who has written the Acts of Colman, (5) 
was the third abbot of this monastery. He relat^s^ 
in addition to what has been hitherto stated, several 
miracles wrought after his death, which it would be 
too tedious to repeat. He constantly calls him a 
ScotuSy by which appellation, although he does not 
make mention of Ireland, or name the land of his 
birth, it may, considering that the Irish were then 
unitrei-sally called Scotiy and that they were greatly' 
in the habit of going abroad on pilgrimages, be fairly 
presumed that Colman was an Irishman. Erchinfrid 
has nothing abotit his having been oi- royal parentage, 
as^ some' later writers have announced. (6) The 
name of this saint as a martyr is in the Roman mar- 
tyrology at 13 October. 

(1) Colgan {AA. SS. p, 105.) calls him apostle of Austria i 
but thtre is no reason for giving this title ; for, besides Austria 
having been a Christian country before the arrival of Colman^ it 


dnesndt appear tibst he pceacbrf therei or that he hi^ eyea tiine 
tO/dQ'80. Nor do I findj that Cohnan was an ecclesiasti|C. The 
title .ghfteo to him by German writers id that a£patrQncf, Anuria. 
The noBt detailed aooount of hm u that by the abbot Erchinfiidy 
who was cofitemporacy with him, or very nearly so^ and which 
haa been published by Lambediis, Commentariorum de BibUotheca 
Caesar. Vindobon. Lib. ii. cap. 8. Cohnan is treated of aiao by 
Dittnar and other chroniclers^ by Baronius, Anncd &c.^ A* 1012» 
and other vriteip* 

• (2) According to £rd»n^% account Colman's departure from 
his own country nuist.baVe been only a short tifae before his death, 
which occurred in 1012. Colgan 8ays> {ib. p. 107.) that he had 
left Ireland before the clQse of the tenth century. I wish he had 
told vBy where this iu&muition i^.to^be found. 

(5) Baroaius was mistaken in saying, that Colman 1^ been 
often at Jerusalem. But t^eJbad not seen the narrative of Ercbia- 

(4) Mabillon says (Annal. Ben. ad A. 1017.) that Colman's 
body was. buried at Melck, which he csHU Mezelikiniy by order of 
the then emperor. This is a mistak^^ grounded on authority in- 
ferior to that of Erchinfrid, who positively states, that Heiuy» 
marquis of Austria, was the prince, by whose order that was done. 
He was also wrong in assigning Colman's deatli to said year 

. (5) See above Not, 1. The miraculous circumstances relative 
to Colman's remains are attested also by Ditmar, who was hiAop 
of Mersbuigandacoiitemporary of his, as he died, in 1019. 
r'(€). Surius has at 13 October an ode written in honour of SL 
Cclma^ by John Sitabius, historiographer of the emperor Maximi- 
lifii I. It begins thus : 


Austriae s^ctus canitur pa2Jt>nus, 
Fulgidum si^us radians ab Areto, 
Scoticae gen^is Colomannus acer 

llle dum sanctam Solymorum urbem 
Transiit, dulcem patriam relioqueBS^ 
Regios fastus, tmbeam, coronara, 

Sceptraque tempsit* 

C9^. XXIV., . OF IBELAKO. 44^1; 

Propter et Cbrittuni per^grinus «xu] , . . '.! 

Pactus in teiris aiienii^ uUro . . ^ 

Caelicam pura roeditatus aulam ..,).• 

Mente fi4eque« . )..*,. 

Then comes an account of Colmans transactions ^mich in fjui 
manner as related by Erchinfrid ; for instance, 

* • f ' « I 

Austriae terras agitabat amens . » 

Tvmc furor : fortes Moravos^ Boheipos, 
Pannones bello simul implicat)^! • v / 

Inferus hostisL - 

Eilgo dum sanctum hpspitio .repepit ' ^ . ; 

Oppidum nostro Stockheran vocatum .. i . . / 

ratno ritu, &c. ., 

tt was, I dare say, on the authority of this pde Aat Baronius 
said that Colman was of a royal family. Dempster, wishing . to^ 
riiake Colman, a Scotch prince, fabricated a stoiy of his having 
been a son of Malcolm I. king of Scotland. To that shameless 
liar it is sufficient to oppose the silence of Buchanan, who, al- 
though he makes mention of more than one son of MalcoUUf has 
nothing about this celebrated St. Colman, Harris, (Writers at, 
Colman of Lindiifarne) remarking on Dempster's assumptioDi 
^ell, as indeed some others had before him, into a strange mist^je„ . 
confounding Colman of .Austria with tlie.pne of . Lindisfame. I^e 
did not know that the former was killed in 1012, whereaf the 
latter lived in the seventh century. 

; §.ii. St. Helias^ or Elias^ an Irishman, who h^ 
beea meutioped already, (7) was in the yciar 1022 
abbot of St. Martin's of Cologne and al^ of the 
monastery of St. Pautaleon in said city. He was the 
third abbot of the former e$tablishu)ent» arid the fifth 
of the latter. St. Heribert, arcbbi^op of Cologne, 
who had an extraordinary esteem for HeliaSi insisteii 
on being attended by him, when on his death bed in . 
1021, as he accordingly was. Helias had been at 
Rome, and was the first who brought Ibfence the 


Romaii note or Church tnnsld to Cdlpgne. (8) 
Piligrin, the successor of St. Heribert, was induced 
to conceive a dislike for Helias and his Irish monks, 
* and accordingly intended to expel them, in the year 
10S5. His dislike was chiefly occasioned by his sup- 
posing, that the discipline maintained jby ^hem was 
too strict. Piligrin was then absent from the city ; 
but, on the Irish being informed of his intention, 
Helias and his companions said ; ^^ If Christ is in us 
foreigners, may Piligrin not return alive to Cologne.'^ 
And in fact it turned out so ; for Piligrin died soon 
after. (9) Helias was a rigid observer of monastic 
discipline, which he carried so far tihat, a French 
monk of St. Pantaleon having written, without hav- 
ing asked permission to do so, a neat copy of the 
Missal for the U5e of the community, he burned it, 
lest others should presume to act without previous 
lic^ice. ( lb) According to -the usage of tlfiat period, 
h6 is called, as well as Colman, a Scotus^ tliat is^ 
an Irish one, as is clear from his having belonged to. 
the monastery of Monaghan before he went to the 
continent. He died in great reputation of sanctity 
oil the 12th of April, A. b. 104^2, {U), iat which 
day his n^me is marked in various calendars. Hik 
immediate successor was probably Mblanus, or Molna, 
who, according to Florence of Worcester, died in 
10i6l. A monastery was erected for the Irish at 
Erford in Germany by the bishop Walter de Glysberg 
in 1036. (12) In these times theire were many 
Irish monks at Fulda, ( 1 3) the most celebrated of 
i*hom was St. Amhichad or rather Anttichad. (14) 
It is probable, that he 'was of the family of the 
Siblnanmchad and of the district of said tian;ie, now 
called the barony of Lofigford in the county of Gal- 
way, adjoining the Shdnnon. (15) This district lies 
not far from ^e islantf of IniskeltraTitj lioiigh Derg) 
in Which Aitmichad Was a- monk. The occasion of 
hid leaving Ireland was as follows. Being entrusted 
with the care of ??trangers, he happened on a certain 



occasion to entertain son^e brethren with the permis* 
sionof his superior, whose name'was Corcran. (16) 
After they had taken food, and some of them bad 
retired, otiiers, who remained sitting near the fire, 
asked him to drink something. ( 1 7) He refused, 
alleging that he could not without obtaining leave. 
At length, being much solicited by them, he con- 
sented to do so, but previously sent some of the drink 
to the superior to be blessed by him. On the next 
day Corcran inquired of him, why he had sent him 
that drink, and on Amnichad^s telling him the whole* 
of what had occurred he immediately, slight as the 
transgression might appear, ordered him to quit 
Ireland. Amnichad obeyed, and went to Fulda, 
where, becoming a recluse, he led a very holy life 
until his death on the SOth of January, A. D. 1043. 
Marianus Scotus, from whom this i^rrative is taken, 
( 18) adds that he got the account of it from his own 
superior Tigernach (19) on occasion <^ his having 
comtnitted some small fault. He relates, that lights 
were seen and psalmody heard over Amtiichad^s- 
tomb in the monastery of Fulda, and that, when a 
recluse there, he celebrated mass over it every day for 
ten years. He then states, that a most religious 
monk, named William, did, in his hearing, pray to 
Amnichad, who was already buried, to bless him, 
and that the saint did so that same night in a vision, 
as the monk assured him, while Marianus hitnseU* 
during that night felt a very sweet and delicious 
scent. The reputation of St. Amnichad has been* 
very great, and his name is in divers calendars at 30 

(T) Chap. XXIII. .$. 5. 

(6) See MabiUon, Annal Bened. ad A. 1021-1022. 

(9) Marianus Sootus writes at A, 1035 ; '< Ptopter religioofan 
cUstrictam discipUaamque nimiam, et propter aliquo& Seetus quos 
seoum habebat Heltas Scotus abbas, qui monasteriom S. Pant^* 
leonis et S. Martini in Colonia pariler regebat, Piligrinus Colonien-' 


m aidiiqpiiooiNii hmdioits nris iniiligHtiw Heiiaoi abhalem vo- 
kut expeOere el onmes Scolos monachos, qoos aecum habebat. 
He)i|tt ! SooCus abbaa stadm, cum de aula r^gia levertisBet, dixit 
cii|n caetaw Sootas ; Si Christus in nobis peregrinis fst^ nunquam 
vivus ad Coloniam veniat PiUgrinus, £t ita Deus opmpfevit* 
See also Mabillon, ih. ad A. 10S5. 
. «(iO) norenoe of Worcester, at A. 1042. 

(11). Marianua Sootus has at il. 104^ '' Heliaa Sootus ol»it 
2. id ApriUSf vir prudena et religiosus." Florence of Woroester, fol^ 
lavrii^ hka as u^ual, has the same. In various Irish annaks ^oted 
by Co]gan, . (AA, SS» p. 107.) we read at said ^esar ; ** Elias or 
EliD^ from the monastery of Moinaghan,. head of the Irish monks» 
dk)d at Cologne.** 

(1^) See the BoUaodists at Marianus and Murcherat, 9 Fe- 
bruary/ where they have an excellent dissertation oonoeming the 
Soot or Iri^h monasteries &unded in Germany in the lltk and 
12th (untunes* They provQ, that all those monasteries were in- 
habited by Irishmen, with scarcely an exception, although in later 
tiiiie% when the Irish ceased to crowd to foreign countries, they wen 
usutped by the Scotch in consequence of the equivocation of the 
name Scots* Of this more hereafter. 

()S) Marianas Scopus, having mentioned the death of KidumL. 
i^bot of Fulda, in 10S9, adds, ^* Htc etiam muUos Scotus secum 
• (14) Colg^n and Bollandus treat of this saint at SO January, 

(15) Colgan obaerves> that Siotnanmchadha si^ufies the 
r^ce of Anmchad, a chieftain, from whom that noble family 
deseeded. Harris says (Antiq* ch* 7-) that it was ctdledalso 
Sihnchiay and that the district was the country of the 
O'Maddens. \ 

(16) This Corcran wrote a tract eoDcemiog the relics and 
virtues of St. Gormgal, who died in 1017> (see Chap, xxuhj. 
16.) which Colgan, who had a copy of it, calls divine. He thinks 
that he was the same as the celebrated Corcran. who died at lis- 
more in 1040. (See ib* §. 15.) But Corcran of Lismore is not 
called an abbot, nor even a monk. He is indeed styled anchoret ; 
but, considering the manna: in which he is spoken of as a dis- 
tinguished ecelesiastes and chief master, or public professor, he 
was iiii all probability a secular priestw 



(17) Bibtre ah eo petierunt. Cdgan exptains these wiDnbas 
if the strangers had asked hkn to take part of what they had be^ 
ibre them. Yet they might be imdenstood .as meaning . that, al^ 
though the meal was over, they applied to him for some drink, a 
demand which was probably not conformable to the dise^line of 
the house. 

(18) At A. 1(H3. The whole of it is not in any printed copy 
of IVlarianus' chronicle, that I have seen ; but it is quoted fhxn 
his text by Florence of Worcester at said year. 

(19)«Who this Tigernach was will be inquired lower down. 

5 i^i* '^^ ^^^^ Marianus relates, that there was 
in these times a very famous man in Ireland, and of 
an extraordinary way of acting with regard to reli- 
gion, Aideric, or rather Aidus, surnamed barbosuSj 
or the bearded. (20) He used to tonsure women 
and little boys like clergymen, and to announce that 
converted women ought not to wear veils^ Of them, 
and of*girls, boys, and laymen he had a great 
school. On account of "these singularities he was 
obliged to leave Ireland in 105S. (21) Whither 
he went we are not informed, nor why some have 
reckoned him among the Irish writers. ('22) 

At the year 1058 he gives us an account of the 
extraordinary conduct of Patemus a Scot, that is, 
most probably an Irish monk and recluse of a mo- 
nastery of Paderborn. There were two monasteries 
in that city, one annexted to the cathedral, and the 
other consisting merely of monks (23) in which was 
Paternus, who had lived there as a recluse for many 
years. A fire broke out in Paderborn on the 
Friday before Palm Sunday, which was in said year 
the loth of April. It had been foretold by Pater- 
nus, and seems to have continued for some days. 
By it the whole city and the two monasteries were 
consumed ; but, while it was raging, Paternus could 
not by any means be induced to quit his cell, and 
remained there for the purpose of obtaining, as he 


flup^MMod, the Josomn of martyrdom. Whether he 
was right in this notion is a very qtiestiomible point ; 
imless it be makitained, that the vow, which he had 
made of never leaving his cell, may be considered 
as Ml apology for hk dkermination to let himself be 
burned to death, as in fact he was. Be this as it 
may^ some p^'sons looked upon him as a real mar- 
tyr ; and one of theYn was Mariaiilus himself, who 
set out from Cologne not many days after, viz. on 
. the Monday after Low Sunday, for Paderbom, and 
having visited his tomb on acicount of the good 
things tSiat were said of it, prayed dn the very mat, 
on which Faternus had been burned. Thence Ma- 
rianus went to Fulda together with the abbot of that 
monastery, who, it seems, had visited Paderbom 
for a similar purpose. (24) 

Marianus, now referred to, who is surnamed 
SeotuSf according to the style of the times, was a 
native of Ireland and bom in 1028. (25) He re- 
tired from the world in 105S, and became a monk 
in, as seems very prdbable, the monastery of Clo- 
nard ; for he makes mention of one Tigeraach as 
superior of the establishment he belonged to before 
he left Ireland. Clonard was governed frotn the 
year. 1055 until 1061 by Tigeraach Borchech, the 
successor of Tuaihal 0*Fellarmuin. (26) Tigeraach 
was a very holy man, (27) and there is great reason 
to think, that he was the superior (28) who, as we 
have seen above, related to Marianus the reason 
of St. Amnichad's having gone abroad, and which 
probably induced him also to quit his country, as he 
did in 1056, in which year he joined on the 1st of 
August, the Irish monks of St. Martin at Cologne. 
There he remained until J 058, when he visited Pa- 
derborn, and thence went to Fulda. Somewhat 
early in 1059, he was ordained priest at Wurtz- 
burg, and not long after became a recluse at 
Fulda, in which state he spent there ten years^ 


{99} CSoiicewiing thk f real? maa more will be 
«eeh iiereafter. 

\ («)) Florenoe pf Woroe6te$ter (at JL 1054) calb him Aedd 
cUriau barbosu^ or ]>eai4^ dtA. See also Ware and Harris 
{ Writers at the deventb centuiy}. 

(a) At said year Marianushaa ; " Atderieus" (an erratam, it 
seeim^ for Aid^) '^ barbosus in Hftemia, vir valde famosus et 
mrae rtUgioni^ ; ^ eiiim C<^e|fninas et puerulos more clcrioo- 
mm ooronando tiMideliat ; et coronas et non yelata oapita Jbend' 
tuts c&nver4a$ debere praedicabat ; earuinque scholam et pueUa- 
riHh et puaroriim et la^oonun multam scholam habebat. Ob id ex 
mb^ifnia prd}ectu8 eat/' Tlie words, mirae rtiigumis, are rather 
equivocal ; for it is diffioutt to supposci^ th^t M arianus- meant to eatr 
hibit him as a man of wonderful true reli^n. Perhaps his 
ttieanhig was, that said Aidus led. a very austere life, or^ what 
seems more probable, that he had some strange superstitiou/B^ no- 
tion relative to the utility of the tonsure. The notorioi|8 liar 
Bde, quoted by Harris adds, what Marianus ^oes not even hint at, 
diat he clothed the females in boys apparel for tlie pmppse of cany* 
ing on intrigues with them. . Byjoemint^ fiotwersaSf converted fe- 
males, Mariamis meuit the same class as that which the French 
call con^eriieSf and the Italians convertUey yi^ho wear a peculiar 
flort of dress, and live retired in establishments similar to oty 
osylunis. That there were institutions for persons of this sort 
in Ireland at that period may be collect^ from this narrative. 

{9Q) See Ware and Harris, ib* 

(23) MabiUon (Anwd* Ben ad A. 1Q5$«) calls it mmasterium 

(24-) See Marianus' duonicle at A* 1058, and compare with 
Florence of Worcester at said year, and Mafaillon) loc. cit.\ 

(25) He telb us himself at A, 1028, that this was the year of 
his blith« It would be superfluous to enter into a lo^g argument 
to prove, that Marianus was an Irishman. This is attested by 
his follower Florence of Worcester, who has (CAron. ad A, 1028) ; 
<^' Hoc anno natos est Marianus Hibemenm probabilis Scotus ; 
cuius studio et labore haec chronica praecellens est de diversis li- 
bris coadunata." Horenee was partly Contemporary with Maria- 


tnity irtio i&d in 1000^ wberev Blaceiioe 4id nm li^ beyood 
1118. Usher quote! (Pr.p. 7S5.) from a chnmide of the Cot- 
tonian Hbraiy a passage of the same import ; << Amio 1028. Ma- 
rianus chrondgraphiis Hibemenm Soottus oatus est, qui Chro- 
nicam Chrofiicorum composuit**' Tlie Scotch themselyes fot^ 
meriy allowed, ihat Mariaaus ivos an Irii^ Soot, as Udier shows 
{ib.)frQm the aliegatbn - of John de MertoA in the year 1301. 
But in later times some Scotch writers, actuated by a silly nationid 
y$S!iktfi have pretended that he was a Bntisft Soot. And as such 
he islzeated of by Macken2ie, Lives ofiht fVrkers of the SeaU 
noHanf Vtfl 1. p, 99, seqq. in arhapaody not worth animadTertiiig 
tipon. What are we to thmk of an author, who makes even Ra- 
banus Manrus a Scotchman ? Labbe, De Seriptor. Ecdes, Dupin, 
and the editors of Moreri, not to mention others, hdd that Ma- 
rianof was a native of Irdand. 

(26) See Harris (Bishops of Meath^ p. 140.) and Archdail at 

' (27) In the Annals of Clonmacnois, fiiUowed by the 4> Mas* 
l«rs> on occanon of mentioning the death of Tigemach Bor- 
chech in 1061 it is stated, that he was a great spiritual director, 
an anchoret, and comorban of St. Finnian. (See A A. SS. p. 90S.) 
Colgan adds, that his name is in some Irish calendars at IS Matsch. 
His being called comorban of St. Finnian might lead one to 
think, that he was bishop of Clonard ; but, as I haye observed 
dsewhere, it id doubtful whether Finnian was a bishop ; and it » 
remaricable, that in the list of the superiors of Qonard (tb. p. 407.) 
some are called bishops and othem only comorbans. If those oo- 
morbans had been all bishops, why were they not styled so ? 

(28) It mi^t be suspected, that Tigemach the supmor of Ma- 
rianus was the celebrated abbot and chnmographer of Clonmac- 
nois. But, besides his having outlived Marianus, it is to be ob- 
served that he was not abbot before Marianus lA Ireland. 

(29) For these respective dates, &c. see his chronicle and that 
of Florence of Worcester. 

S- Iv. Diibdaletfae III., who was appointed arch- 
bishop of Armagh in 1049, (30) was succeeded in 
his professor's chair by Aldus or Hugh 0'Fairreth« 
It is said, that Dubdalethe was only a nominal arch- 


faiftliop and one of the eight laymen, mentioned by 
St. Bernard) who enjoyed the emoluments of the 
see, although not in holy orders. (SI) This sup- 
position seems to be confirmed by the circumstance 
of Aidus O'Foirreth having been made bishop and 
called bishop of Armagh until his death on the 18th 
of June, A. D. 1056. (32) To reconcile this with 
Dubdalethe's being then in possession of the see, it 
m^st be supposed that Aidus was only a suffragan^ 
and acting as such, probably, in consequence of Dub- 
dalethe's not being authorized to exercise spiritual 
functions. Add, that Dubdalethe is stated to have 
died a great penitent, as if he had bee^ guilty of some 
serious fault, perhaps the usurpation of the archie- 
piscopal title and rights. And it appears certain, 
that he resigned, at least in part, the see three years 
before his death, which occurred on the 1 st of Sep>* 
tember in 1064. (S3) For, although some Irish 
annals bring dawn his incumbency to the now men- 
doned date, thus allowing for it 15 years, another 
account gives him but twelve, and places next after 
him Cumascach as archbishop of Armagh, to whom it 
assigns three years. (34) Uubdalethe was a man oC 
learning, and wrote certain.annals of the affairs of 
Ireland, besides an account of the archbishops of Ar- 
magh iiown to his own times. (35) On his death in 
1064, and apparently on Cumascach's withdrawing 
himself from the government of the diocese, Moeliosa 
(servant of Jesus) son of Amalgaid, that is, as usually 
supposed, the archbishop of that name, (36) took 
possession of the See according to the expression of 
the Annals of Ulster. (37) whereby an allusion seems 
to be made to his having been a merely nominal arch- 
bishop. And it can scarely be doubted, that he was 
one of the eight married laymen above spoken of. (38) 
Yet in 1068 he ^visited Munster and made a circuit 
through it, the object of which must have been to 
exact the dues formerly established conformably to 
the so called Law of ^t. Patrick. He is, however, 
roL. HI. o G 


expressly reckoned among the archbishopsof Arma^, 
and held that title for 27 years. (39) 

(50) Chap. XXIII. f. IS. 

(51) Co^^ was of this opinioo ; but the only aiganient, wtuck 
he adduces ( Tr. Th.fh902.) is, that Dubdalethe wa% ashesup- 
poied» the &ther ot'one Aldus, vdideaam of Anna^ who died 
la 1108, and who is called son of Dobdalethe. This Aldus was, 
hadheHvedlonger, expected to be raised to the see. These ate, 
however, not better than conjectural proo&. 

(52) Tr. Th. p. 298. Aldus O'Foirreth is not in the catalogue 
fimu the Psalter of Cashel. He died in the 75th year of his age, 
and was buriedat Armagh. In his epitaph, written in Irish, he is 
styled an excellent elder and a modest bishop. 

(3S) Ware was mistaken (Bishops at Dubdakthe lU ) in chang- 
ing 1064 into 1065. O'Flaherty (MS. catalogue) has retained 
the 1061' of the Ulster annals; for the rule of adding a year to 
their dates does not generally apply to this period. Add, that the 
Annals of Innisfallen assign Dubdalethe*s death to A» 1064. ' 

(S4) The Cashel catalogue ap. Tr. Th. p. 292. Cumascach 
is not mentioned in the annals either of Ulster or of the 4 Masters 
as archbishop of Armagh ; but in the latter I find Cumascadi 
O'Heradhain, who is called abbot of Armagh, and died in 1075. 
(See ib. p. 298.) O'Flaherty also has left Cumascach out of his 
catalogue. Yet it is difficult to believe, that his name would w^ 
peftr in the Cashel catalogue without any foundation ; and the 
Annals of Innisfallen state, that Cumascach 0*Heradhain was in 
1060 substituted in place of Dubdalethe. The probability is that, 
although Dubdalethe might have been honoured with the title 
until his death, Cumascach, acting as his sufiragan, exercised sudi 
extensive powers during the last three or four years of his incum- 
bency, that he might have l^een cbnsideredas the real archbishop. 
Harris strove ( Additions to Ware) to reconcile the Cashel cata- 
logue, as to the 12 years for Dubdalethe, with the Anuals, which 
allow him fifteen, by introducing on^ Gifin-Patrick Mac*]!)omtiald, 
who died in 1052, and by malting him archbishop before Dubda- 
lethe. But this is contrary to every other account ; nor do the 4 
Masters, as Harris asserts, or Colgan, when expressly treating <rf 
Armagh, call Gil!a-!^trick archbishop of Armagh ; they give him 


only (tie title of Prior of Armagh. (See Tr. Th. p. 289. and Ind. 
Chron.) It is true, that in A A. SS. p. 200 said Gilla-Patrick k 
named as archbishop. This must be a mistake ; for, had he been 
such, this title would appear somewhere in 2V. Th. ex. c. p. 

(35) See Ware (Bishops and Writers at Dubdalethe llh) and 
Colgan, loc. cit. 

(36) See Chap, xxiii. J. 13. 

(37) See Ware, Bishops at Dubdalethe III. 

(38) See Colgan, Tr. Th. p. 302. St Celsus, who became 
archbishop of Anuagh early in the 1 2th century, was a grandson of 
Moeliosa, and a Flanagan, son of Moeliosa, is marked as having; died 
in 1113, afler, as was supposed, he was to be appoint;ed abbot of 

(39) Catak^e from the Psalter of Cashel, and Ware,. Bishops 
at Moeliosa. 

§• V. As to the other old and regular sees, the 
accounts of the. succession of their prelates during 
the second half of this century are in general far 
from being perfect. One O'Gernidider, bishop of 
Killaloe, died in 1055; Mugron 0*Mutan of Cork 
was murdered, it seems, by robbers in 1057* Mao- 
Airthir, bishop of Lismore, died in 1,064, and 
Celecair of Clonmacnois in 1067- (40) Maehnorda, 
bishop of Emly and successor of Clothna Muimnech, 
(41) died m 1075 and was succeeded by Maeliosa 
O'Haractain, who lived until 1093. (42) At length 
we meet with bishops of Ardfert. The bishop 
Dermot, son of Maol-Brenan, died in 107^9 and his 
.<mccessor Mac-Craith O'Hearodain in 1099. (43) 
Kellach Ramhar^ or the fat, bishop of Saigir and 
abbot of Birr, died in 1079. (44) Another bishop 
of Killaloe, Thady OThady, died in 1083. (45) 
The death of Aidus or Hugh O'Hoisin, bishop of 
Tuam, is marked at 108^, and at 10S6 that of his 
successor Erchad O^Maelomair, who was succeeded 
by Cormac O'Cairill, who died in 1091. (46) The 
episcopal succession seems to have been regularly 

G G 2 


kept lip at Glendaloch. A very distinguished bishop 
of this see wasGilda-na-Naomh, (the servant of the 
saints J or Nehemias. He was a native of Leinster, 
and after some time, resigning his see, became abbot 
of the monks (Irish) of Wurtzbiii^, where he died 
on the 7th of April A. D. 1085. (47) To the same 
year is assigned the death of a bishop of Cork, 
Clerech O'Selbaic, (4^) and that of Fin Mae-Gussan, 
bishop of Kildare. (49) Fin must have been suc- 
ceeded by Ferdoranach, who was certainly bishop of 
Kildare in 1096, (50) and seems to have resigned 
the see in said year. For, the death of Moelbrigid 
O'Brolcan, who is called bishop of Kildare and 
Leinster, and a celebrated man, is marked at 10979 
although it is known that Ferdomnach lived until 
1101. The title of bishop qf Leinster had been 
assumed also by Ferdomnach in consequence of 
Kildare having been then considered the most 
respectable see in that province. After Moelbrigid 
O'Brolean the next bishop was Aldus O'Heremoin, 
who died in 1100, and then is mentioned at 1101 
the death of Ferdomnach. (51) Another bishop of 
Lismore, Maelduin O'Rebecain, died in IO9I9 and 
O'Malvain of Cloyne in 1095, in which year died 
also Carbre 0*Kethernuigh (Kearney) bishop of 
Ferns., (52) One O'Burgus, who died in 108 1, is 
called comorban of Inniscatthy ; (53) but I cannot 
decide, whether he were bishop of that place, as I 
think I could, were he styled comorban of St. Senan 
its first bishop. Idunan, who together with some 
others signed, in 1096, a letter, of which lower down, 
to St. Anselm archbishop of Canterbury, styling 
himself bishop of Meath, (54) was in all probability 
bishop of Clonard, and, it seems, the first of that see 
who assumed the title of Meath, which after some 
time became the usual one of his suc<;essors. (55) 
Concerning Idunan I cannot find any thing furtner, 
nor even the year of his death. In the same manner 
as he called himself bishop of Meath, so I meet with 

Chap. xxiv. of Ireland. 458 

a bishop ui)der the title of Leinster in general, Kelius 
son of Donagan, who is represented as a distinguished 
elder among those of Ireland, and died in the reputa- 
tion of sanctity at Glendaloch in 1076. (56) It 
might seem, that he was bishop of Kildare, as Fer- 
domnach was who gave himself said title ; but it is 
to be observed, that his name does not occur in the 
catalogues expressly drawn up of the prelates of 
Kildare, (5?) and it is probable that the title, bishop 
of LeinsteVf means no more than that he was a 
Leinster bishop, and that he was so called in con- 
sequence cf there not remaining any record of the 
particular see or place, which he governed. 

(40) Ware, Bishops at the respective sees. Hanris has added 
two bishops of Clonmacnois in these times, viz Ectigem 0*Ergain, 
who died in 1052, and AlUd O'Harretaigh, who died in 1070. He 
found them in J A, SS> p. 407) under the title of comorbans of 
St. Kieran of Clonmacnois, and as having both diedin pDgrimage 
at C](mard. But he had no right to make them bishops; for, co* 
marban of St Kieratiy &c, means only abboi of Clonmacnokf 

whereas that St. Kieran had ilot'beena bishop. 

(41) See Chap, xxiv. J. 14. (42) Ware at JBm/y. 

(43) Annals of Innisfallen at A, 1075 and 1099; and Waro at 
Ardfert, In said Annals I find under ^. 1010 these words; 
" The primate of Ireland in Aghadoe died." Have they a re* 
ference to some Kerry bishop of that period ? I am equally at a 
loss to understand another passage at said year ; << Marcan son of 
Kennedy, supreme head of the clergy of Munster, died.'* I find 
no Marcan at Emiy during that period, and I am much inclined 
to think, that Marcan was bishop of Cashel, which see had, 
partly as the civil metropolis of Munster, and partly in memory of 
Cormac Mac Culinan, probably acquired an ecclesiastical ascen- 
dancy. Marcan*s being called son of Kennedy in the very part 
of those annals, where Brian (Boroimhe) is so often named as son 
of Kennedy, seems to indicate, that he was a brother of his. 
(See Chap, xxli. §, 4.) For Marcan see more below, Not 120. 

(44) He is called -comorban of Kieran of Saigir, and hence 


may be supposed to have been a bishop. See A A. SS. p. 475, 
and Harris, Bishopsy at Osiory. 

ifi^) Ware and Harris, Bishops at KiUaloe, , 

(46) lb. at Tuam, and TV. Th. p. 308. 

{4t7) A A, SS. ~p. 200. where Colgan calls him Nehemiasy and 
Harris, Bishops at Glendaloch, Harris next before him makes 
mention of Cormac, son of Fithbran, not Fitzbran as he has, wha 
died in 925. He doubts whether he were bi^op of Glendaloch ; 
and indeed justly ; for, as far as I know, all that is said of him is 
what the 4? Masters have (ap. A A, SS^ p. 386); Cormac of 
Glenddochi son of Fithhratiy died in 925. Of the Irish monas- 
tery of Wurtzburg more will be seen hereafter. 

(4*8) Ware^ and Harris at Cork. Ware has added, but I be- 
lieve without' sufficient reason, a year to the date 1085 of the An- 
nals of Loughkee. 

(49) Colgan says, ( Tr. Th. /?. 630.) tliat this bishop died m 
the church of KiUachad, Ware (Bishops at KUdare) has 
Achonry. I think that he sh6uld have rather said KiUeigh